Second Battle of Bull Run, fought Augt. 29th 1862, 1860s lithograph by Currier and Ives
Northeastern Virginia (1862)
Antebellum portrait of Longstreet
General A.P. Hill
Second Bull Run Campaign, August 17–30, 1862 (Additional map).
Sketch of Longstreet as a Confederate
Battlefield of Manassas (right side)
August 30, 4 p.m.: Start of Longstreet's attack
Action at Brawner's Farm, August 28
Longstreet circa 1862
August 29, 10 a.m.: Sigel's attack
A map of the Battle of Fredericksburg
Appomattox, A. P. Hill's sword
August 29, 12 noon: Longstreet arrives, Porter stalls
Longstreet at Gettysburg c. undefined 1900
Portrait of Hill by William Ludwell Sheppard, 1898
August 29, 3 p.m.: Grover's attack
Gettysburg, July 2
August 29, 5–7 p.m., Kearny's attack, Hood vs. Hatch
Pickett's Charge, July 3
Stonewall Jackson's cannons on Henry House Hill
Longstreet's Left Wing assaults, mid-day September 20
August 30, 3 p.m., Porter's attack
Carte de Visite portrait of Longstreet
August 30, 4 p.m.: Start of Longstreet's attack
James Longstreet after the war
August 30, 4:30 p.m.: Union defense of Chinn Ridge
James Longstreet after the war
August 30, 5 p.m.: Final Confederate attacks, beginning of the Union retreat
James Longstreet in later life (1896), affecting the sideburns of his opponent at Fredericksburg and Knoxville
Bridge crossed by the Union troops retreating to Centreville
Longstreet's grave
Soldiers stand next to a completely destroyed Henry House in 1862
Equestrian statue of General Longstreet on his horse Hero in Pitzer Woods at Gettysburg National Military Park
Union troops retreat after the battle
Map of events during the Peninsula campaign to the Battle of Seven Pines Confederate
Union
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Longstreet's attack in the Battle of the Wilderness, May 6, 1864, shortly before he was wounded Confederate
Union
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<center>Soldiers stand next to a completely destroyed Henry House in 1862</center>
<center>Virginia, Bull Run. Ruins of Stone Bridge, 1862</center>
<center>A group of men stand near the Manassas Railroad Junction railroad tracks in 1862 with a train in the background</center>
<center>A group of men near Manassas Railroad Junction in 1862</center>
<center>A group of men near Manassas Railroad Junction in 1862</center>
<center>Men sit near the Manassas Junction railroad in 1862</center>
<center>Picking up debris of trains after Pope's retreat</center>
<center>Bull Run, Va. Dedication of the battle monument; Judge Abram B. Olin of the District of Columbia Supreme Court, who delivered the address, stands by the rail.</center>
Battle map drafted by Sneden, Robert Knox, with notes on Union and Confederate strengths, casualties, done in pen and ink and water color
Northern Virginia Campaign, August 7–28, 1862 Confederate
Union

Following a wide-ranging flanking march, Confederate Maj. Gen. Thomas J. "Stonewall" Jackson captured the Union supply depot at Manassas Junction, threatening Pope's line of communications with Washington, D.C. Withdrawing a few miles to the northwest, Jackson took up strong concealed defensive positions on Stony Ridge and awaited the arrival of the wing of Lee's army commanded by Maj. Gen. James Longstreet.

- Second Battle of Bull Run

After the start of the American Civil War, he gained early fame as the commander of the "Light Division" in the Seven Days Battles and became one of Stonewall Jackson's ablest subordinates, distinguishing himself in the 1862 battles of Cedar Mountain, Second Bull Run, Antietam, and Fredericksburg.

- A. P. Hill

Longstreet led a devastating counterattack that routed the Union army at Second Bull Run in August.

- James Longstreet

He committed Maj. Gen. A.P. Hill to join Jackson with 12,000 men.

- Second Battle of Bull Run

Following the campaign, Hill became involved in a dispute with James Longstreet over a series of newspaper articles that appeared in the Richmond Examiner; relations between them deteriorated to the point that Hill was placed under arrest and Hill challenged Longstreet to a duel.

- A. P. Hill

To protect the army's supply wagons, Longstreet launched a counterattack with the brigades of Cadmus M. Wilcox, A. P. Hill, Pickett, Raleigh E. Colston, and two other regiments.

- James Longstreet
Second Battle of Bull Run, fought Augt. 29th 1862, 1860s lithograph by Currier and Ives

12 related topics with Alpha

Overall

Lee in March 1864

Robert E. Lee

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Confederate general who served the Confederate States of America in the American Civil War, during which he was appointed the overall commander of the Confederate States Army.

Confederate general who served the Confederate States of America in the American Civil War, during which he was appointed the overall commander of the Confederate States Army.

Lee in March 1864
Lee at age 31 in 1838, as a Lieutenant of Engineers in the U.S. Army
Robert E. Lee, around age 38, and his son William Henry Fitzhugh Lee, around age 8, c.1845
Robert E. Lee around age 43, when he was a brevet lieutenant-colonel of engineers, c. 1850
Lee in uniform, 1863
Lee mounted on Traveller (September 1866)
Battle of Gettysburg, by Thure de Thulstrup
Lee with son Custis (left) and aide Walter H. Taylor (right) by Brady, April 16, 1865
Lee in 1869 (photo by Levin C. Handy)
General Lee and his Confederate officers in their first meeting since Appomattox, August 1869.
Oath of amnesty submitted by Robert E. Lee in 1865
Robert E. Lee, oil on canvas, Edward Calledon Bruce, 1865. Virginia Historical Society
Robert Edward Lee in art at the Battle of Chancellorsville in a stained glass window of the Washington National Cathedral
Facade view of Arlington House, the Robert E. Lee Memorial — at Arlington National Cemetery, in Virginia, pictured in 2006
Unveiling of the Equestrian Statue of Robert E. Lee, May 29, 1890, Richmond, Virginia
The removal of Lee's statue from a monument in New Orleans
Stained glass of Lee's life in the National Cathedral
Robert E. Lee, National Statuary Hall, Washington, D.C. Edward Virginius Valentine, sculptor, 1909
Robert E Lee, Virginia Monument, Gettysburg, Pennsylvania, Frederick William Sievers, sculptor, 1917
Robert E. Lee Monument by Mercié, Monument Avenue, Richmond, Virginia, 1890
Statue of Lee at the Confederate War Memorial, Dallas, 1896
Statue of Lee in Murray, Kentucky
University Chapel on the campus of Washington and Lee University

Lee then overcame Union forces under John Pope at the Second Battle of Bull Run in August.

Lee built up a collection of talented subordinates, most notably James Longstreet, Stonewall Jackson, and J. E. B. Stuart, who along with Lee were critical to the Confederacy's battlefield success.

On May 1, 1864, General Lee was present at the baptism of General A.P. Hill's daughter, Lucy Lee Hill, to serve as her godfather.

General Jackson at Winchester, Virginia 1862

Stonewall Jackson

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Thomas Jonathan "Stonewall" Jackson (January 21, 1824 – May 10, 1863) served as a Confederate general (1861–1863) during the American Civil War, and became one of the best-known Confederate commanders, after Robert E. Lee.

Thomas Jonathan "Stonewall" Jackson (January 21, 1824 – May 10, 1863) served as a Confederate general (1861–1863) during the American Civil War, and became one of the best-known Confederate commanders, after Robert E. Lee.

General Jackson at Winchester, Virginia 1862
Jackson's Mill
First lieutenant Thomas J. Jackson sometime after West Point graduation in the late 1840s
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Stonewall Jackson
Stonewall Jackson in 1855
House owned by Stonewall Jackson in Lexington
The Colonel Lewis T. Moore house, which served as the Winchester Headquarters of Lt. Gen. T. J. "Stonewall" Jackson (photo 2007)
General Jackson by Augusto Ferrer-Dalmau
Historical marker marking the end of Gen. Stonewall Jackson's pursuit of the Federals after the Battle of McDowell, May 12, 1862
Jackson and Little Sorrel, painting by David Bendann
Montage of Thomas J. Jackson and staff
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The plantation office building where Stonewall Jackson died in Guinea Station, Virginia
In 1864 Jackson was memorialized on the Confederate $500 banknote.
Prayer in "Stonewall" Jackson's camp, 1866
A portrait of Stonewall Jackson (1864, J. W. King) in the National Portrait Gallery
General Lee's Last Visit to Stonewall Jackson's Grave, painting by Louis Eckhardt, 1872
The Stonewall Brigade, Dedicated to the Memory of Stonewall Jackson, the Immortal Southern Hero, and His Brave Veterans, Sheet music, 1863
Confederate Loan from March 2, 1863, Vignette with Jackson
Stonewall Jackson with the flag of the Confederate States in art in a stained glass window of the Washington National Cathedral
Davis, Lee, and Jackson on Stone Mountain
The Thomas Jonathan Jackson sculpture in downtown Charlottesville, Virginia
Statue of Gen. "Stonewall" Jackson in downtown Clarksburg, West Virginia
Bust of Jackson at the Washington-Wilkes Historical Museum
Stonewall Jackson statue in Richmond, Virginia being removed on July 1, 2020

In the Northern Virginia Campaign that summer, Jackson's troops captured and destroyed an important supply depot for General John Pope's Army of Virginia, and then withstood repeated assaults from Pope's troops at the Second Battle of Bull Run.

The reputations of Lee's corps commanders are often described as Stonewall Jackson representing the audacious, offensive part of Lee's army, whereas his counterpart, James Longstreet, more typically advocated and executed defensive strategies and tactics.

Jackson's men bore the brunt of the initial attacks on the northern end of the battlefield and, at the end of the day, successfully resisted a breakthrough on the southern end when Jackson's subordinate, Maj. Gen. A. P. Hill, arrived at last minute from Harpers Ferry.

George B. McClellan and Robert E. Lee, respective commanders of the Union and Confederate armies in the Seven Days

Seven Days Battles

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The Seven Days Battles were a series of seven battles over seven days from June 25 to July 1, 1862, near Richmond, Virginia, during the American Civil War.

The Seven Days Battles were a series of seven battles over seven days from June 25 to July 1, 1862, near Richmond, Virginia, during the American Civil War.

George B. McClellan and Robert E. Lee, respective commanders of the Union and Confederate armies in the Seven Days
Seven Days Battles: map of events (left side)
Map of Southeastern Virginia
Map of Southeastern Virginia (additional map)
Seven Days Battles, June 26&ndash;27, 1862
Seven Days Battles, June 30, 1862
Seven Days Battles, July 1, 1862
<center>Brig. Gen. Edwin V. Sumner</center>
<center>Brig. Gen. Samuel P. Heintzelman</center>
<center>Brig. Gen. Erasmus D. Keyes</center>
<center>Brig. Gen. Fitz John Porter</center>
<center>Brig. Gen. William B. Franklin</center>
<center>Brig. Gen. Philip St. George Cooke</center>
<center>Maj. Gen. Stonewall Jackson</center>
<center>Maj. Gen. James Longstreet</center>
<center>Maj. Gen. John B. Magruder</center>
<center>Maj. Gen. A. P. Hill</center>
<center>Maj. Gen. Benjamin Huger</center>
<center>Maj. Gen. Theophilus H. Holmes</center>
Map of events during the Peninsula campaign to the Battle of Seven Pines
Confederate
Union

Maj. Gen. A.P. Hill's "Light Division" (which was so named because it traveled light and was able to maneuver and strike quickly) consisted of the brigades of Brig. Gens. Charles W. Field, Maxcy Gregg, Joseph R. Anderson, Lawrence O'Bryan Branch, James J. Archer, and William Dorsey Pender.

Maj. Gen. James Longstreet's division consisted of the brigades of Brig. Gens. James L. Kemper, Richard H. Anderson, George E. Pickett, Cadmus M. Wilcox, Roger A. Pryor, and Winfield Scott Featherston. Longstreet also had operational command over Hill's Light Division.

Despite heavy casualties, which the less-populated South could ill afford, and clumsy tactical performances by Lee and his generals, Confederate morale skyrocketed, and Lee was emboldened to continue his aggressive strategy through the Second Battle of Bull Run and the Maryland Campaign.

Northern Virginia, Maryland and Pennsylvania, 1861–1865

Battle of Gettysburg

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Fought July 1–3, 1863, in and around the town of Gettysburg, Pennsylvania, by Union and Confederate forces during the American Civil War.

Fought July 1–3, 1863, in and around the town of Gettysburg, Pennsylvania, by Union and Confederate forces during the American Civil War.

Northern Virginia, Maryland and Pennsylvania, 1861–1865
The Gettysburg Campaign, 1863
The Battlefield of Gettysburg, 1863
This 1863 oval-shaped map depicts the Gettysburg Battlefield during July 1–3, 1863, showing troop and artillery positions and movements, relief hachures, drainage, roads, railroads, and houses with the names of residents at the time of the Battle of Gettysburg.
This November 1862 Harper's Magazine illustration shows Confiderate Army troops escorting captured African American civilians south into slavery. En route to Gettysburg, the Army of Northern Virginia kidnapped approximately 40 black civilians and sent them south into slavery.
Overview map of the first day of the Battle of Gettysburg
Marker commemorating the first shot fired at the Battle of Gettysburg at 7:30 am on July 1, 1863 by Lt. Marcellus Jones
Robert E. Lee's plan for July 2, 1863, the second day of the Battle of Gettysburg
Overview map of the second day of the Battle of Gettysburg, July 2, 1863
Union Army breastworks on Culp's Hill, 1863
Overview map of the third day of the Battle of Gettysburg, July 3, 1863
The high water mark on Cemetery Ridge with the 72nd Pennsylvania Infantry Monument commemorating the 72nd Pennsylvania Infantry Regiment at right and the Copse of Trees to the left, August 2005
"The Harvest of Death": Union dead on the battlefield at Gettysburg, Pennsylvania, photographed July 5 or July 6, 1863, by Timothy H. O'Sullivan
John L. Burns, veteran of the War of 1812, civilian who fought at the Battle of Gettysburg with Union troops, standing with bayoneted musket. Mathew Brady's National Photographic Portrait Galleries, photographer. From the Liljenquist Family Collection of Civil War Photographs, Prints and Photographs Division, Library of Congress
Gettysburg Campaign (July 5 – July 14, 1863)
On November 19, 1863, U.S. President Abraham Lincoln delivered the Gettysburg Address, considered one of the best-known speeches in American history. A crowd of citizens and soldiers surround Lincoln (with a red arrow pointing to his location in photo)
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Gettysburg National Cemetery, July 2003
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The 1936 Battle of Gettysburg half dollar
Gettysburg Centennial Commemorative issue of 1963
Gettysburg Campaign (through July 3) with cavalry movements shown with dashed lines Confederate
Union

Following the death of Thomas J. "Stonewall" Jackson, Lee reorganized his two large corps into three new corps, commanded by Lieutenant General James Longstreet (First Corps), Lieutenant General Richard S. Ewell (Second), and Lieutenant General A.P. Hill (Third); both Ewell and Hill, who had formerly reported to Jackson as division commanders, were new to this level of responsibility.

Prior to Gettysburg, Robert E. Lee had established a reputation as an almost invincible general, achieving stunning victories against superior numbers—although usually at the cost of high casualties to his army—during the Seven Days, the Northern Virginia Campaign (including the Second Battle of Bull Run), Fredericksburg, and Chancellorsville.

George B. McClellan and Joseph E. Johnston, respective commanders of the Union and Confederate armies in the Peninsula campaign

Peninsula campaign

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Major Union operation launched in southeastern Virginia from March to July 1862, the first large-scale offensive in the Eastern Theater.

Major Union operation launched in southeastern Virginia from March to July 1862, the first large-scale offensive in the Eastern Theater.

George B. McClellan and Joseph E. Johnston, respective commanders of the Union and Confederate armies in the Peninsula campaign
Peninsula campaign, map of Southeastern Virginia
Peninsula campaign, map of Southeastern Virginia (additional map)
Federal Battery # 4 with 13 in seacoast mortars, Model 1861, during the siege of Yorktown, Virginia, 1862
Movements and battles in the 1862 Peninsula Campaign, up through the start of the Battle of Seven Pines
Siege of Yorktown
Engagement Near Hanover Court-House, Virginia
The Chickahominy - Sumner's Upper Bridge: 1862 watercolor by William McIlvaine
Battle of Seven Pines
Brig. Gen. Thomas Francis Meagher at the Battle of Fair Oaks, June 1, 1862
Seven Days Battles: map of events (left side)
<center>Brig. Gen. Edwin V. Sumner</center>
<center>Brig. Gen. Samuel P. Heintzelman</center>
<center>Brig. Gen. Erasmus D. Keyes</center>
<center>Maj. Gen. D. H. Hill</center>
<center>Lt. Gen. James Longstreet</center>
<center>Maj. Gen. John B. Magruder</center>
<center>Brig. Gen. Fitz John Porter</center>
<center>Brig. Gen. William B. Franklin</center>

Center Wing, Maj. Gen. James Longstreet commanding: brigades of Brig. Gens. A. P. Hill, Richard H. Anderson, George E. Pickett, Cadmus M. Wilcox, Raleigh E. Colston, and Roger A. Pryor

Lincoln later ordered the army to return to the Washington, D.C., area to support Maj. Gen. John Pope's army in the northern Virginia campaign and the Second Battle of Bull Run.

Battle flag of the Army of Northern Virginia

Confederate States Army

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The military land force of the Confederate States of America during the American Civil War (1861–1865), fighting against the United States forces in order to uphold the institution of slavery in the Southern states.

The military land force of the Confederate States of America during the American Civil War (1861–1865), fighting against the United States forces in order to uphold the institution of slavery in the Southern states.

Battle flag of the Army of Northern Virginia
Private Edwin Francis Jemison, whose image became one of the most famous portraits of the young soldiers of the war
A cartoon from the war, showing the Confederates forcibly drafting a Unionist man into the Confederate army. The Unionist man objects, with the Confederates threatening to lynch him if he does not comply.
An 1861 Confederate recruiting poster from Virginia, urging men to join the Confederate cause and fight off the U.S. Army, which it refers to as a "brutal and desperate foe"
CSA M1857 Napoleon Artillery Piece
General Robert E. Lee, the Confederacy's most famous general
An 1895 illustration showing the uniforms of the Confederate Army contrasted with those of the U.S. Army
A painting of Lee's Army of Northern Virginia fighting the U.S. Army at Spotsylvania in 1864
A group of Confederate soldiers-possibly an artillery unit captured at Island No. 10 and taken at POW Camp Douglas (Chicago); photograph possibly by D. F. Brandon
Confederate troops marching south on N Market Street, Frederick, Maryland, during the Civil War
A Cherokee Confederates reunion in New Orleans, 1903
Jackson McCurtain, Lieutenant Colonel of the First Choctaw Battalion in Oklahoma, CSA
1862 illustration showing Confederates escorting kidnapped African American civilians south into slavery. A similar instance occurred in Pennsylvania when the Army of Northern Virginia invaded it in 1863 to fight the U.S. at Gettysburg.
An 1862 illustration of a Confederate officer forcing slaves at gunpoint to fire a cannon at U.S. soldiers in battle. A similar instance occurred at the first Battle of Bull Run, where slaves were forced by the Confederates to load and fire a cannon at U.S. forces.
An 1864 cartoon lampooning the Confederacy's deliberating on the use of black soldiers, showing them defecting en masse towards U.S. lines if such proposals were adopted.
"Marlboro", an African-American body servant to a white Confederate soldier
Julian Scott's 1873 painting, Surrender of a Confederate Soldier
Corporal of the Artillery division of the Confederate Army
Confederate mortar crew at Warrington, Florida in 1861, across from Fort Pickens
Confederate artillery at Charleston Harbor, 1863
Lt Col. E. V. Nash, 4th Georgia Infantry Doles-Cook Brigade, who was killed in 1864
<Center>General (CSA)</Center>
<Center>Colonel (Infantry shown)</Center>
<Center>Lieutenant-colonel (Headquarters shown)</Center>
<Center>Major (Medical Corps shown)</Center>
<Center>Captain (Marine Corps shown)</Center>
<Center>1st Lieutenant (Artillery shown)</Center>
<Center>2nd Lieutenant (Cavalry shown)</Center>

Many of the Confederacy's senior military leaders (including Robert E. Lee, Albert Sidney Johnston, James Longstreet) and even President Jefferson Davis, were former U.S. Army and, in smaller numbers, U.S. Navy officers who had been opposed to, disapproved of, or were at least unenthusiastic about secession, but resigned their U.S. commissions upon hearing that their states had left the Union.

Some other prominent Confederate generals who led significant units operating sometimes independently in the CSA included Thomas J. "Stonewall" Jackson, James Longstreet, J. E. B. Stuart, Gideon Pillow, A. P. Hill, John B. Gordon.

During the Civil War 28,693 Native Americans served in the U.S. and Confederate armies, participating in battles such as Pea Ridge, Second Manassas, Antietam, Spotsylvania, Cold Harbor, and in Federal assaults on Petersburg.

Jubal Early

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Virginia lawyer and politician who became a Confederate general during the American Civil War.

Virginia lawyer and politician who became a Confederate general during the American Civil War.

Early's childhood home in northeastern Franklin County
Confederate General Jubal A. Early
General Early, disguised as a farmer, while escaping to Mexico, 1865
Early in his elder years
A plaque praising Early in Rocky Mount, Virginia

As general, Early led Confederate troops in most of the major battles in the Eastern Theater, including the Seven Days Battles, Second Bull Run, Antietam, Fredericksburg, Chancellorsville, Gettysburg, and numerous battles in the Shenandoah Valley.

Furthermore, his troops arrived in the nick of time to reinforce Maj. Gen. A.P. Hill on Jackson's left on Stony Ridge during the Second Battle of Bull Run (a/k/a Second Manassas).

Despite Lee's avowed desire for reconciliation with his former West Point colleagues who remained with the Union and with Northerners more generally, Early became an outspoken and vehement critic of Lt. Gen. James Longstreet, particularly criticizing his actions at the Battle of Gettysburg, and also taking issue with him and other former Confederates who after the war worked with Republicans and African Americans.

Union General George B. McClellan and Confederate General Robert E. Lee, the principal commanders of the campaign

Maryland campaign

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The Maryland campaign (or Antietam campaign) occurred September 4–20, 1862, during the American Civil War.

The Maryland campaign (or Antietam campaign) occurred September 4–20, 1862, during the American Civil War.

Union General George B. McClellan and Confederate General Robert E. Lee, the principal commanders of the campaign
Northern Virginia, Maryland and Pennsylvania (1861-1865)
Southern Virginia, (1861-1865)
Confederate troops marching south on N Market Street, Frederick, Maryland, during the Civil War
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Battle of Antietam (Sharpsburg), September 17, 1862
Confederate dead at Antietam
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Maryland campaign, actions September 3–15, 1862
Confederate
Union

Lee then conducted the northern Virginia campaign in which he outmaneuvered and defeated Maj. Gen. John Pope and his Army of Virginia, most significantly at the Second Battle of Bull Run (Second Manassas).

The First Corps, under Maj. Gen. James Longstreet, consisted of the divisions of Maj. Gen. Lafayette McLaws, Maj. Gen. Richard H. Anderson, Brig. Gen. David R. Jones, Brig. Gen. John G. Walker, Brig. Gen. John Bell Hood, and an independent brigade under Brig. Gen. Nathan G. "Shanks" Evans.

The Second Corps, under Maj. Gen. Thomas J. "Stonewall" Jackson, consisted of the divisions of Brig. Gen. Alexander R. Lawton, Maj. Gen. A.P. Hill (the Light Division), Brig. Gen. John R. Jones, and Maj. Gen. D.H. Hill.

A St. Louis Globe-Democrat article concerning dedication of a Jackson, Mississippi, monument to Confederate soldiers in June 1891 mentions the "Lost Cause" in its headline.

Lost Cause of the Confederacy

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American pseudohistorical negationist mythology that claims the cause of the Confederate States during the American Civil War was just, heroic, and not centered on slavery.

American pseudohistorical negationist mythology that claims the cause of the Confederate States during the American Civil War was just, heroic, and not centered on slavery.

A St. Louis Globe-Democrat article concerning dedication of a Jackson, Mississippi, monument to Confederate soldiers in June 1891 mentions the "Lost Cause" in its headline.
Custis Lee (1832–1913) on horseback in front of the Jefferson Davis Memorial in Richmond, Virginia on June 3, 1907, reviewing Confederate Reunion Parade
Members of the United Daughters of the Confederacy around a Confederate monument in Lakeland, Florida, 1915
Henry Mosler completed his best known painting, The Lost Cause, three years after the end of the Civil War.
Former flag of Mississippi, incorporating the Confederate battle flag design. It was adopted in 1894 after the state's so-called "redemption", and relinquished in 2020 during the George Floyd protests.
Flag of Georgia (1956–2001)
The United Daughters of the Confederacy helped promulgate the Lost Cause's ideology through the construction of numerous memorials, such as this one in Tennessee.
The Lost Cause ideology includes fallacies about the relationships between slaves and their masters.
Frontispiece to the first edition of Dixon's The Clansman, by Arthur I. Keller.

Losses on the battlefield were inevitable, given the North's superiority in resources and manpower. Battlefield losses were also sometimes the result of betrayal and incompetence on the part of certain subordinates of General Lee, such as General James Longstreet, who was reviled for doubting Lee at Gettysburg.

David Ulbrich wrote, "Already revered during the war, Robert E. Lee acquired a divine mystique within Southern culture after it. Remembered as a leader whose soldiers would loyally follow him into every fight no matter how desperate, Lee emerged from the conflict to become an icon of the Lost Cause and the ideal of the antebellum Southern gentleman, an honorable and pious man who selflessly served Virginia and the Confederacy. Lee's tactical brilliance at Second Bull Run and Chancellorsville took on legendary status, and despite his accepting full responsibility for the defeat at Gettysburg, Lee remained largely infallible for Southerners and was spared criticism even from historians until recent times."

Richard Ewell, Jubal Early, J. E. B. Stuart, A. P. Hill, George Pickett, and many others were frequently attacked and blamed by Southerners in an attempt to deflect criticism from Lee.

V Corps badge

V Corps (Union Army)

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Unit of the Union Army of the Potomac during the American Civil War.

Unit of the Union Army of the Potomac during the American Civil War.

V Corps badge
Maj. Gen. Fitz J. Porter
Maj. Gen. George Sykes
Union Army 1st Division Badge, V Corps
Col. Joshua L. Chamberlain
Maj. Gen. Gouverneur K. Warren

The V Corps saw action at the Second Battle of Bull Run, fighting on the left wing of the Union army.

Against ferocious attacks from the Confederate First Corps of James Longstreet, Vincent's brigade held the hill and saved the Union army from being flanked.

At the Battle of Bristoe Station (October 14, 1863) V Corps was fired on by troops of A. P. Hill.