A priori and a posteriori

a prioria posterioriA priori'' and ''a posterioria priori knowledgea priori proofa priori'' knowledgea-prioriapriorismaprioritya posteriori'' knowledge
The Latin phrases a priori ('from the earlier') and a posteriori ('from the later') are philosophical terms popularized by Immanuel Kant's Critique of Pure Reason (first published in 1781, second edition in 1787), one of the most influential works in the history of philosophy.wikipedia
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Positivism

positivistpositivisticpositivists
Positivism holds that valid knowledge (certitude or truth) is found only in this a posteriori knowledge.

Social theory

social theoristsocial theoriessocial analysis
Social theory as it is recognized today emerged in the 20th century as a distinct discipline, and was largely equated with an attitude of critical thinking and the desire for knowledge through a posteriori methods of discovery, rather than a priori methods of tradition.

Lingua sistemfrater

Phạm Xuân Thái
Frater (lingua sistemfrater), an a posteriori international auxiliary language, published in ''Frater (Lingua sistemfrater).

Analogical models

dynamical analogiesanaloganalog models
It is often practicable to construct source systems that are smaller and/or faster than the target system so that one can deduce a priori knowledge of target system behaviour.

Branches of science

scientific disciplineFields of scienceField of science
It is similar to empirical sciences in that it involves an objective, careful and systematic study of an area of knowledge; it is different because of its method of verifying its knowledge, using a priori rather than empirical methods.

Universal grammar

linguistic nativismnativismuniversal
The basic postulate of UG is that a certain set of structural rules are innate to humans, independent of sensory experience.

Ad hoc

ad-hocadhocAd hoc query
In English, it generally signifies a solution designed for a specific problem or task, non-generalizable, and not intended to be able to be adapted to other purposes (compare with a priori).

Experimental philosophy

experimental philosopherexperimental philosophersphilosophy-in-action
Experimental philosophy is an emerging field of philosophical inquiry that makes use of empirical data—often gathered through surveys which probe the intuitions of ordinary people—in order to inform research on philosophical questions. This use of empirical data is widely seen as opposed to a philosophical methodology that relies mainly on a priori justification, sometimes called "armchair" philosophy, by experimental philosophers.

Anthropic principle

weak anthropic principleanthropicAnthropic bias
The anthropic principle states that this is a necessity, because if life were impossible, no living entity would be there to observe it, and thus would not be known.

Foreign relations of Taiwan

Foreign relations of the Republic of Chinadisputed statuspolitical sensitivities
In the context of the international norm of tabula rasa, the ROC Ministry of Foreign Affairs remains a de facto state in readiness to join the international community, and (if applicable) as a sui generis entity of international law, abiding by the reference of the ex factis jus oritur principle and a priori and a posteriori of the ROC, to participate in international organisations as defined by international norms and the Union of International Associations.

Mass

inertial massgravitational massweight
This is sometimes referred to as gravitational mass. Repeated experiments since the 17th century have demonstrated that inertial and gravitational mass are identical; since 1915, this observation has been entailed a priori in the equivalence principle of general relativity.

A Treatise of Human Nature

Treatise of Human NatureTreatise on Human NatureA Treatise on Human Nature
But an a priori psychology would be hopeless: the science of man must be pursued by the experimental methods of the natural sciences.

Natural theology

Bridgewater TreatisesBridgewater Treatisenatural religion
This distinguishes it from revealed theology, which is based on scripture and/or religious experiences, also from transcendental theology, which is based on a priori reasoning.

A priori (disambiguation)

A priori
A priori (Latin, 'from the earlier') is a term used in philosophy and epistemology.

A posteriori (disambiguation)

A posteriori'' (disambiguation)
A posteriori (Latin, 'from the earlier') is a term used in philosophy and epistemology.

Theoretical motivation for general relativity

Transition from special relativity to general relativity
A key advantage in examining circular orbits is that it is possible to know the solution of the Einstein Field Equation a priori.

List of materials properties

mechanical propertiesmaterial propertiesMaterials property
Some materials are used in relevant equations to predict the attributes of a system a priori.

Why–because analysis

Why-because analysisWhy–because graph
It is mainly used as an after the fact (or a posteriori) analysis method.

Thomism

ThomistThomisticThomists
We do not perceive by an immediate intuition that God exists, nor do we prove it a priori.

Tlön, Uqbar, Orbis Tertius

UqbarTlönReal and fictional place
Without nouns about which to state propositions, there can be no a priori deductive reasoning from first principles.

Jungian archetypes

archetypesarchetypearchetypal
For Jung, "the archetype is the introspectively recognizable form of a priori psychic orderedness".

RNA-Seq

RNA sequencingRNA-sequencingRNAseq
Issues with microarrays include cross-hybridization artifacts, poor quantification of lowly and highly expressed genes, and needing to know the sequence a priori.