A priori and a posteriori

a prioria posterioriA priori'' and ''a posterioria priori knowledgea priori proofa priori'' knowledgea-prioriapriorismaprioritya posteriori'' knowledge
The Latin phrases a priori ('from the earlier') and a posteriori ('from the later') are philosophical terms popularized by Immanuel Kant's Critique of Pure Reason (first published in 1781, second edition in 1787), one of the most influential works in the history of philosophy.wikipedia
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AegyptiacaManetho’s ''AegyptiacaHistory of Egypt
The name Manetho is rare but there is no reason a priori to assume that the Manetho of the Hibeh Papyri is the historian from Sebennytus who is thought to have authored the Aegyptiaca for Ptolemy Philadelphus.


enlightenment thinkerparti philosophiquephilosophie au triomphe de laquelle était consacrée l’''Encyclopédie
As an example of scientific progress in the Age of Reason and the Lumières movement, Newton's example remains unsurpassed, in taking observed facts and constructing a theory which explains them a priori, for example taking the motions of the planets observed by Johannes Kepler to confirm his law of universal gravitation.

Experiential knowledge

Experiential knowledge is knowledge gained through experience, as opposed to a priori (before experience) knowledge: it can also be contrasted both with propositional (textbook) knowledge, and with practical knowledge.


One solution to the problem of induction, proposed by Immanuel Kant in Critique of Pure Reason, is to consider as valid, absolutely a priori, the conclusions that we would otherwise have drawn from these dubious inferential inductions.

Trademark argument

The trademark argument is an a priori argument for the existence of God developed by French philosopher and mathematician, René Descartes.

Sensor fusion

data fusionmulti-sensor fusionfused
Direct fusion is the fusion of sensor data from a set of heterogeneous or homogeneous sensors, soft sensors, and history values of sensor data, while indirect fusion uses information sources like a priori knowledge about the environment and human input.

Comité Para

Committee Para
The group's motto (by Robert Rendu) is Ne rien nier a priori, ne rien affirmer sans preuve ("Do not deny anything a priori, do not assert anything without evidence").

Logical intuition

intuitionintuitive evaluationsmathematical intuition
Plato and Aristotle considered intuition a means for perceiving ideas, significant enough that for Aristotle, intuition comprised the only means of knowing principles that are not subject to argument.

Diocesan chancery

chancerydiocesan chancellorChancellor
Each diocese, therefore, is likely, a priori, to develop its administration along similar lines, but does so regularly in harmony with others, particularly neighbouring dioceses.


As one observer has argued, techne "was not concerned with the necessity and eternal a priori truths of the cosmos, nor with the a posteriori contingencies and exigencies of ethics and politics. [...] Moreover, this was a kind of knowledge associated with people who were bound to necessity. That is, techne was chiefly operative in the domestic sphere, in farming and slavery, and not in the free realm of the Greek polis

Groundwork of the Metaphysic of Morals

Groundwork of the Metaphysics of MoralsFundamental Principles of the Metaphysic of MoralsGrundlegung zur Metaphysik der Sitten
Additionally, logic is an a priori discipline, i.e., logical truths do not depend on any particular experience for their justification.

Intelligent design and science

Empirical science uses the scientific method to create a posteriori knowledge based on observation and repeated testing of hypotheses and theories.

Critique of the Kantian Philosophy

Schopenhauer's criticism of the Kantian philosophyCriticism of the Kantian PhilosophyCriticism of Kant's system

Taxonomy of Liliaceae

This was the last major classification using the "natural" or pre-evolutionary approach to classification, based on characteristics selected a posteriori in order to group together taxa that have the greatest number of shared characteristics.

Schema (Kant)

Kant's a priori concepts, on the other hand, are alleged to have sense when they are derived from a non–experienced mental schema, trace, outline, sketch, monogram, or minimal image.

Moral rationalism

ethical rationalismmoral rationalists
Moral rationalism, also called ethical rationalism, is a view in meta-ethics (specifically the epistemology of ethics) according to which moral principles are knowable a priori, by reason alone.

Living fossil

living fossilsLiving dinosaurmolecular fossils
In addition, it was shown recently that studies concluding that a slow rate of molecular evolution is linked to morphological conservatism in coelacanths are biased by the a priori hypothesis that these species are ‘living fossils’.

Nuclear weapons debate

anti-nuclear weaponsdebate
Proponents of disarmament typically condemn a priori the threat or use of nuclear weapons as immoral and argue that only total disarmament can eliminate the possibility of nuclear war.

Petre P. Negulescu

P. P. Negulescu
Negulescu's publishing debut came in 1892, with a metaphysical essay, Critica apriorismului și a empirismului ("A Critique of Apriorism and Empiricism"), earning him the Romanian Academy award in philosophy.

Kantian ethics

KantianKantian deontologyKant
Kant argued that the objective law of reason is a priori, existing externally from rational being.

Ethical intuitionism

Ethical intuitionistsintuitionistethical intuitionist
It is usually furthermore taken as essential to ethical intuitionism that there be self-evident or a priori moral knowledge; this counts against considering moral sense theory to be a species of intuitionism.

List of unsolved problems in economics

finance's unsolved problemslist of unsolved problems in financeUnsolved problems in economics


beingsbePhilosophy of Being
As substance theorists they accepted a priori the hypothesis that appearances are deceiving, that reality is to be reached through reasoning.

Epistemic theories of truth

epistemic theoriesEpistemic truth
The two main kinds of verification philosophies are positivism and a-priorism.


palliapallmetropolitan bishop's pallium
A theory relates origination to the paradigm of the Good Shepherd shouldering a lamb, a common early Christian art image (if not icon) — but this may be an explanation a posteriori, however the ritual preparation of the pallium and its subsequent bestowal upon a pope at coronation suggests the shepherd symbolism.