A Christmas Carol

Christmas Carol1843 novellanovella of the same nameMartha Cratchitnovellathe original novella1843 classic1843 novel1843 novella of the same name1843 story of the same name
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Charles Dickens

DickensDickensianDickens, Charles
Being a Ghost Story of Christmas, commonly known as A Christmas Carol', is a novella by Charles Dickens, first published in London by Chapman & Hall in 1843 and illustrated by John Leech.
His 1843 novella A Christmas Carol remains especially popular and continues to inspire adaptations in every artistic genre.

Ebenezer Scrooge

ScroogeEbeneezer ScroogeEbenezer "Ben" Scrooge
A Christmas Carol recounts the story of Ebenezer Scrooge, an elderly miser who is visited by the ghost of his former business partner Jacob Marley and the spirits of Christmas Past, Present and Yet to Come.
Ebenezer Scrooge is the protagonist of Charles Dickens' 1843 novella, A Christmas Carol.

Jacob Marley

Marley's GhostMarleyDoor Knocker
A Christmas Carol recounts the story of Ebenezer Scrooge, an elderly miser who is visited by the ghost of his former business partner Jacob Marley and the spirits of Christmas Past, Present and Yet to Come.
Jacob Marley is a fictional character who appears in Charles Dickens's 1843 novella A Christmas Carol.

Ghost of Christmas Present

PresentSpirit of Christmas PresentThe Ghost of Christmas Present
A Christmas Carol recounts the story of Ebenezer Scrooge, an elderly miser who is visited by the ghost of his former business partner Jacob Marley and the spirits of Christmas Past, Present and Yet to Come.
The Ghost of Christmas Present or the Spirit of Christmas Present is a fictional character in the 1843 novella A Christmas Carol by novelist Charles Dickens.

Ghost of Christmas Past

The Ghost of Christmas PastGhosts of Christmas PastChristmas Past
A Christmas Carol recounts the story of Ebenezer Scrooge, an elderly miser who is visited by the ghost of his former business partner Jacob Marley and the spirits of Christmas Past, Present and Yet to Come.
The Ghost of Christmas Past or the Spirit of Christmas Past is a fictional character in the 1843 work A Christmas Carol by the English novelist Charles Dickens.

Ghost of Christmas Yet to Come

Ghost of Christmas FutureFutureYet to Come
A Christmas Carol recounts the story of Ebenezer Scrooge, an elderly miser who is visited by the ghost of his former business partner Jacob Marley and the spirits of Christmas Past, Present and Yet to Come.
The Ghost of Christmas Yet-to-Come, also known as the Ghost of Christmas Future, sometimes the Spirit of Christmas Future, the Spirit of Christmas Yet-to-Come or the Ghost of Christmas Yet-to-Be, is a fictional character in English novelist Charles Dickens's 1843 novella A Christmas Carol.

John Leech (caricaturist)

John Leech John LeechLeech
Being a Ghost Story of Christmas, commonly known as A Christmas Carol', is a novella by Charles Dickens, first published in London by Chapman & Hall in 1843 and illustrated by John Leech.
Leech also enjoys fame as the first illustrator of Charles Dickens' 1843 novella A Christmas Carol.

Adaptations of A Christmas Carol

Adaptations of ''A Christmas CarolA Christmas CarolList of ''A Christmas Carol'' adaptations
A Christmas Carol has never been out of print and has been translated into several languages; the story has been adapted many times for film, stage, opera and other media.
A Christmas Carol, the popular 1843 novella by Charles Dickens (1812–1870), is one of the British author's best-known works.

Bob Cratchit

Bob CragitBobCratchit
He turns away two men who seek a donation from him to provide food and heating for the poor and only grudgingly allows his overworked, underpaid clerk, Bob Cratchit, Christmas Day off with pay to conform to the social custom.
Bob Cratchit is a fictional character in the Charles Dickens 1843 novella A Christmas Carol.

Mr. Fezziwig

FezziwigAlbert FezziwigFozziwig
The scenes reveal Scrooge's lonely childhood at boarding school, his relationship with his beloved sister Fan, and a Christmas party hosted by his first employer, Mr Fezziwig, who treated him like a son.
Mr. Fezziwig is a character from the 1843 novella A Christmas Carol created by Charles Dickens to provide contrast with Ebenezer Scrooge's attitudes towards business ethics.

Tiny Tim (A Christmas Carol)

Tiny TimTiny Tim CratchitTim
A major part of this stave is taken up with Bob Cratchit's family feast and introduces his youngest son, Tiny Tim, a happy boy who is seriously ill. The spirit informs Scrooge that Tiny Tim will die unless the course of events changes.
Tiny Tim is a fictional character from the 1843 novella A Christmas Carol by Charles Dickens.

Charwoman

charwomencharladywasherwoman
His charwoman, laundress and the local undertaker steal his possessions to sell to a fence.
In British literature, Victorian examples includes Mrs. Dilber, Ebeneezer Scrooge's charwoman, who appears in Charles Dickens's A Christmas Carol.

Miser

cheapskatemiserlypenny pincher
A Christmas Carol recounts the story of Ebenezer Scrooge, an elderly miser who is visited by the ghost of his former business partner Jacob Marley and the spirits of Christmas Past, Present and Yet to Come.

Christian literature

Christian bookChristianliterature
There is discussion among academics as to whether this was a fully secular story, or if it is a Christian allegory.

John Elwes (politician)

John ElwesJohn Meggott
Scrooge could also be based on two misers: the eccentric John Elwes, MP, or Jemmy Wood, the owner of the Gloucester Old Bank and also known as "The Gloucester Miser".
John Elwes [né Meggot or Meggott] MP (7 April 1714 – 26 November 1789) was a Member of Parliament (MP) in Great Britain for Berkshire (1772–1784) and a noted eccentric and miser, suggested to be an inspiration for the character of Ebenezer Scrooge in Charles Dickens' A Christmas Carol.

Christmas traditions

Christmas worldwideChristmas traditionChristmas
Dickens wrote A Christmas Carol during a period when the British were exploring and re-evaluating past Christmas traditions, including carols and newer customs such as Christmas trees. Among earlier authors who influenced Dickens was Washington Irving, whose 1819–20 work The Sketch Book of Geoffrey Crayon, Gent. included four essays on old English Christmas traditions that he experienced while staying at Aston Hall near Birmingham.
On Christmas Eve, presents are supposedly delivered in stockings and under the Christmas tree by Father Christmas, who previously had been something like The Ghost of Christmas Present in Charles Dickens' A Christmas Carol (1843), but who has now become mainly conflated with Santa Claus.

Washerwoman

laundresswasherwomenlaundry girl
His charwoman, laundress and the local undertaker steal his possessions to sell to a fence.
Also, washerwomen serve as characters depicting the working poor, as for example in A Christmas Carol: when the Ghost of Christmas Yet to Come showed Ebenezer Scrooge his future where he is dead, the laundress assists the charwoman Mrs. Dilber and the unnamed undertaker into stealing some of Scrooge's belongings and selling them to a fence named Old Joe.

The Chimes

He capitalised on the success of the book by publishing other Christmas stories: The Chimes (1844), The Cricket on the Hearth (1845), The Battle of Life (1846) and The Haunted Man and the Ghost's Bargain (1848); these were secular conversion tales which acknowledged the progressive societal changes of the previous year, and highlighted those social problems which still needed to be addressed.
The Chimes: A Goblin Story of Some Bells that Rang an Old Year Out and a New Year In, commonly referred to as The Chimes, is a novella written by Charles Dickens and first published in 1844, one year after A Christmas Carol.

The Cricket on the Hearth

Cricket on the HearthDot, A Drama in Three ActsCricket
He capitalised on the success of the book by publishing other Christmas stories: The Chimes (1844), The Cricket on the Hearth (1845), The Battle of Life (1846) and The Haunted Man and the Ghost's Bargain (1848); these were secular conversion tales which acknowledged the progressive societal changes of the previous year, and highlighted those social problems which still needed to be addressed.
It is the third of Dickens's five Christmas books, preceded by A Christmas Carol (1843) and The Chimes (1844), and followed by The Battle of Life (1846) and The Haunted Man and the Ghost's Bargain (1848).

The Haunted Man and the Ghost's Bargain

The Haunted ManThe Haunted Man and the Ghost’s Bargain
He capitalised on the success of the book by publishing other Christmas stories: The Chimes (1844), The Cricket on the Hearth (1845), The Battle of Life (1846) and The Haunted Man and the Ghost's Bargain (1848); these were secular conversion tales which acknowledged the progressive societal changes of the previous year, and highlighted those social problems which still needed to be addressed.
The story is more about the spirit of the holidays than about the holidays themselves, harking back to the first in the series, A Christmas Carol.

Ragged school

ragged schoolsRagged School UnionRagged Schools Union
Dickens had written three Christmas stories prior to the novella, and was inspired following a visit to the Field Lane Ragged School, one of several establishments for London's street children.
The experience inspired him to write A Christmas Carol.

Jemmy Wood

James 'Jemmy' WoodJames (Jemmy) Wood
Scrooge could also be based on two misers: the eccentric John Elwes, MP, or Jemmy Wood, the owner of the Gloucester Old Bank and also known as "The Gloucester Miser".
Charles Dickens may have been inspired by the stories about the Gloucester Miser to create the character of Ebenezer Scrooge in A Christmas Carol.

David Copperfield

David Copperfield (novel)novelof the same name
By 1849 Dickens was engaged with David Copperfield and had neither the time nor the inclination to produce another Christmas book.
Leech was an illustrator at Punch, a satirical magazine, and the first illustrator for A Christmas Carol by Dickens in 1843.

Thomas Robert Malthus

Thomas MalthusMalthusRobert Malthus
According to the sociologist Frank W. Elwell, Scrooge's views on the poor are a reflection of those of the demographer and political economist Thomas Malthus, while the miser's questions "Are there no prisons? ... And the Union workhouses? ... The treadmill and the Poor Law are in full vigour, then?"

The Sketch Book of Geoffrey Crayon, Gent.

The Sketch BookGeoffrey CrayonSketch Book
Among earlier authors who influenced Dickens was Washington Irving, whose 1819–20 work The Sketch Book of Geoffrey Crayon, Gent. included four essays on old English Christmas traditions that he experienced while staying at Aston Hall near Birmingham.
Charles Dickens later credited Irving as an influence on his own Christmas writings, including the classic A Christmas Carol.