A report on QuebecNew York (state) and Abenaki

<center>Western Abenaki (Arsigantegok, Missisquoi, Cowasuck, Sokoki, Pennacook)</center>
<center>Eastern Abenaki (Penobscot, Kennebec, Arosaguntacook, Pigwacket/Pequawket)</center>
A depiction of Jacques Cartier by Théophile Hamel, 1844
New York was dominated by Iroquoian (purple) and Algonquian (pink) tribes.
Abenaki teepee with birch bark covering.
Three Huron-Wyandot chiefs from Wendake. New France had largely peaceful relations with the Indigenous people, such as their allies the Huron. After the defeat of the Huron by their mutual enemy, the Iroquois, many fled from Ontario to Quebec.
New Amsterdam, present-day Lower Manhattan, 1660
Flag of Missisquoi Abenaki Tribe, a state-recognized tribe in Vermont
Montcalm leading his troops into battle. Watercolour by Charles William Jefferys.
New York and neighboring provinces, by Claude Joseph Sauthier, 1777
Statue of Keewakwa Abenaki Keenahbeh in Opechee Park in Laconia, New Hampshire (standing at 36 ft.)
The Province of Quebec in 1774
British general John Burgoyne surrenders at Saratoga in 1777
<center>Miꞌkmaq</center>
The Battle of Saint-Eustache was the final battle of the Lower Canada Rebellion.
1800 map of New York from Low's Encyclopaedia
<center>Maliseet,
George-Étienne Cartier, creator of the Quebec state and premier of Canada East
The Erie Canal at Lockport, New York, in 1839
Maurice Duplessis, premier of Quebec from 1936 to 1939 and during the Grande Noirceur
Flight 175 hitting the South Tower on September11, 2001
"Maîtres chez nous" was the electoral slogan of the Liberal Party during the 1962 election.
Flooding on AvenueC in Lower Manhattan caused by Hurricane Sandy
René Lévesque, one of the architects of the Quiet Revolution, and the Premier of Quebec's first modern sovereignist government
New York is bordered by six U.S. states, two Great Lakes, and the Canadian provinces of Ontario and Quebec.
Map of Quebec
Enveloped by the Atlantic Ocean and Long Island Sound, New York City and Long Island alone are home to about eleven million residents conjointly.
Michel's falls on Ashuapmushuan River in Saint-Félicien, Saguenay–Lac-Saint-Jean
Lake-effect snow is a major contributor to heavy snowfall totals in western New York, including the Tug Hill region.
Köppen climate types of Quebec
Two major state parks (in green) are the Adirondack Park (north) and the Catskill Park (south).
Baie-Saint-Paul during winter
The Statue of Liberty in New York Harbor is a symbol of the United States and its ideals.
The Parliament Building in Quebec City
The African Burial Ground National Monument in Lower Manhattan
The seventeen administrative regions of Quebec.
Map of the counties in New York
The Édifice Ernest-Cormier is the courthouse for the Quebec Court of Appeal in Montreal
New York population distribution map. New York's population is primarily concentrated in the Greater New York area, including New York City and Long Island.
The Basilica of Sainte-Anne-de-Beaupré
The Stonewall Inn in the gay village of Greenwich Village, Lower Manhattan, site of the June 1969 Stonewall riots, the cradle of the modern LGBT rights movement
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Map of aboriginal communities in Quebec, this includes reserves, settlements and northern villages.
The main laboratory building of the IBM Watson Research Center is located in Yorktown Heights, New York.
The Institut national de la recherche scientifique helps to advance scientific knowledge and to train a new generation of students in various scientific and technological sectors.
Times Square in Midtown Manhattan, hub of the Broadway theater district, a media center, and one of the world's busiest pedestrian intersections
Quebec's exports to the international market. The United States is the country which buys the most Québécois exports by far. (2011)
"I Love New York"
The Beauharnois generating station, operated by Hydro-Québec
CMA CGM Theodore Roosevelt, the largest container ship to enter the Port of New York and New Jersey as of September7, 2017
A mockup of the Airbus A220 (formerly the Bombardier CSeries), originally developed by Bombardier Aerospace
Harris Hall of the City College of New York, a public college of the City University of New York
The Château Frontenac is the most photographed hotel in the world.
Butler Library at Columbia University
In 1969, Héroux-Devtek designed and manufactured the undercarriage of the Apollo Lunar Module.
University of Rochester
The ferry N.M. Camille-Marcoux, of the Société des traversiers du Québec
South campus of the University at Buffalo, the flagship of the State University of New York
The show Dralion, Cirque du Soleil, introduced in 2004
The New York City Subway is one of the world's busiest, serving more than five million passengers per average weekday.
La chasse-galerie (1906) by Henri Julien, showing a scene from a popular Quebec folk legend.
Grand Central Terminal in New York City
La Cavalière by Charles Daudelin, 1963, installed in front of the pavilion Gérard Morisset of the Quebec National Museum of Fine Arts in Quebec City
John F. Kennedy Airport in Queens, the busiest international air passenger gateway to the United States
Maison Routhier in Sainte-Foy. This kind of Canadien-style house remains a symbol of Canadien nationalism.
The New York State Capitol in Albany
A classic poutine from La Banquise in Montreal
New York State Court of Appeals
The Montreal Canadiens at the Bell Centre
Kirsten Gillibrand and Chuck Schumer, New York's U.S. Senators
St-Jean-Baptiste Day celebrations at Maisonneuve park in Montréal
Kathy Hochul (D), the 57th Governor of New York
The Fleurdelisé flying at Place d'Armes in Montreal
Yankee Stadium in The Bronx
Canada in the 18th century.
Koppen climate of New York
The Province of Quebec from 1763 to 1783.
Lower Canada from 1791 to 1841. (Patriots' War in 1837, Canada East in 1841)
Quebec from 1867 to 1927.
Quebec today. Quebec (in blue) has a border dispute with Labrador (in red).
Different forest areas of Quebec. 1. Middle Arctic Tundra
2. Low Arctic Tundra
3. Torngat Mountain Tundra
4. Eastern Canadian Shield Taiga
5. Southern Hudson Bay Taiga
6. Central Canadian Shield Forests
7. Eastern Canadian Forests
8. Eastern Forest/Boreal Transition
9. Eastern Great Lakes Lowland Forests
10. New England/Acadian Forests
11. Gulf of St. Lawrence Lowland Forests

The Eastern Abenaki language was predominantly spoken in Maine, while the Western Abenaki language was spoken in Quebec, Vermont, and New Hampshire.

- Abenaki

Located in Central Canada, the province shares land borders with Ontario to the west, Newfoundland and Labrador to the northeast, New Brunswick to the southeast, and a coastal border with Nunavut; in the south it borders Maine, New Hampshire, Vermont, and New York in the United States.

- Quebec

The state of New York is bordered by New Jersey and Pennsylvania to the south, and Connecticut, Massachusetts, and Vermont to the east; it has a maritime border with Rhode Island, east of Long Island, as well as an international border with the Canadian provinces of Quebec to the north and Ontario to the northwest.

- New York (state)

At the time of the European explorations of the 1500s, there were eleven Indigenous peoples: the Inuit and ten First Nations – the Abenakis, Algonquins (or Anichinabés), Atikamekw, Cree, Huron-Wyandot, Maliseet (also known as Wolastoqiyik or Etchemin), Miꞌkmaqs, Iroquois, Innu (or Montagnais) and Naskapis.

- Quebec

After the death of their leader, Chief Philip Metacomet, most of those peoples fled inland, splitting into the Abenaki and the Schaghticoke.

- New York (state)

Tribal members are working to revive the Abenaki language at Odanak (means "in the village"), a First Nations Abenaki reserve near Pierreville, Quebec, and throughout New Hampshire, Vermont, and New York state.

- Abenaki

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Vermont

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State in the New England region of the United States.

State in the New England region of the United States.

The Old Constitution House at Windsor, where the Constitution of Vermont was adopted on July 8, 1777
A circa 1775 flag used by the Green Mountain Boys
The gold leaf dome of the neoclassical Vermont State House (Capitol) in Montpelier
1791 Act of Congress admitting Vermont into the Union
Vermont in 1827. The county boundaries have since changed.
Map of Vermont showing cities, roads, and rivers
Population density of Vermont
Mount Mansfield
Western face of Camel's Hump Mountain (elevation 4079 ft).
Fall foliage at Lake Willoughby
Köppen climate types of Vermont, using 1991–2020 climate normals.
Silurian and Devonian stratigraphy of Vermont
The hermit thrush, the state bird of Vermont
A proportional representation of Vermont exports, 2020
Fall foliage seen from Hogback Mountain, Wilmington
Lake Champlain
Autumn in Vermont
Stowe Resort Village
The Lyndon Institute, a high school in Lyndon, Vermont
The University of Vermont
Old Mill, the oldest building of the university
Vermont welcome sign in Addison on Route 17 just over the New York border over the Champlain Bridge
Amtrak station in White River Junction
The Vermont Yankee Nuclear Power Plant, in Vernon
The Vermont Supreme Court's building in Montpelier
Vermont towns hold a March town meeting for voters to approve the town's budget and decide other matters. Marlboro voters meet in this building.
Senators Bernie Sanders and Patrick Leahy and Representative Peter Welch greet supporters in 2017.
Vermontasaurus sculpture in Post Mills, in 2010

It borders the states of Massachusetts to the south, New Hampshire to the east, and New York to the west, and the Canadian province of Quebec to the north.

The historically competitive tribes of the Algonquian-speaking Abenaki and Iroquoian-speaking Mohawk were active in the area at the time of European encounter.

New England

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Region comprising six states in the Northeastern United States: Connecticut, Maine, Massachusetts, New Hampshire, Rhode Island, and Vermont.

Region comprising six states in the Northeastern United States: Connecticut, Maine, Massachusetts, New Hampshire, Rhode Island, and Vermont.

Indigenous territories, circa 1600 in present-day southern New England
Soldier and explorer John Smith coined the name "New England" in 1616.
A 1638 engraving depicting the Mystic massacre
An English map of New England c. 1670 depicts the area around modern Portsmouth, New Hampshire.
The New England Ensign, one of several flags historically associated with New England. This flag was reportedly used by colonial merchant ships sailing out of New England ports, 1686 – c. 1737.
New England's Siege of Louisbourg (1745) by Peter Monamy
The Slater Mill Historic Site in Pawtucket, Rhode Island
Bread and Roses Strike. Massachusetts National Guard troops surround unarmed strikers in Lawrence, Massachusetts, 1912.
Autumn in New England, watercolor, Maurice Prendergast, c.1910–1913
Cambridge, Massachusetts, has a high concentration of startups and technology companies.
A political and geographical map of New England shows the coastal plains in the southeast, and hills, mountains and valleys in the west and the north.
A portion of the north-central Pioneer Valley in Sunderland, Massachusetts
Köppen climate types in New England
The White Mountains of New Hampshire are part of the Appalachian Mountains.
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Montpelier, Vermont, is the smallest state capital in the United States.
Largest self-reported ancestry groups in New England. Americans of Irish descent form a plurality in most of Massachusetts, while Americans of English descent form a plurality in much of the central parts of Vermont and New Hampshire as well as nearly all of Maine.
World's largest Irish flag in Boston. People who claim Irish descent constitute the largest ethnic group in New England.
Southeastern New England is home to a number of Lusophone ethnic enclaves.
The Port of Portland in Portland, Maine, is the largest tonnage seaport in New England.
The Hartford headquarters of Aetna is housed in a 1931 Colonial Revival building.
A plowed field in Bethel, Vermont
Seabrook Station Nuclear Power Plant in Seabrook, New Hampshire
A New England town meeting in Huntington, Vermont
Flag of the New England Governor's Conference (NEGC)
Alumni Hall at Saint Anselm College has served as a backdrop for media reports during the New Hampshire primary.
New England is home to four of the eight Ivy League universities. Pictured here is Harvard Yard of Harvard University.
Phillips Exeter Academy and Phillips Academy are two prestigious New England secondary schools founded in the late 18th century
Flag of New England flying in Massachusetts. New Englanders maintain a strong sense of regional and cultural identity.
A classic New England Congregational church in Peacham, Vermont
Boston's Symphony Hall is the home of the Boston Symphony Orchestra—the second-oldest of the Big Five American symphony orchestras.
New England regionalist poet Robert Frost
Wes Anderson's Moonrise Kingdom is set on a fictional New England island and was largely filmed in Rhode Island
Museum of Fine Arts, Boston
A Hartford Line Train at Hartford Union Station
The MBTA Commuter Rail serves eastern Massachusetts and parts of Rhode Island, radiating from downtown Boston, with planned service to New Hampshire. The CTrail system operates the Shore Line East and Hartford Line, covering coastal Connecticut, Hartford, and Springfield, Massachusetts.
1. Boston, Massachusetts
2. Worcester, Massachusetts
3. Providence, Rhode Island
4. Springfield, Massachusetts
5. Bridgeport, Connecticut
6. Stamford, Connecticut
7. New Haven, Connecticut
8. Hartford, Connecticut
9. Cambridge, Massachusetts
10. Manchester, New Hampshire
Harvard vs. Yale football game in 2003
Fenway Park
Bill Russell and Red Auerbach of the Boston Celtics
The New England Patriots are the most popular professional sports team in New England.
The Middlebury College rowing team in the 2007 Head of the Charles Regatta
Köppen climate types in New England

It is bordered by the state of New York to the west and by the Canadian provinces of New Brunswick to the northeast and Quebec to the north.

Prominent tribes included the Abenakis, Mi'kmaq, Penobscot, Pequots, Mohegans, Narragansetts, Pocumtucks, and Wampanoag.

Map of Mohawk River

Mohawk people

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The Mohawk people are the most easterly section of the Haudenosaunee, or Iroquois Confederacy.

The Mohawk people are the most easterly section of the Haudenosaunee, or Iroquois Confederacy.

Map of Mohawk River
Kanienʼkehá:ka dancer at a pow wow in 2015
Contemporary Quebec Kanienʼkehá꞉ka dance performance at Wikimania 2017
Teyoninhokovrawen (John Norton) played a prominent role in the War of 1812, leading Iroquois warriors from Grand River into battle against Americans. Norton was part Cherokee and part Scottish.
Pauline Johnson, Mohawk writer

They are an Iroquoian-speaking Indigenous people of North America, with communities in southeastern Canada and northern New York State, primarily around Lake Ontario and the St. Lawrence River.

Their territory ranged north to the St. Lawrence River, southern Quebec and eastern Ontario; south to greater New Jersey and into Pennsylvania; eastward to the Green Mountains of Vermont; and westward to the border with the Iroquoian Oneida Nation's traditional homeland territory.

During the late seventeenth and early eighteenth centuries, the Mohawk and Algonquian and Abenaki First Nations in New England were involved in raids conducted by the French and English against each other's settlements during Queen Anne's War and other conflicts.

St. Lawrence River

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Large river in the middle latitudes of North America, flowing from Lake Ontario in a roughly northeasterly direction into the Gulf of St. Lawrence, connecting the Great Lakes to the North Atlantic Ocean and forming the primary drainage outflow of the Great Lakes Basin.

Large river in the middle latitudes of North America, flowing from Lake Ontario in a roughly northeasterly direction into the Gulf of St. Lawrence, connecting the Great Lakes to the North Atlantic Ocean and forming the primary drainage outflow of the Great Lakes Basin.

The Champlain Sea
Map of 1543 showing Cartier's discoveries
Basque settlements and sites dating from the 16th and 17th centuries
A watercolour painting by Elizabeth Simcoe created [ca. 1792] depicting a bend in the St. Lawrence River, Quebec from the Simcoe Family fonds held at the Archives of Ontario.
Watching fin whales off Tadoussac

The river traverses the Canadian provinces of Ontario and Quebec as well as the U.S. state of New York, and is part of the international boundary between Canada and the United States.

Innu-aimun, the language of Nitassinan, refers to it as Wepistukujaw Sipo/Wepìstùkwiyaht sīpu; the Abenaki call it Moliantegok/Moliantekw ("Montréal River"), Kchitegw/Ktsitekw/Gicitegw ("Great River"), or Oss8genaizibo/Ws8genaisibo/Wsogenaisibo ("River of the Algonquins"); the Mohawk refer to it in Kanienʼkéha as Roiatatokenti, Raoteniateara, Ken’tarókwen, or Kaniatarowanénhne; the Tuscarora call it Kahnawáˀkye or Kaniatarowanenneh ("Big Water Current"); the Algonquins (or Omàmiwininiwak) call it "the Walking Path" or Magtogoek or Kitcikanii sipi, the "Large Water River"; the Huron-Wendats refer to it as Lada8anna or Laooendaooena; and, the Atikamekw of Nitaskinan refer to it as Micta sipi ("Huge River").

Pre-contact distribution of Algonquian languages

Algonquian peoples

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The Algonquian are one of the most populous and widespread North American native language groups.

The Algonquian are one of the most populous and widespread North American native language groups.

Pre-contact distribution of Algonquian languages
A 16th-century sketch of the Algonquian village of Pomeiock.

At the time of the first European settlements in North America, Algonquian peoples occupied what is now New Brunswick, and much of what is now Canada east of the Rocky Mountains; what is now New England, New Jersey, southeastern New York, Delaware and down the Atlantic Coast through the Upper South; and around the Great Lakes in present-day Minnesota, Wisconsin, Michigan, Illinois, Indiana and Iowa.

Abenaki of New Hampshire, Maine and Vermont.

Maliseet of New Brunswick and Quebec.