In linguistics, abessive (abbreviated or ), caritive and privative (abbreviated ) is the grammatical case expressing the lack or absence of the marked noun.wikipedia
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In linguistics, abessive (abbreviated or ), caritive and privative (abbreviated ) is the grammatical case expressing the lack or absence of the marked noun.
In the Finnish language, the abessive case is marked by -tta for back vowels and -ttä for front vowels according to vowel harmony.
Caritives are also used in such examples as hyppimättä "without jumping" and hyppelemättä "without jumping around".
Skolt SamiSkolt SámiSkolt
The abessive marker for nouns in Skolt Sámi is -tää or -taa in both the singular and the plural:
Using the abessive and the comitative singular in a word appears to disrupt this system, however, in words of more than one syllable.
There is debate as to whether this is interference from Estonian.
In Estonian, nouns and pronouns do not have grammatical gender, but nouns and adjectives decline in fourteen cases: nominative, genitive, partitive, illative, inessive, elative, allative, adessive, ablative, translative, terminative, essive, abessive, and comitative, with the case and number of the adjective(s) always agreeing with that of the noun (except in the terminative, essive, abessive and comitative, where there is agreement only for the number, the adjective being in the genitive form).
Inari SamiInari SámiInari
The abessive marker for nouns in Inari Sámi is -táá. The corresponding non-finite verb form is -hánnáá, -hinnáá or -hennáá.
In Chuvash the suffix is -сĂр.
Abessive (without), formed by adding -сӑр/-сӗр according to the vowel harmony
Abessive case -
In addition to affirmative participles, Udmurt also has caritive participles.
RussiangrammarRussian basic (unprefixed) verbs of motion
Caritive, used with the negation of verbs: не знать пра́вды (not know the truth) – знать пра́вду (know the truth). This case sometimes is identical to the genitive and sometimes to the accusative.
Finnishinflected pluralnegative verb
|| abessive (abessiivi) || -tta || without || talotta || without (a) house
In addition to affirmative participles, Komi also has a caritive participle.
that of EstonianLocative cases
The only Estonian semantic cases not included in this system are the terminative (which even might be called locative), and the pair of abessive and comitative.
consonant gradation in EstonianEstoniangrammar of Estonian
Rajabov suggests 3 more syntactical cases, namely possessive 1 (-łay), possessive 2 (-xu) and abessive (-tay). However, their status is debatable, as they seem to show both inflectional as well as derivational tendencies.
Akkala SamiSami, Akkalasia
Akkala Sami has 8 cases, singular and plural: nominative, genitive-accusative, partitive, dative-illative, locative, essive, comitative and abessive.
Hill Mari has these cases, plus the abessive case (of the form -де), which is used to form adverbials stating without the involvement or influence of which an action happens.
The cases included the core cases nominative, accusative and genitive; the local cases inessive, elative, illative; as well as essive, partitive, comitative and abessive.
Pite SamiPite Saamisje
binā̃ - abessive marker; "without"
Caritive (or abessive), used to code the absence of something.
In terms of inflection on nouns, Votic has two numbers (singular, plural), and 16 cases: nominative, genitive, accusative (distinct for pronouns), partitive, illative, inessive, elative, allative, adessive, ablative, translative, essive, exessive, abessive, comitative, terminative.