ARPANET

ARPA networkARPAnet Working GroupArpanet/DarpanetInternetloginThe Internet And Nuclear WarU.S. defense networks
The Advanced Research Projects Agency Network (ARPANET) was an early packet-switching network and the first network to implement the protocol suite TCP/IP.wikipedia
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Internet

onlinethe Internetweb
Both technologies became the technical foundation of the Internet.
The primary precursor network, the ARPANET, initially served as a backbone for interconnection of regional academic and military networks in the 1980s.

Leonard Kleinrock

Kleinrock Internet Heritage Site and ArchiveLen KleinrockLeonard Klienrock
The packet-switching methodology employed in the ARPANET was based on concepts and designs by Leonard Kleinrock, Paul Baran, Donald Davies, and Lawrence Roberts.
He played an influential role in the development of the ARPANET, the precursor to the Internet, at UCLA.

CSNET

Computer Science Network
Access to the ARPANET was expanded in 1981, when the National Science Foundation (NSF) funded the Computer Science Network (CSNET).
Its purpose was to extend networking benefits, for computer science departments at academic and research institutions that could not be directly connected to ARPANET, due to funding or authorization limitations.

CYCLADES

The TCP/IP communications protocols were developed for the ARPANET by computer scientists Robert Kahn and Vint Cerf, and incorporated concepts from the French CYCLADES project directed by Louis Pouzin.
It was one of the pioneering networks experimenting with the concept of packet switching, and was developed to explore alternatives to the ARPANET design.

Packet switching

packet-switched networkpacket-switchedpacket switched
The Advanced Research Projects Agency Network (ARPANET) was an early packet-switching network and the first network to implement the protocol suite TCP/IP.
Davies is credited with coining the modern term packet switching and inspiring numerous packet switching networks in the decade following, including the incorporation of the concept in the early ARPANET in the United States.

Internet protocol suite

TCP/IPInternet protocolsIP
The Advanced Research Projects Agency Network (ARPANET) was an early packet-switching network and the first network to implement the protocol suite TCP/IP. In 1983, TCP/IP protocols replaced NCP as the ARPANET's principal protocol, and the ARPANET then became one subnet of the early Internet.
After initiating the pioneering ARPANET in 1969, DARPA started work on a number of other data transmission technologies.

DARPA

ARPADefense Advanced Research Projects AgencyAdvanced Research Projects Agency
The ARPANET was initially funded by the Advanced Research Projects Agency (ARPA) of the United States Department of Defense.
It was Ruina who hired J. C. R. Licklider as the first administrator of the Information Processing Techniques Office, which played a vital role in creation of ARPANET, the basis for the future Internet.

J. C. R. Licklider

J.C.R. Licklider Licklider, J. C. R.Dr. J. C. R. Licklider
The earliest ideas for a computer network intended to allow general communications among computer users were formulated by computer scientist J. C. R. Licklider of Bolt, Beranek and Newman (BBN), in April 1963, in memoranda discussing the concept of the "Intergalactic Computer Network".
He did much to initiate this by funding research which led to much of it, including today's canonical graphical user interface, and the ARPANET, the direct predecessor to the Internet.

Bob Kahn

Robert KahnRobert E. KahnRobert Elliot Kahn
The TCP/IP communications protocols were developed for the ARPANET by computer scientists Robert Kahn and Vint Cerf, and incorporated concepts from the French CYCLADES project directed by Louis Pouzin.
In the fall of 1972, he demonstrated the ARPANET by connecting 20 different computers at the International Computer Communication Conference, "the watershed event that made people suddenly realize that packet switching was a real technology."

Vint Cerf

Vinton Cerf Cerf, VintDr. Vinton G. Cerf
The TCP/IP communications protocols were developed for the ARPANET by computer scientists Robert Kahn and Vint Cerf, and incorporated concepts from the French CYCLADES project directed by Louis Pouzin.
During his graduate student years, he studied under Professor Gerald Estrin, worked in Professor Leonard Kleinrock's data packet networking group that connected the first two nodes of the ARPANet, the predecessor to the Internet, and "contributed to a host-to-host protocol" for the ARPANet.

Elizabeth J. Feinler

Elizabeth FeinlerElizabeth "Jake" FeinlerJake Feinler
Elizabeth Feinler created the first Resource Handbook for ARPANET in 1969 which led to the development of the ARPANET directory.
Her group operated the Network Information Center (NIC) for the ARPANET as it evolved into the Defense Data Network (DDN) and the Internet.

Charles M. Herzfeld

Bob Taylor convinced ARPA's Director Charles M. Herzfeld to fund a network project in February 1966, and Herzfeld transferred a million dollars from a ballistic missile defense program to Taylor's budget.
He is best known for his time as Director of DARPA, during which, among other things, he personally took the decision to authorize the creation of the ARPANET, the predecessor of the Internet.

NPL network

NPL Data Communications Network
He gave the first public demonstration, having coined the term packet switching, on 5 August 1968 and incorporated it into the NPL network in England.
The NPL network, followed by the wide area ARPANET in the United States, were the first two computer networks that implemented packet switching, and were interconnected in the early 1970s.

Internetworking

internetworkInternet connectioninter-networking
As the project progressed, protocols for internetworking were developed by which multiple separate networks could be joined into a network of networks.
The network elements used to connect individual networks in the ARPANET, the predecessor of the Internet, were originally called gateways, but the term has been deprecated in this context, because of possible confusion with functionally different devices.

Information Processing Techniques Office

Information Processing Techniques Office (IPTO)Information Processing Technology OfficeInformation Technology Office
Taylor hired Larry Roberts as a program manager in the ARPA Information Processing Techniques Office in January 1967 to work on the ARPANET.
By the late 1960s, his promotion of the concept had inspired a primitive version of his vision called ARPANET, which expanded into a network of networks in the 1970s that became the Internet.

RAND Corporation

RANDthe RAND CorporationRAND Corp.
Meanwhile, since the early 1960s, Paul Baran at the RAND Corporation had been researching systems that could survive nuclear war and developed the idea of distributed adaptive message block switching.
Paul Baran: one of the developers of packet switching which was used in Arpanet and later networks like the Internet

Robert Taylor (computer scientist)

Robert TaylorBob TaylorRobert W. Taylor
He convinced Ivan Sutherland and Bob Taylor that this network concept was very important and merited development, although Licklider left ARPA before any contracts were assigned for development.
By June 1966, Taylor had been named director of IPTO; in this capacity, he shepherded the ARPANET project until 1969.

University of California, Santa Barbara

UC Santa BarbaraUCSBSanta Barbara
University of California, Santa Barbara (UCSB), with the Culler-Fried Interactive Mathematics Center's IBM 360/75, running OS/MVT being the machine attached;
UCSB was the No. 3 host on the ARPAnet and was elected to the Association of American Universities in 1995.

SRI International

Stanford Research InstituteSRIStanford Research Institute International
The Augmentation Research Center at Stanford Research Institute (now SRI International), where Douglas Engelbart had created the ground-breaking NLS system, a very important early hypertext system, and would run the Network Information Center (NIC), with the SDS 940 that ran NLS, named "Genie", being the first host attached;
On October 29, 1969, the first connection on a wide area network to use packet switching, ARPANET, was established between nodes at Leonard Kleinrock's laboratory at University of California, Los Angeles (UCLA) and Douglas Engelbart's laboratory at SRI using Interface Message Processors at both sites.

University of Utah School of Computing

School of ComputingSchool of Computing at the University of Utah
The University of Utah School of Computing, where Ivan Sutherland had moved, running a DEC PDP-10 operating on TENEX.
The University of Utah was one of the original four nodes of ARPANET, the world's first packet-switching computer network and embryo of the current worldwide Internet.

MILNET

In September 1984 work was completed on restructuring the ARPANET giving U.S. military sites their own Military Network (MILNET) for unclassified defense department communications.
In computer networking, MILNET (Military Network) was the name given to the part of the ARPANET internetwork designated for unclassified United States Department of Defense traffic.

PDP-10

DEC PDP-10-10DEC System 10
The University of Utah School of Computing, where Ivan Sutherland had moved, running a DEC PDP-10 operating on TENEX.
Its main operating systems, TOPS-10 and TENEX, were used to build out the early ARPANET.

Paul Baran

The packet-switching methodology employed in the ARPANET was based on concepts and designs by Leonard Kleinrock, Paul Baran, Donald Davies, and Lawrence Roberts. Meanwhile, since the early 1960s, Paul Baran at the RAND Corporation had been researching systems that could survive nuclear war and developed the idea of distributed adaptive message block switching.
Baran discusses his interaction with the group at ARPA who were responsible for the later development of the ARPANET.

Wesley A. Clark

Wesley ClarkWes Clark Clark, Wesley A.
At the meeting, Wesley Clark proposed minicomputers called Interface Message Processors (IMPs) should be used to interface to the network rather than the large mainframes that would be the nodes of the ARPANET.
Clark had a small but key role in the planning for the ARPANET (the predecessor to the Internet).

Network Control Program

NCPInitial Connection Protocol
In 1983, TCP/IP protocols replaced NCP as the ARPANET's principal protocol, and the ARPANET then became one subnet of the early Internet.
The Network Control Program (NCP) provided the middle layers of the protocol stack running on host computers of the ARPANET, the predecessor to the modern Internet.