Abdominal obesity

central obesitybeer bellypot bellylove handleslove handlepotbellyabdominalabdominal adiposityabdominal fatbeer gut
Abdominal obesity, also known as central obesity, occurs when excessive abdominal fat around the stomach and abdomen has built up to the extent that it is likely to have a negative impact on health.wikipedia
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Cushing's syndrome

hyperadrenocorticismhypercortisolismCushing syndrome
Central obesity is a symptom of Cushing's syndrome and is also common in patients with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS).
Signs and symptoms may include high blood pressure, abdominal obesity but with thin arms and legs, reddish stretch marks, a round red face, a fat lump between the shoulders, weak muscles, weak bones, acne, and fragile skin that heals poorly.

Insulin resistance

insulin sensitivityresistantinsulin resistant
Central obesity is associated with a statistically higher risk of heart disease, hypertension, insulin resistance, and type 2 diabetes (see below).
The tendency to store fat preferentially in the abdomen (also known as "abdominal obesity)", as opposed to storing it in hips and thighs

Polycystic ovary syndrome

PCOSpolycystic ovariespolycystic ovarian syndrome
Central obesity is a symptom of Cushing's syndrome and is also common in patients with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS).
Metabolic syndrome: This appears as a tendency towards central obesity and other symptoms associated with insulin resistance. Serum insulin, insulin resistance, and homocysteine levels are higher in women with PCOS.

Metabolic syndrome

syndrome XCardio metabolic riskinsulin resistance
In the cohort of 15,000 people participating in the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES III), waist circumference explained obesity-related health risk better than the body mass index (or BMI) when metabolic syndrome was taken as an outcome measure and this difference was statistically significant.
Metabolic syndrome, sometimes known by other names, is a clustering of at least three of the five following medical conditions: central obesity, high blood pressure, high blood sugar, high serum triglycerides, and low serum high-density lipoprotein (HDL).

Adipose tissue

adiposebody fatfat
Abdominal obesity, also known as central obesity, occurs when excessive abdominal fat around the stomach and abdomen has built up to the extent that it is likely to have a negative impact on health. Increased adiposity (obesity) raises serum resistin levels, which in turn directly correlate to insulin resistance. Sit-ups, crunches and other abdominal exercises are useful in building the abdominal muscles, but they have little effect, if any, on the adipose tissue located there. Visceral fat, also known as organ fat or intra-abdominal fat, is located inside the peritoneal cavity, packed in between internal organs and torso, as opposed to subcutaneous fat, which is found underneath the skin, and intramuscular fat, which is found interspersed in skeletal muscle. Visceral fat is composed of several adipose depots including mesenteric, epididymal white adipose tissue (EWAT) and perirenal fat.
An excess of visceral fat is known as central obesity, or "belly fat", in which the abdomen protrudes excessively.

Classification of obesity

Body Volume Indexbody mass indexBVI
Recent validation has concluded that total and regional body volume estimates correlate positively and significantly with biomarkers of cardiovascular risk and BVI calculations correlate significantly with all biomarkers of cardio-vascular risk.
These measure a common form of obesity known as abdominal or central obesity, characterized by excess deposits of fat in the abdominal region and inside peritoneal cavity.

Waist–hip ratio

waist-hip ratiowaist-to-hip ratiowaist to hip ratio
Waist–hip ratio (the circumference of the waist divided by that of the hips of >0.9 for men and >0.85 for women)
The WHO states that abdominal obesity is defined as a waist-hip ratio above 0.90 for males and above 0.85 for females, or a body mass index (BMI) above 30.0.

Waist-to-height ratio

waist-to-height ratio WHtR
Waist-to-height ratio
Higher values of WHtR indicate higher risk of obesity-related cardiovascular diseases; it is correlated with abdominal obesity.

Resistin

Increased adiposity (obesity) raises serum resistin levels, which in turn directly correlate to insulin resistance.
Specifically, central obesity (waistline adipose tissue) seems to be the foremost region of adipose tissue contributing to rising levels of serum resistin.

Abdomen

abdominalabdominal musclesbelly
Sit-ups, crunches and other abdominal exercises are useful in building the abdominal muscles, but they have little effect, if any, on the adipose tissue located there.
Abdominal obesity is a condition where abdominal fat or visceral fat, has built up excessively between the abdominal organs.

Beer

brewing industrybeersbrewing
Several colloquial terms used to refer to central obesity, and to people who have it, refer to beer drinking.
It is considered that overeating and lack of muscle tone is the main cause of a beer belly, rather than beer consumption.

Obesity

obesemorbidly obeseoverweight
Central obesity has been strongly linked to cardiovascular disease, Alzheimer's disease, and other metabolic and vascular diseases.

Alzheimer's disease

AlzheimerAlzheimer’sAlzheimer’s disease
Central obesity has been strongly linked to cardiovascular disease, Alzheimer's disease, and other metabolic and vascular diseases.

Peritoneal cavity

peritonealperitoneal cavities
Visceral fat, also known as organ fat or intra-abdominal fat, is located inside the peritoneal cavity, packed in between internal organs and torso, as opposed to subcutaneous fat, which is found underneath the skin, and intramuscular fat, which is found interspersed in skeletal muscle.

Subcutaneous tissue

subcutaneoussubcutaneous fathypodermis
Visceral fat, also known as organ fat or intra-abdominal fat, is located inside the peritoneal cavity, packed in between internal organs and torso, as opposed to subcutaneous fat, which is found underneath the skin, and intramuscular fat, which is found interspersed in skeletal muscle.

Skin

cutaneousskin cellanimal skin
Visceral fat, also known as organ fat or intra-abdominal fat, is located inside the peritoneal cavity, packed in between internal organs and torso, as opposed to subcutaneous fat, which is found underneath the skin, and intramuscular fat, which is found interspersed in skeletal muscle.

Intramuscular fat

Visceral fat, also known as organ fat or intra-abdominal fat, is located inside the peritoneal cavity, packed in between internal organs and torso, as opposed to subcutaneous fat, which is found underneath the skin, and intramuscular fat, which is found interspersed in skeletal muscle.

Skeletal muscle

skeletal musclesskeletalmuscle
Visceral fat, also known as organ fat or intra-abdominal fat, is located inside the peritoneal cavity, packed in between internal organs and torso, as opposed to subcutaneous fat, which is found underneath the skin, and intramuscular fat, which is found interspersed in skeletal muscle.

Mesentery

mesentericmesenteriestransverse mesocolon
Visceral fat is composed of several adipose depots including mesenteric, epididymal white adipose tissue (EWAT) and perirenal fat.

Epididymis

epididymidesepididymalepididymectomy
Visceral fat is composed of several adipose depots including mesenteric, epididymal white adipose tissue (EWAT) and perirenal fat.

Adipose capsule of kidney

perinephricperirenalperirenal fat
Visceral fat is composed of several adipose depots including mesenteric, epididymal white adipose tissue (EWAT) and perirenal fat.

Dyslipidemia

dyslipidaemiaabnormal lipid levelsabnormal cholesterol levels
Researchers first started to focus on abdominal obesity in the 1980s when they realized it had an important connection to cardiovascular disease, diabetes, and dyslipidemia.

CT scan

computed tomographyCTcomputerized tomography
Techniques such as computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging made it possible to categorize mass of adipose tissue located at the abdominal level into intra-abdominal fat and subcutaneous fat.

Magnetic resonance imaging

MRImagnetic resonance imaging (MRI)magnetic resonance
Techniques such as computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging made it possible to categorize mass of adipose tissue located at the abdominal level into intra-abdominal fat and subcutaneous fat.