Battle of Cold Harbor by Kurz and Allison, 1888
The "Dictator" siege mortar at Petersburg. In the foreground, the figure on the right is Brig. Gen. Henry J. Hunt, chief of artillery of the Army of the Potomac.
Map of Southeastern Virginia
Fredericksburg, Virginia; May 1863. Soldiers in the trenches. Trench warfare would appear again more infamously in World War I
General A.P. Hill
Union marches and operations in Central Virginia (1864-65)
A portion of the 4th USCT Infantry
Movements in the Overland Campaign, May 29, and actions May 30, 1864
Siege of Petersburg, assaults on June 15–18
Opposing commanders: Lt. Gen. Ulysses S. Grant, USA, at Cold Harbor, photographed by Edgar Guy Fawx in 1864; Gen. Robert E. Lee, CSA, photographed by Mathew Brady in 1865
Siege of Petersburg, movements against the railroads and A.P. Hill's counterattack, June 21–22
The Burnett Inn at Old Cold Harbor (by Timothy H. O'Sullivan, June 4, 1864)
Wilson–Kautz Raid, June 22 – July 1
Appomattox, A. P. Hill's sword
Positions of the armies on the afternoon of June 1, 1864
"Dictator" siege mortar on the U.S. Military Railroad at Petersburg
Portrait of Hill by William Ludwell Sheppard, 1898
Cold Harbor, June 1
First Battle of Deep Bottom, July 27–29
Makeshift Confederate breastworks at the extreme left of their line
Siege of Petersburg, Battle of the Crater, July 30
Earthworks photographed after the battle
Sketch of the explosion seen from the Union line.
7th New York Heavy Artillery (serving as infantry) preparing to leave the trenches and charge the Confederate line, sketched by Alfred Waud
Second Battle of Deep Bottom, August 14–20
"Unburied Dead on Battlefield" by John Reekie; issued as Stero #914 being taken on the 1862 Battlefield of Gaines Mills aka First Cold Harbor April 1865; taken near the Adams Farm where 7th New York artillery was stationed June 1864 see Civil war Talk.
Siege of Petersburg, capture of the Weldon Railroad, August 18–19
Cold Harbor, June 3
Siege of Petersburg, actions on October 27
Union Coehorn mortars in action, drawn by Alfred Waud
Siege of Petersburg, actions preceding Five Forks
Overland Campaign, from the Wilderness to crossing the James River
Confederate
Union
Grant's final assaults and Lee's retreat (start of the Appomattox Campaign)
<center>Lt. Gen.
<center>Maj. Gen.
<center>Maj. Gen.
<center>Gen.
<center>Gen.
<center>Lt. Gen.
<center>Lt. Gen.
<center>Lt. Gen.
<center>Lt. Gen.
<center>Brig. Gen. James H. Wilson</center>
<center>Brig. Gen. August Kautz</center>
Fascine Trench Breastworks, Petersburg, Va. – NARA – 524792. Although identified as Confederate Trenches this is actually Union Fort Sedgwick aka "Fort Hell" which was opposite Fort Mahone aka "Fort Damnation"<ref>Civil War talk Forum</ref>
Union Army 9th Corps attacking Fort Mahone aka "Fort Damanation" sketch by Alfred Ward.
Confederate artilleryman killed during the final Union assault against the trenches at Petersburg. Photo by Thomas C. Roche, April 3, 1865.<ref>Frassanito, p. 360.</ref><ref>See website Petersburg Project on location of Many of the Roche photographs at Petersburg April 1865</ref> Although prints of this picture list it as being taken at Ft Mahone, historians at the "Petersburg Project" believe it was taken at Confederate Battery 25<ref>Dead Artilleryman comments Petersburg Project</ref>
Smoke is still rising from the ruins of Richmond, Virginia after surrendering on April 3, 1865 following the Union victory at the siege of Petersburg. Union cavalry mounts with carbines visible are hitched in the foreground.
Richmond–Petersburg Theater, fall 1864
Confederate
Union

In the final stage, Lee entrenched his army within besieged Petersburg before finally retreating westward across Virginia.

- Battle of Cold Harbor

This theory was tested at the Battle of Cold Harbor (May 31 – June 12) when Grant's army once again came into contact with Lee's near Mechanicsville.

- Siege of Petersburg

Third Corps, under Lt. Gen. A.P. Hill, including the divisions of Maj. Gens. Henry Heth and Cadmus M. Wilcox and Brig. Gen. William Mahone.

- Siege of Petersburg

Third Corps, under Lt. Gen. A.P. Hill, including the divisions of Maj. Gens. Henry Heth and Cadmus M. Wilcox, and Brig. Gen. William Mahone.

- Battle of Cold Harbor

Hill held the Confederate left flank at Cold Harbor, but two divisions of his corps were used to defend against the main Union attack on the right flank on June 3; when part of the troops to his right gave way, Hill used one brigade to launch a successful counterattack.

- A. P. Hill

During the Siege of Petersburg of 1864–65, Hill and his men participated in several battles during the various Union offensives, particularly Jerusalem Plank Road, the Crater, Globe Tavern, Second Reams Station, and Peebles Farm.

- A. P. Hill
Battle of Cold Harbor by Kurz and Allison, 1888

9 related topics with Alpha

Overall

Lee in March 1864

Robert E. Lee

4 links

Confederate general who served the Confederate States of America in the American Civil War, during which he was appointed the overall commander of the Confederate States Army.

Confederate general who served the Confederate States of America in the American Civil War, during which he was appointed the overall commander of the Confederate States Army.

Lee in March 1864
Lee at age 31 in 1838, as a Lieutenant of Engineers in the U.S. Army
Robert E. Lee, around age 38, and his son William Henry Fitzhugh Lee, around age 8, c.1845
Robert E. Lee around age 43, when he was a brevet lieutenant-colonel of engineers, c. 1850
Lee in uniform, 1863
Lee mounted on Traveller (September 1866)
Battle of Gettysburg, by Thure de Thulstrup
Lee with son Custis (left) and aide Walter H. Taylor (right) by Brady, April 16, 1865
Lee in 1869 (photo by Levin C. Handy)
General Lee and his Confederate officers in their first meeting since Appomattox, August 1869.
Oath of amnesty submitted by Robert E. Lee in 1865
Robert E. Lee, oil on canvas, Edward Calledon Bruce, 1865. Virginia Historical Society
Robert Edward Lee in art at the Battle of Chancellorsville in a stained glass window of the Washington National Cathedral
Facade view of Arlington House, the Robert E. Lee Memorial — at Arlington National Cemetery, in Virginia, pictured in 2006
Unveiling of the Equestrian Statue of Robert E. Lee, May 29, 1890, Richmond, Virginia
The removal of Lee's statue from a monument in New Orleans
Stained glass of Lee's life in the National Cathedral
Robert E. Lee, National Statuary Hall, Washington, D.C. Edward Virginius Valentine, sculptor, 1909
Robert E Lee, Virginia Monument, Gettysburg, Pennsylvania, Frederick William Sievers, sculptor, 1917
Robert E. Lee Monument by Mercié, Monument Avenue, Richmond, Virginia, 1890
Statue of Lee at the Confederate War Memorial, Dallas, 1896
Statue of Lee in Murray, Kentucky
University Chapel on the campus of Washington and Lee University

Grant engaged Lee's army in bloody but inconclusive battles at the Wilderness and Spotsylvania before the lengthy Siege of Petersburg, which was followed in April 1865 by the capture of Richmond and the destruction of most of Lee's army, which he finally surrendered to Grant at Appomattox Court House.

On May 1, 1864, General Lee was present at the baptism of General A.P. Hill's daughter, Lucy Lee Hill, to serve as her godfather.

These battles in the Overland Campaign included the Wilderness, Spotsylvania Court House and Cold Harbor.

George Pickett

4 links

Career United States Army officer who became a major general in the Confederate States Army during the American Civil War.

Career United States Army officer who became a major general in the Confederate States Army during the American Civil War.

Confederate Major General George E. Pickett
Thure de Thulstrup's Battle of Gettysburg, showing Pickett's Charge.
Pickett's grave site at Hollywood Cemetery

Lee directed General Longstreet to assemble a force of three divisions for the attack—two divisions from the corps of Lieutenant General A. P. Hill, under the temporary command of J. Johnston Pettigrew and Major General Isaac R. Trimble, which had both seen action on July 1, and Pickett's fresh division from Longstreet's own corps.

After P. G. T. Beauregard bottled up Benjamin Butler in the Bermuda Hundred Campaign, Pickett's division was detached in support of Robert E. Lee's operation in the Overland Campaign, just before the Battle of Cold Harbor, in which Pickett's division occupied the center of the defensive line, a place in which the main Union attack did not occur.

His division participated in the Siege of Petersburg.

Battle flag of the Army of Northern Virginia

Confederate States Army

3 links

The military land force of the Confederate States of America during the American Civil War (1861–1865), fighting against the United States forces in order to uphold the institution of slavery in the Southern states.

The military land force of the Confederate States of America during the American Civil War (1861–1865), fighting against the United States forces in order to uphold the institution of slavery in the Southern states.

Battle flag of the Army of Northern Virginia
Private Edwin Francis Jemison, whose image became one of the most famous portraits of the young soldiers of the war
A cartoon from the war, showing the Confederates forcibly drafting a Unionist man into the Confederate army. The Unionist man objects, with the Confederates threatening to lynch him if he does not comply.
An 1861 Confederate recruiting poster from Virginia, urging men to join the Confederate cause and fight off the U.S. Army, which it refers to as a "brutal and desperate foe"
CSA M1857 Napoleon Artillery Piece
General Robert E. Lee, the Confederacy's most famous general
An 1895 illustration showing the uniforms of the Confederate Army contrasted with those of the U.S. Army
A painting of Lee's Army of Northern Virginia fighting the U.S. Army at Spotsylvania in 1864
A group of Confederate soldiers-possibly an artillery unit captured at Island No. 10 and taken at POW Camp Douglas (Chicago); photograph possibly by D. F. Brandon
Confederate troops marching south on N Market Street, Frederick, Maryland, during the Civil War
A Cherokee Confederates reunion in New Orleans, 1903
Jackson McCurtain, Lieutenant Colonel of the First Choctaw Battalion in Oklahoma, CSA
1862 illustration showing Confederates escorting kidnapped African American civilians south into slavery. A similar instance occurred in Pennsylvania when the Army of Northern Virginia invaded it in 1863 to fight the U.S. at Gettysburg.
An 1862 illustration of a Confederate officer forcing slaves at gunpoint to fire a cannon at U.S. soldiers in battle. A similar instance occurred at the first Battle of Bull Run, where slaves were forced by the Confederates to load and fire a cannon at U.S. forces.
An 1864 cartoon lampooning the Confederacy's deliberating on the use of black soldiers, showing them defecting en masse towards U.S. lines if such proposals were adopted.
"Marlboro", an African-American body servant to a white Confederate soldier
Julian Scott's 1873 painting, Surrender of a Confederate Soldier
Corporal of the Artillery division of the Confederate Army
Confederate mortar crew at Warrington, Florida in 1861, across from Fort Pickens
Confederate artillery at Charleston Harbor, 1863
Lt Col. E. V. Nash, 4th Georgia Infantry Doles-Cook Brigade, who was killed in 1864
<Center>General (CSA)</Center>
<Center>Colonel (Infantry shown)</Center>
<Center>Lieutenant-colonel (Headquarters shown)</Center>
<Center>Major (Medical Corps shown)</Center>
<Center>Captain (Marine Corps shown)</Center>
<Center>1st Lieutenant (Artillery shown)</Center>
<Center>2nd Lieutenant (Cavalry shown)</Center>

Some other prominent Confederate generals who led significant units operating sometimes independently in the CSA included Thomas J. "Stonewall" Jackson, James Longstreet, J. E. B. Stuart, Gideon Pillow, A. P. Hill, John B. Gordon.

During the Civil War 28,693 Native Americans served in the U.S. and Confederate armies, participating in battles such as Pea Ridge, Second Manassas, Antietam, Spotsylvania, Cold Harbor, and in Federal assaults on Petersburg.

Jubal Early

2 links

Virginia lawyer and politician who became a Confederate general during the American Civil War.

Virginia lawyer and politician who became a Confederate general during the American Civil War.

Early's childhood home in northeastern Franklin County
Confederate General Jubal A. Early
General Early, disguised as a farmer, while escaping to Mexico, 1865
Early in his elder years
A plaque praising Early in Rocky Mount, Virginia

Furthermore, his troops arrived in the nick of time to reinforce Maj. Gen. A.P. Hill on Jackson's left on Stony Ridge during the Second Battle of Bull Run (a/k/a Second Manassas).

Thus, Early commanded that corps in the Battle of Cold Harbor.

Thus Early commanded the Confederacy's last invasion of the North, secured much-needed funds and supplies for the Confederacy and drawing off Union troops from the siege of Petersburg.

General Heth

Henry Heth

2 links

Career United States Army officer who became a Confederate general in the American Civil War.

Career United States Army officer who became a Confederate general in the American Civil War.

General Heth
Heth as a member of the Confederate Army
An illustration of Confederate troops at Gettysburg on July 1, 1863
Heth in 1895

He came to the notice of Robert E. Lee while serving briefly as his quartermaster, and was given a brigade in the Third Corps of the Army of Northern Virginia commanded by A.P. Hill, whose division he commanded when the latter was wounded at Chancellorsville.

In the subsequent Battle of Spotsylvania Court House, his division was held primarily in the rear, and was positioned on the Confederate left flank at the Battles of North Anna and Cold Harbor.

Heth also participated in the Siege of Petersburg, playing direct roles in the battles of Globe Tavern; Second Ream's Station; Peeble's Farm; Boydton Plank Road; and Hatcher's Run.

Battle flag of the Confederate States Army

First Corps, Army of Northern Virginia

1 links

Military unit fighting for the Confederate States of America in the American Civil War.

Military unit fighting for the Confederate States of America in the American Civil War.

Battle flag of the Confederate States Army
Lt. Gen. James Longstreet
I Corps division commander and namesake of Pickett's Charge Major General George Pickett
Lt. Gen. John Bell Hood
Battle of Chickamauga, actions of September 20
Maj. Gen. Charles W. Field

In part or as a whole, the corps fought in nearly all of the major battles in the Eastern Theater, such as Fredericksburg, Gettysburg, The Wilderness, Cold Harbor, and the Siege of Petersburg.

Longstreet retained McLaws', Hood's, and Pickett's divisions, while Richard Anderson's division was transferred to the new Third Corps commanded by A.P. Hill.

Ambrose Burnside, circa 1880

Ambrose Burnside

1 links

American army officer and politician who became a senior Union general in the Civil War and three times Governor of Rhode Island, as well as being a successful inventor and industrialist.

American army officer and politician who became a senior Union general in the Civil War and three times Governor of Rhode Island, as well as being a successful inventor and industrialist.

Ambrose Burnside, circa 1880
Mrs. Burnside, Mary Richmond Bishop
General Ambrose Burnside.
Burnside (seated, center) and officers of the 1st Rhode Island at Camp Sprague, Rhode Island, 1861
Burnside Bridge at Antietam in 2005
Union General Ambrose Burnside, 1862
Engraving of General Burnside in full dress uniform
Petersburg Crater, 1865
Burnside's grave in Swan Point Cemetery, Providence, Rhode Island
Studio photograph of Gen. Ambrose Burnside taken sometime between 1860 and 1862. Photograph shows his unusual sideburns.
Equestrian monument in Burnside Park, Providence, Rhode Island.

The IX Corps eventually broke through, but the delay allowed Maj. Gen. A. P. Hill's Confederate division to come up from Harpers Ferry and repulse the Union breakthrough.

After North Anna and Cold Harbor, he took his place in the siege lines at Petersburg.

Richard H. Anderson (general)

1 links

Career U.S. Army officer, fighting with distinction in the Mexican–American War.

Career U.S. Army officer, fighting with distinction in the Mexican–American War.

Battle of Spotsylvania Court House, actions May 10, 1864
Confederate
Union

Anderson was admired enough by Lee to be considered for corps command, but instead his division was assigned to the new Third Corps, commanded by now Lt. Gen A.P. Hill, who outranked Anderson and was one of the senior-most generals in the army.

Anderson then fought at the Battle of Cold Harbor in early June, and participated in the rest of the Army of Northern Virginia's operations to the south of Petersburg, Virginia, from mid-June until October.

When Longstreet returned from his convalescence on October 19, 1864, Lee created the new Fourth Corps, which Anderson led through the Siege of Petersburg and the retreat towards Appomattox Court House in 1865.

V Corps badge

V Corps (Union Army)

0 links

Unit of the Union Army of the Potomac during the American Civil War.

Unit of the Union Army of the Potomac during the American Civil War.

V Corps badge
Maj. Gen. Fitz J. Porter
Maj. Gen. George Sykes
Union Army 1st Division Badge, V Corps
Col. Joshua L. Chamberlain
Maj. Gen. Gouverneur K. Warren

At the Battle of Bristoe Station (October 14, 1863) V Corps was fired on by troops of A. P. Hill.

The V Corps saw hard fighting at Cold Harbor and the Siege of Petersburg in June.