Abkhazia

The Kingdom of Abkhazia was united through dynastic succession with the newly formed Kingdom of Georgia in 1008 when Bagrat II of Abkhazia became Bagrat III of Georgia.
The borders of the Sukhumi District of the Kutaisi Governorate in 1899 when Abkhazia was part of the Russian Empire.
Abkhaz and Georgian generals in the Imperial Russian Army, 19th century
Map of the Soviet Caucasus (1957–91) showing the Abkhaz ASSR within the Georgian SSR.
Georgian Civil War and the War in Abkhazia in August–October 1993
Exhibition at the 2005 commemoration of the ethnic cleansing in Abkhazia, held on its 12th anniversary in Tbilisi.
Abkhazians carrying the republic's flags in a parade.
Seaside in Pitsunda, Abkhazia in 2006
Map of Georgia highlighting Abkhazia (green) and South Ossetia (purple).
The Russian embassy in Sukhumi
Dmitry Medvedev (centre, with dark tie) visited the Russian military base in Gudauta in 2010
The leaders of Abkhazia, Russia and South Ossetia, shortly after the 2008 war. Left to right: South Ossetian President Eduard Kokoity; Russian President Dmitry Medvedev; Russian Foreign Minister Sergey Lavrov; Abkhazian President Sergei Bagapsh.
Border checkpoint on the Psou River
The breakaway republics of Abkhazia, South Ossetia and Nagorno-Karabakh within the Caucasus region
Abkhazian President Alexander Ankvab with Transnistrian President Yevgeny Shevchuk in September 2013
"View of Mount Agepsta and Turyi gory (Tur Mountains) from the top of Kamennyi Stolb, Aibga Ridge.", 2014.
View from Pitsunda cape
Logo of the Government of the Autonomous Republic of Abkhazia.
1) Gagra
2) Gudauta
3) Sukhumi
4) Gulripshi
5) Ochamchira
6) Tkvarcheli
7) Gali
Beach in Gagra in May 2014
New Athos monastery in Abkhazia
Russian Drama Theatre. Sukhumi, Abkhazia.
Daur Akhvlediani Stadium, Gagra

De facto state in the South Caucasus, recognised by most countries as part of Georgia, which views the region as an autonomous republic.

- Abkhazia

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Abkhazians

Bagrat III of Georgia, 11th century king of the Kingdom of Abkhazia
Conference of Abkhazian nobility in 1839
Abkhaz girl in 1881
Pitsunda Cathedral, seat of Abkhazian Orthodox Church

Abkhazians, or Abkhazs (Аԥсуаа, ), are a Northwest Caucasian ethnic group, mainly living in Abkhazia, a disputed region on the northeastern coast of the Black Sea.

War in Abkhazia (1992–1993)

Fought between Georgian government forces for the most part and Abkhaz separatist forces, Russian government armed forces and North Caucasian militants between 1992 and 1993.

A map of the conflict region
Events of the war in August 1992 – October 1992
Events of the war in October 1992 – August 1993
Events of the war in August 1993 – October 1993
The 12th anniversary of ethnic cleansing in Abkhazia, which was held in Tbilisi in 2005. One of the visitors of the gallery recognized her dead son on the photograph
"Monument to the heroes, who fell fighting for the territorial integrity of Georgia", Tbilisi
The names of Abkhaz troops and their allies killed in action during the war are inscribed on the "Alley of Glory" monument in Sukhumi
Ukrainian UNA - UNSO volunteers in Georgia

Ethnic Georgians who lived in Abkhazia fought largely on the side of Georgian government forces.

Abkhaz–Georgian conflict

"Чеченская молитва" (Chechen's prayer) by Mikhail Evstafiev depicts a Chechen man praying during the battle of Grozny in 1995.

The Abkhaz–Georgian conflict involves ethnic conflict between Georgians and the Abkhaz people in Abkhazia, a de facto independent, partially recognized republic.

Government of the Autonomous Republic of Abkhazia

Sukhumi, de jure capital of the Autonomous Republic of Abkhazia

The Government of the Autonomous Republic of Abkhazia is an administration recognized by Georgia as the legal and only government of Abkhazia.

Russo-Georgian War

Location of Georgia (including Abkhazia and South Ossetia) and Russian North Caucasus
Fragment of the 1856 map by J. H. Colton, showing the territory of modern South Ossetia within Georgia and Imeria. Modern North Ossetia corresponds to "Ossia" (Ossetia) in the North Caucasus. Ossetia became part of the Mountain ASSR in 1921 and was renamed into North Ossetia only in 1924.
Creation of the South Ossetian AO in the place of Georgian regions in 1922.
U.S. President George W. Bush and Georgian President Mikheil Saakashvili in Tbilisi, May 2005
Russian President Vladimir Putin at the 2008 Bucharest Summit
Situation in Georgia before the war
Russian BMP-2 from the 58th Army in South Ossetia
Destroyed Georgian tank in Tskhinvali
Nearly-intact Russian missile booster in a Gori house
Destroyed apartment houses after air raid of Russian army at Gori, picture taken 10 September 2008.
An air raid of the Russian army in August 2008 destroyed this house in Gori
"The Price of Independence", artwork on a residential building damaged by Russian strikes during the war in downtown Gori
Russian guided-missile ship 12341 Mirazh (Mirage) in Sevastopol
Joint press conference by Russian president Dmitry Medvedev and French President Nicolas Sarkozy after negotiations on the plan
Georgian police (left) and Russian soldiers evacuating destroyed Russian tank (right) after war of August 2008 (north of Gori, 10 October 2008).
Russian forces stayed in South Ossetia after the conflict, including at the Java base (pictured)
Sergey Bagapsh (left), Dmitry Medvedev (middle) and Eduard Kokoity (right) shortly after the recognition of Abkhazia and South Ossetia
BTC pipeline (green) and planned Nabucco gas pipeline (tangerine)
South Ossetian refugees in a camp in Alagir, North Ossetia
A burning house in the Georgian village of Kekhvi, on the road from Tskhinvali to Java.
After the Russian-Georgian war of August 2008, the construction of houses for refugees started very soon (near Gori, 10 October 2008)
Tserovani, one of the villages built by the Georgian government for IDPs from the conflict zone
US Secretary of State Condoleezza Rice and President of Georgia Mikheil Saakashvili at a Tbilisi press conference, August 2008
Georgian Coast Guard patrol boat P-24 Sokhumi passes the USS McFaul (DDG-74) on its arrival at the port of Batumi
Buk-M1 air defence system
Georgian DANA howitzer
Russian Tu-22M3

The 2008 Russo-Georgian War was a war between Georgia, on one side, and Russia and the Russian-backed self-proclaimed republics of South Ossetia and Abkhazia, on the other.

Parliament of Georgia

The Parliament of Georgia (საქართველოს პარლამენტი) the supreme national legislature of Georgia.

Members of the National Council of Georgia, after declaring independence of Georgia, Tbilisi May 26, 1918
A session hall of the Parliament of Georgia in Kutaisi
Main facade of the Georgian Parliament in Tbilisi

The Constitution of Georgia grants the Parliament of Georgia a central legislative power, which is limited by the legislatures of the autonomous republics of Adjara and Abkhazia.

South Caucasus

Geographical region on the border of Eastern Europe and Western Asia, straddling the southern Caucasus Mountains.

1994 map of Caucasus region prepared by the U.S. State Department
Possible definitions of the boundary between Europe and Asia on the territory of Georgia, Armenia, and Azerbaijan
Contemporary political map of the Caucasus (including unrecognized states)
Administrative map of Caucasus in the USSR, 1957–1991.

It remains one of the most politically tense regions in the post-Soviet area, and contains three heavily disputed areas: Abkhazia, Artsakh, and South Ossetia.

United Nations Observer Mission in Georgia

Map showing security zone

The United Nations Observer Mission in Georgia (UNOMIG) was established by United Nations Security Council Resolution 858 in August 1993 to verify compliance with a 27 July 1993 ceasefire agreement between the Republic of Georgia and forces in Abkhazia with special attention given to the situation in the city of Sukhumi, Georgia.

Georgia (country)

Country located in the Caucasus, at the intersection of Eastern Europe and Western Asia.

"Gorgania" i.e. Georgia on Fra Mauro map
Patera depicting Marcus Aurelius uncovered in central Georgia, 2nd century AD
Northwestern Georgia is home to the medieval defensive Svan towers of Ushguli
Gelati Monastery, a UNESCO World Heritage Site.
Queen Tamar, the first woman to rule medieval Georgia in her own right.
King Vakhtang VI, a Georgian monarch caught between rival regional powers
The reign of George XII was marked by instability.
Noe Zhordania, Prime Minister of Georgia who was exiled to France after the Soviet takeover
The Bolshevik Red Army in Tbilisi on 25 February 1921. Saint David's church on the Holy Mountain is visible in the distance.
Georgian Civil War and the War in Abkhazia in August–October 1993
The Rose Revolution, 2003
US Secretary of State Condoleezza Rice holding a joint press conference with Georgian president Mikheil Saakashvili during the Russo-Georgian war
Salome Zourabichvili, the first woman elected as president of Georgia
Presidential residence at the Orbeliani Palace in Tbilisi
Pro-NATO poster in Tbilisi
President of Georgia Salome Zourabichvili, President of Moldova Maia Sandu, President of Ukraine Volodymyr Zelensky and President of the European Council Charles Michel during the 2021 Batumi International Conference. In 2014, the EU signed Association Agreements with all the three states.
Georgian built Didgori-2 during the military parade in 2011
A Ford Taurus Police Interceptor operated by the Georgian Patrol Police.
Map of Georgia highlighting the disputed territories of Abkhazia and Tskhinvali Region (South Ossetia), both of which are outside the control of the central government of Georgia
Köppen climate classification map of Georgia
Mount Kazbek in eastern Georgia
Svaneti region of Georgia
View of the cave city of Vardzia and the valley of the Kura River below
Georgia's diverse climate creates varied landscapes, like these flat marshlands in the country's west
Southwest Georgia has a subtropical climate, with frequent rain and thick green vegetation
Georgian Shepherd Dog
GDP per capita development since 1973
A proportional representation of Georgia's exports in 2019
One of several plants operated by HeidelbergCement in Georgia
Wine-making is a traditional component of the Georgian economy.
The most visited ski resort of Georgia, Gudauri
The Georgian Railways represent a vital artery linking the Black Sea and Caspian Sea – the shortest route between Europe and Central Asia.
Port of Batumi
Ethno-linguistic groups in the Caucasus region
Tbilisi State University, Corpus I
Illuminated manuscript from medieval Georgia, showing a scene from nativity
Old Tbilisi – Architecture in Georgia is in many ways a fusion of European and Asian.
Rather than serving food in courses, traditional supras often present all that a host has to offer
Château Mukhrani, one of the centres of Georgia's viticulture in the 19th century, has recently been restored to produce its eponymous wine.
Dinamo Tbilisi, winner of 1981 European Cup Winners' Cup on stamp of Georgia, 2002
Château Mukhrani, one of the centres of Georgia's viticulture in the 19th century, has recently been restored to produce its eponymous wine.

For most of the subsequent decade, post-Soviet Georgia suffered from economic crisis, political instability, ethnic conflict, and secessionist wars in Abkhazia and South Ossetia.

International recognition of Abkhazia and South Ossetia

Abkhazia is recognised by Russia and five other countries
South Ossetia is recognised by Russia and four other countries
Map of Nagorno-Karabakh Republic
Map of Transnistria
A world map, showing states that recognise the independence of Abkhazia and South Ossetia:

Abkhazia and South Ossetia are disputed territories in the Caucasus.