Qasim in 1962
President Nasser in 1962
Qasim in 1958
Nasser in 1931
Qasim in 1937
Nasser's name circled in Al-Gihad
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Portrait of Nasser at law school in 1937
Qasim with future president of Iraqi Kurdistan, Massoud Barzani
Nasser (center) with Ahmed Mazhar (left) in army, 1940
The flag of Iraq from 1959 to 1963, whose symbolism was associated with Qasim's government
Nasser (first from left) with his unit in the Faluja pocket, displaying weapons captured from the Israeli Army during the 1948 war.
The Iraqi state emblem under Qasim was mostly based on the sun disk symbol of Shamash, and carefully avoided pan-Arab symbolism by incorporating elements of Socialist heraldry.
The Free Officers after the coup, 1953. Counterclockwise: Zakaria Mohieddin, Abdel Latif Boghdadi, Kamel el-Din Hussein (standing), Nasser (seated), Abdel Hakim Amer, Mohamed Naguib, Youssef Seddik, and Ahmad Shawki.
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Leaders of Egypt following the ouster of King Farouk, November 1952. Seated, left to right: Sulayman Hafez, Mohamed Naguib and Nasser
Qasim after execution
Nasser (right) and Mohamed Naguib (left) during celebrations marking the second anniversary of the 1952 revolution, July 1954
Statue honouring Abd al-Karim Qasim, by Khaled al-Rahal, now in Al-Rasheed Street, Baghdad
Nasser and Naguib saluting at the opening of the Suez Canal
Liberation organization in Alexandria invitation to Nasser speech 26 October 1954
Nasser greeted by crowds in Alexandria one day after his announcement of the British withdrawal and the assassination attempt against him, 27 October 1954.
Nasser and Imam Ahmad of North Yemen facing the camera, Prince Faisal of Saudi Arabia in white robes in the background, Amin al-Husayni of the All-Palestine Government in the foreground at the Bandung Conference, April 1955
Nasser submitting his vote for the referendum of the proposed constitution, 23 June 1956
Nasser raising the Egyptian flag over the Suez Canal city of Port Said to celebrate the final British military withdrawal from the country, June 1956
Nasser giving a speech at the opening of the Suez Canal
The signing of the regional defense pact between Egypt, Saudi Arabia, Syria and Jordan, January 1957. At the forefront, from left right: Prime Minister Sulayman al-Nabulsi of Jordan, King Hussein of Jordan, King Saud of Saudi Arabia, Nasser, Prime Minister Sabri al-Asali of Syria
Nasser seated alongside Crown Prince Muhammad al-Badr of North Yemen (center) and Shukri al-Quwatli (right), February 1958. North Yemen joined the UAR to form the United Arab States, a loose confederation.
Nasser (right) and Lebanese president Fuad Chehab (to Nasser's right) at the Syrian–Lebanese border during talks to end the crisis in Lebanon. Akram al-Hawrani stands third to Nasser's left, and Abdel Hamid Sarraj stands to Chehab's right, March 1959.
Nasser waving to crowds in Damascus, Syria, October 1960
Nasser (center) receiving Algerian president Ahmed Ben Bella (right) and Iraqi president Abdel Salam Aref (left) for the Arab League summit in Alexandria, September 1964. Ben Bella and Aref were close allies of Nasser.
Nasser before Yemeni crowds on his arrival to Sana'a, April 1964. In front of Nasser and giving a salute is Yemeni President Abdullah al-Sallal
Government officials attending Friday prayers at al-Azhar Mosque, 1959. From left to right; Interior Minister Zakaria Mohieddin, Nasser, Social Affairs Minister Hussein el-Shafei and National Union Secretary Anwar Sadat
Nasser being sworn in for a second term as Egypt's president, 25 March 1965
Nasser (center), King Hussein of Jordan (left) and Egyptian Army Chief of Staff Abdel Hakim Amer (right) at the Supreme Command of the Armed Forces headquarters in Cairo before signing a mutual defense pact, 30 May 1967
Egyptian demonstrators protesting Nasser's resignation, 1967
Nasser observing the Suez front with Egyptian officers during the 1968 War of Attrition. General Commander Mohamed Fawzi is directly behind Nasser, and to their left is Chief of Staff Abdel Moneim Riad.
Nasser brokering a ceasefire between Yasser Arafat of the PLO (left) and King Hussein of Jordan (right) at the emergency Arab League summit in Cairo on 27 September 1970, one day before Nasser's death
Nasser's funeral procession attended by five million mourners in Cairo, 1 October 1970
Gamal Abdel Nasser Mosque in Cairo, the site of his burial
Nasser presenting prominent and blind writer Taha Hussein (standing in front of Nasser) with a national honors prize for literature, 1959
Nasser speaking to a homeless Egyptian man and offering him a job, after the man was found sleeping below the stage where Nasser was seated, 1959
Nasser waving to crowds in Mansoura, 1960
Anwar Sadat (left) and Nasser in the National Assembly, 1964. Sadat succeeded Nasser as president in 1970 and significantly departed from Nasser's policies throughout his rule.
Jaafar Nimeiry of Sudan (left), Nasser, and Muammar Gaddafi of Libya (right) at the Tripoli Airport, 1969. Nimeiry and Gaddafi were influenced by Nasser's pan-Arabist ideas and the latter sought to succeed him as "leader of the Arabs".
Nasser and his family in Manshiyat al-Bakri, 1963. From left to right, his daughter Mona, his wife Tahia Kazem, daughter Hoda, son Abdel Hakim, son Khaled, son Abdel Hamid, and Nasser.

During Qasim's term, there was much debate over whether Iraq should join the United Arab Republic, led by Gamal Abdel Nasser.

- Abd al-Karim Qasim

On 14 July 1958, Iraqi army officers Abdel Karim Qasim and Abdel Salam Aref overthrew the Iraqi monarchy and, the next day, Iraqi prime minister and Nasser's chief Arab antagonist, Nuri al-Said, was killed.

- Gamal Abdel Nasser

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Abdul Salam Arif and Abd al-Karim Qasim, the leaders of the revolution

14 July Revolution

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The 14 July Revolution, also known as the 1958 Iraqi coup d'état, took place on 14 July 1958 in Iraq, and resulted in the overthrow of the Hashemite monarchy in Iraq that had been established by King Faisal I in 1921 under the auspices of the British.

The 14 July Revolution, also known as the 1958 Iraqi coup d'état, took place on 14 July 1958 in Iraq, and resulted in the overthrow of the Hashemite monarchy in Iraq that had been established by King Faisal I in 1921 under the auspices of the British.

Abdul Salam Arif and Abd al-Karim Qasim, the leaders of the revolution
Leaders of the 14 July 1958 revolution in Iraq, including Khaled al-Naqshabendi (front row, left), Abd as-Salam Arif (back row, second from left), Abd al-Karim Qasim (back row, third from left) and Muhammad Najib ar-Ruba'i (back row, fifth from left). Also included is Michel Aflaq (front row, first from right).
The mutilated corpses of Prince 'Abd al-Ilah of Hejaz (left) and Prime Minister Nuri al-Said (right). Arabic text: "Prince 'Abd al-Ilah hung and cut up by shawerma knives, Pasha Nuri al-Said pulled around."
Crowd of men and soldiers in downtown Amman, Jordan, watching a news report about the deposition, 14 July 1958

Abd al-Karim Qasim seized power as Prime Minister until 1963, when he was overthrown and killed in the Ramadan Revolution.

Similarly, Pan-Arab sentiment grew across the Arab world and was promoted by Egypt's Gamel Abdel Nasser, a rising politician and staunch opponent of imperialism.

Nuri al-Said

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Iraqi politician during the British mandate in Iraq and the Hashemite Kingdom of Iraq.

Iraqi politician during the British mandate in Iraq and the Hashemite Kingdom of Iraq.

Emir Faisal's delegation at the Palace of Versailles during the Paris Peace Conference (1919–1920). Nuri is positioned second from the left. Left to right: Rustam Haidar, Nuri al-Said, Prince Faisal, Captain Rosario Pisani (behind Faisal), Colonel T. E. Lawrence, unnamed slave of Prince Faisal, Captain Tahsin Kadry.

The political situation deteriorated in 1956, when Israel, France and Britain colluded in an invasion of Egypt, in response to the nationalisation of the Suez Canal by President Gamal Abdel Nasser.

Instead they moved on Baghdad, and on that day, Colonels Abd al-Karim Qasim and Abdul Salam Arif seized control of the country and ordered the Royal Family to evacuate the Rihab Palace in Baghdad.

Damaged Egyptian vehicles

Suez Crisis

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The Suez Crisis, or the Second Arab–Israeli war, also called the Tripartite Aggression (العدوان الثلاثي) in the Arab world and the Sinai War in Israel,

The Suez Crisis, or the Second Arab–Israeli war, also called the Tripartite Aggression (العدوان الثلاثي) in the Arab world and the Sinai War in Israel,

Damaged Egyptian vehicles
The location of the Suez Canal, which connects the Mediterranean and the Indian Ocean via the Red Sea.
Port Said, at the entrance to the Suez Canal from the Mediterranean.
Australian Prime Minister Robert Menzies led an international committee in negotiations with Nasser in September 1956, which sought to achieve international management of the Suez Canal. The mission was a failure.
Israeli AMX-13, shown here from the rear and side
Anglo-French para drops on the Suez Canal and Israeli conquest of Sinai
Israeli M4A4 Shermans were also used in the Sinai campaign.
An Israeli Air Force Meteor in flight
Israeli paratrooper near the Mitla Pass
Israeli soldiers in the Sinai wave at a passing French plane
Israeli paratroopers dig in near the Parker Memorial
Israeli AMX-13 Light tank
Ibrahim el Awal after its capture by the Israeli Navy
A battle-damaged de Havilland Sea Venom on
A Hawker Sea Hawk of 899 Naval Air Squadron, armed with rockets, about to be launched from the aircraft carrier HMS Eagle for a strike on an Egyptian airfield
Smoke rises from oil tanks beside the Suez Canal hit during the initial Anglo-French assault on Port Said, 5 November 1956.
Troops of the Parachute Regiment escort a captured Egyptian soldier at Port Said
2ème RPC paratroopers patrol in Port Said, October 1956
A British link up between the 3rd Battalion, The Parachute Regiment, and the Commandos at the Coast Guard barracks in Port Said. The paratroopers have with them a captured SU-100 tank destroyer, and the Commandos a Buffalo amphibious assault vehicle.
Presidents Eisenhower and Nasser meeting in New York, 1960
Statue of Ferdinand de Lesseps (a Frenchman who built the Suez Canal) was removed following the nationalisation of the Suez Canal in 1956.
An Israeli soldier stands next to an Egyptian gun that had blocked the Tiran Straits.

The aims were to regain control of the Suez Canal for the Western powers and to remove Egyptian president Gamal Abdel Nasser, who had just swiftly nationalised the foreign-owned Suez Canal Company, which administered the canal.

Britain intervened successfully in Jordan to put down riots that threatened the rule of King Hussein in 1958 and in 1961 deployed troops to Kuwait to successfully deter an Iraqi invasion; the latter deployment had been a response to the threats of the Iraqi dictator General Abd al-Karim Qasim that he would invade and annex Kuwait.

King Hussein in 1997

Hussein of Jordan

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King of Jordan from 11 August 1952 until his death in 1999.

King of Jordan from 11 August 1952 until his death in 1999.

King Hussein in 1997
Hussein (age six) and his mother, Zein al-Sharaf, 1941
Hussein (age eleven) seen behind his grandfather King Abdullah I after the independence of Jordan was declared, 25 May 1946.
King Hussein in royal ceremonial dress, 1953
Hussein addressing his troops in 1956, as Ali Abu Nuwar, the army chief of staff, who in 1957 was involved in an alleged coup attempt, observes.
Hussein receiving a warm welcome from his troops, 1 March 1957
Hussein with his cousin King Faisal II (left) of the Kingdom of Iraq, 1957. In February 1958, the two Hashemite Kingdoms formed the Arab Federation that lasted until Faisal was deposed in a bloody coup on 14 July 1958.
Smoke rising out of the Jordanian Prime Ministry building after the explosion that killed Prime Minister Hazza' Majali on 29 August 1960.
King Hussein and Egyptian president Gamal Abdel Nasser at the 1964 Arab League Summit in Egypt, 11 September 1964
Hussein flying over the Dome of the Rock in East Jerusalem when the West Bank was under Jordanian control, 1964
Hussein after checking an abandoned Israeli tank in the aftermath of the Battle of Karameh, 21 March 1968.
Hussein in a meeting during Black September with Prime Minister Wasfi Tal (right) and Army Chief of Staff Habis Majali (left), 17 September 1970
Hussein addressing crowds in Mafraq through his car's megaphone, 12 July 1974
Hussein with American president Jimmy Carter, Iranian Shah Mohammad Reza Pahlavi and Shahbanou Farah (from left to right), 31 December 1977
Hussein flying an airplane with Brunei Sultan Hassanal Bolkiah, 1984
1990 Iraqi stamp of the Arab Cooperation Council, showing President Ali Abdullah Saleh of Yemen, King Hussein of Jordan, president Saddam Hussein of Iraq, and president Husni Mubarak of Egypt (from left to right)
Hussein meeting with American president George H. W. Bush on 12 March 1992
Hussein shakes hands with Israeli Prime Minister Yitzhak Rabin during the Washington declaration that ended the "state of belligerency" as American President Bill Clinton observes, 13 September 1994.
Hussein during a press conference at the White House with American secretary of Defense William Cohen, 2 April 1997
Royal Jordanian 1 is escorted on 4 February 1999 by an F-16 of the Minnesota Air National Guard during King Hussein's return to Jordan. He died 3 days later.
Mourners line up along Zahran street in Amman on 8 February 1999 as royal motorcade transported King's coffin.
Hussein inaugurating a police station in Amman with Prime Minister Suleiman Nabulsi to his right, 24 December 1956
Hussein inaugurating the East Ghor Canal in 1961
Hussein dancing the dabkeh with Bedouins in the Jordanian Badia, 1960
King Hussein and Queen Dina at their wedding on 19 April 1955 at Raghadan Palace
King Hussein and Princess Muna with their sons Prince Abdullah and Prince Faisal in 1964

The 1955 Baghdad Pact was a Western attempt to form a Middle Eastern alliance to counter Soviet influence and Gamal Abdel Nasser's Egypt.

The Iraqi brigade's departure to Jordan gave the conspirators in Iraq, led by Brigadier Abd al-Karim Qasim, the opportunity to strike.

United Arab Republic

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Sovereign state in the Middle East from 1958 until 1971.

Sovereign state in the Middle East from 1958 until 1971.

Nasser shaking hands with al-Bizri
Nasser signing unity pact with Syrian president Shukri al-Quwatli, forming the United Arab Republic, February 1, 1958
Nasser addressing the masses in Damascus, 1960
Nasser and Sarraj in Latakia, 1959

The republic was led by Egyptian President Gamal Abdel Nasser.

Although most members of the Iraqi Revolutionary Command Council (RCC) favoured joining Iraq with the UAR, the new prime minister Abdel Karim Qasim disagreed.

Arif in the 1960s

Abdul Salam Arif

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The second president of Iraq from 1963 until his death in a plane crash in 1966.

The second president of Iraq from 1963 until his death in a plane crash in 1966.

Arif in the 1960s
Arab leaders at the 1964 Arab League summit in Alexandria. From left to right: Hussein of Jordan, Gamal Abdel Nasser, Arif, Habib Bourguiba and Hassan II of Morocco

Along with Abdel Karim Qasim and other Iraqi military officers, Arif was a member of the clandestine organisation, the Free Officers of Iraq.

The former supported a union with the United Arab Republic (UAR)—composed of Egypt and Syria—under president Gamal Abdel Nasser, but the latter opposed merging with the UAR.

Photograph by Cecil Beaton

'Abd al-Ilah

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Cousin and brother-in-law of King Ghazi of Iraq.

Cousin and brother-in-law of King Ghazi of Iraq.

Photograph by Cecil Beaton
Photograph by Cecil Beaton
'Abd al-Ilah (holding hat) at Mount Vernon in 1945

It was the Saudi king's first ever visit to Iraq, and it commemorated Iraq's membership in the Arab Federation and its break with the United Arab Republic of Gamal Abdel Nasser.

On 14 July 1958, a coup d'état led by Colonel Abd al-Karim Qasim toppled the government and brought an end to the Iraqi monarchy.