AIM-9 Sidewinder

SidewinderAIM-9AIM-9XAIM-9L SidewinderAIM-9X SidewinderSidewinder missileSidewinder missilesAIM-9B SidewinderAIM-9M SidewinderAIM-9L
The AIM-9 Sidewinder is a short-range air-to-air missile which entered service with the US Navy in 1956 and subsequently was adopted by the US Air Force in 1964.wikipedia
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AGM-122 Sidearm

AGM-122 Sidearm (anti-radar) Missile
This modularity allowed for the introduction of newer seekers and rocket motors, including the AIM-9C variant, which used semi-active radar homing and served as the basis of the AGM-122 Sidearm anti-radar missile.
The AGM-122 Sidearm was produced by the re-manufacture of AIM-9C missiles that had been taken out of service.

AIM-95 Agile

Its adaptability has kept it in service over newer designs like the AIM-95 Agile and SRAAM that were intended to replace it.
It was developed by the US Navy to equip the F-14 Tomcat, replacing the AIM-9 Sidewinder.

SRAAM

Hawker Siddeley SRAAMTaildog/SRAAM
Its adaptability has kept it in service over newer designs like the AIM-95 Agile and SRAAM that were intended to replace it.
Although initially intended to replace the AIM-9 Sidewinder, it was downgraded to a technology demonstrator program in 1974.

Air-to-air missile

air-to-airair-to-air missilesAAM
The AIM-9 Sidewinder is a short-range air-to-air missile which entered service with the US Navy in 1956 and subsequently was adopted by the US Air Force in 1964.
The US Navy and US Air Force began equipping guided missiles in 1956, deploying the USAF's AIM-4 Falcon and the USN's AIM-7 Sparrow and AIM-9 Sidewinder.

Falklands War

Falklands ConflictOperation CorporateFalklands
This led to all-aspect capabilities in the L version which proved to be an extremely effective weapon during combat in the Falklands War and the Operation Mole Cricket 19 ("Bekaa Valley Turkey Shoot") in Lebanon.
The U.S. provided the United Kingdom with Sidewinder missiles for use by the Harrier jets.

Zuni (rocket)

Zuni rocketZuniZuni rockets
Low-level development started in the late 1940s, emerging in the early 1950s as a guidance system for the modular Zuni rocket.
This led to its selection as the basis for the AIM-9 Sidewinder airframe in the early 1950s.

AIM-4 Falcon

FalconHughes FalconFalcon missile
The Sidewinder introduced several new technologies that made it simpler and much more reliable than its United States Air Force (USAF) counterpart, the AIM-4 Falcon, under development during the same period.
With the AIM-4's poor kill record rendering the F-4 ineffective at air-to-air combat, the fighters were modified to carry the USN-designed AIM-9 Sidewinder missile instead, which was already carried on USN and USMC F-4 Phantom II and F-8 Crusader jet fighters.

Diehl Defence

Diehl BGT DefenceDiehlBodenseewerk
The NATO version of the first generation missile was built under licence in Germany by Bodenseewerk Gerätetechnik; 9,200 examples were built.
In 1960, Bodenseewerke Gerätetechnik became the prime contractor for the European production of the American Sidewinder AIM-9B air-to-air missile.

Bell AH-1Z Viper

AH-1Z Viper/ZAH-1Z
It has been built under license by some other nations including Sweden, and can even equip helicopters, such as the Bell AH-1Z Viper.
Its two redesigned wing stubs are longer, with each adding a wingtip station for a missile such as the AIM-9 Sidewinder.

Grumman F-9 Cougar

F9F CougarGrumman F9F CougarF9F-8 Cougar
The first operational use of the missile was by Grumman F9F-8 Cougars and FJ-3 Furies of the United States Navy in the middle of 1956.
Late production F9F-8 aircraft were given the ability to carry four AIM-9 Sidewinder air-to-air missiles under the wings (the first Navy aircraft to deploy with the missiles).

Thrust vectoring

vectored thrustthrust vector controlthrust vector
The AIM-9X also features vectored thrust or jet vane control to increase maneuverability and accuracy, with four vanes inside the exhaust that move as the fins move.
Some smaller sized atmospheric tactical missiles, such as the AIM-9X Sidewinder, eschew flight control surfaces and instead use mechanical vanes to deflect motor exhaust to one side.

K-13 (missile)

Vympel K-13AA-2 AtollK-13
The Soviet K-13, a reverse-engineered copy of the AIM-9, was also widely adopted by a number of nations.
It is similar in appearance and function to the American AIM-9 Sidewinder from which it was reverse-engineered.

William B. McLean

William McLean
The development of the Sidewinder missile began in 1946 at the Naval Ordnance Test Station (NOTS), Inyokern, California, now the Naval Air Weapons Station China Lake, California as an in-house research project conceived by William B. McLean.
William Burdette McLean (1914–1976) was a United States Navy physicist, who conceived and developed the heat-seeking Sidewinder missile.

Republic of China Air Force

Chinese Air ForceAir ForceROCAF
The first combat use of the Sidewinder was on September 24, 1958, with the air force of the Republic of China (Taiwan), during the Second Taiwan Strait Crisis. During that period of time, ROCAF North American F-86 Sabres were routinely engaged in air battles with the People's Republic of China over the Taiwan Strait.
The first successful kill scored by an air-to-air missile was accomplished by a ROCAF F-86 Sabre with then experimental AIM-9 Sidewinder.

Semi-active radar homing

SARHsemi-activesemi-active homing
This modularity allowed for the introduction of newer seekers and rocket motors, including the AIM-9C variant, which used semi-active radar homing and served as the basis of the AGM-122 Sidearm anti-radar missile. The exception was the U.S. Navy AAM-N-7 Sidewinder IB (later AIM-9C), a Sidewinder with a semi-active radar homing seeker head developed for the F-8 Crusader.
While some of the failures were attributable to mechanical failure of 1960s-era electronics, which could be disturbed by pulling a cart over uneven pavement, or pilot error; the intrinsic accuracy of these weapons was low relative to Sidewinder and guns.

Vought F-8 Crusader

F-8 CrusaderRF-8G CrusaderF8U Crusader
The exception was the U.S. Navy AAM-N-7 Sidewinder IB (later AIM-9C), a Sidewinder with a semi-active radar homing seeker head developed for the F-8 Crusader. When air combat started over North Vietnam in 1965, Sidewinder was the standard short range missile carried by the US Navy on its F-4 Phantom and F-8 Crusader fighters and could be carried on the A-4 Skyhawk and on the A-7 Corsair for self-defense.
They were supplemented with a retractable tray with 32 unguided Mk 4/Mk 40 Folding-Fin Aerial Rocket (Mighty Mouse FFARs), and cheek pylons for two guided AIM-9 Sidewinder air-to-air missiles.

Molten-salt battery

Molten salt batterythermal batteriesmolten salt
At the back of the GCU is a gas grain generator or thermal battery (AIM-9X) to provide electrical power.
They are the primary power source for many missiles such as the AIM-9 Sidewinder, MIM-104 Patriot, BGM-71 TOW, BGM-109 Tomahawk and others.

Naval Air Weapons Station China Lake

China LakeNaval Ordnance Test StationNAWS China Lake
The development of the Sidewinder missile began in 1946 at the Naval Ordnance Test Station (NOTS), Inyokern, California, now the Naval Air Weapons Station China Lake, California as an in-house research project conceived by William B. McLean.
In 1950, NOTS scientists and engineers developed the air-intercept missile (AIM) 9 Sidewinder, which became the world's most used and most copied air-to-air missile.

North American F-86 Sabre

F-86 SabreF-86North American F-86F Sabre
During that period of time, ROCAF North American F-86 Sabres were routinely engaged in air battles with the People's Republic of China over the Taiwan Strait.
Under a secret effort designated Operation Black Magic, the U.S. Navy had provided the ROC with the AIM-9 Sidewinder, its first infrared-homing air-to-air missile, which was just entering service with the United States.

Proportional navigation

her compass bearing is not changing muchPro-Navproportional guidance
This "proportional pursuit" system is very easy to implement, yet it offers high-performance lead calculation almost for free and can respond to changes in the target's flight path, which is much more efficient and makes the missile "lead" the target.
A rather simple hardware implementation of this guidance law can be found in early AIM-9 Sidewinder missiles.

Douglas A-4 Skyhawk

A-4 SkyhawkA-4Skyhawk
When air combat started over North Vietnam in 1965, Sidewinder was the standard short range missile carried by the US Navy on its F-4 Phantom and F-8 Crusader fighters and could be carried on the A-4 Skyhawk and on the A-7 Corsair for self-defense.
Primary air-to-air armament consisted of the internal 20 mm (.79 in) Colt cannons and ability to carry an AIM-9 Sidewinder missile on both underwing hardpoints, later additions of two more underwing hardpoints on some aircraft made for a total capacity of four AAMs.

Operation Mole Cricket 19

1982 air battleBeqaa Valleycompletely neutralize
This led to all-aspect capabilities in the L version which proved to be an extremely effective weapon during combat in the Falklands War and the Operation Mole Cricket 19 ("Bekaa Valley Turkey Shoot") in Lebanon.
The IAF's F-15s, F-16s, F-4s, and Kfirs were equipped with AIM-7F Sparrow radar-guided missiles, AIM-9L Sidewinder infrared-guided missiles, and computer-aimed 20-mm cannons.

Grumman F-14 Tomcat

F-14 TomcatF-14F-14A Tomcat
Its first combat use was by a pair of US Navy F-14s in the Gulf of Sidra in 1981 versus two Libyan Su-22 Fighters, both of the latter being destroyed by AIM-9Ls.
The VFX's air-to-air missiles would be either six AIM-54 Phoenix or a combination of six AIM-7 Sparrow and four AIM-9 Sidewinder missiles.

North American FJ-2/-3 Fury

FJ-3 FuryNorth American FJ-3 FuryFJ-2 Fury
The first operational use of the missile was by Grumman F9F-8 Cougars and FJ-3 Furies of the United States Navy in the middle of 1956.
Of these 194 were modified to FJ-3Ms with the ability to carry AIM-9 Sidewinder air-to-air missiles.

Fox (code word)

Fox (number)Fox OneFox Three
When firing a Sidewinder, NATO pilots use the brevity code FOX-2.