Mikhail Gorbachev in 1987
The first exhibition on the crimes of Stalinism, called "Week of Conscience", was held in Moscow on November 19, 1988
"Gorgania" i.e. Georgia on Fra Mauro map
The Kingdom of Abkhazia was united through dynastic succession with the newly formed Kingdom of Georgia in 1008 when Bagrat II of Abkhazia became Bagrat III of Georgia.
Environmental concerns over the Metsamor nuclear power plant drove initial demonstrations in Yerevan.
Figure of Liberty on the Freedom Monument in Riga, focus of the 1986 Latvian demonstrations
Patera depicting Marcus Aurelius uncovered in central Georgia, 2nd century AD
The borders of the Sukhumi District of the Kutaisi Governorate in 1899 when Abkhazia was part of the Russian Empire.
Anti-Soviet rally in Vingis Park of about 250,000 people. Sąjūdis was a movement which led to the restoration of an Independent State of Lithuania.
Northwestern Georgia is home to the medieval defensive Svan towers of Ushguli
Abkhaz and Georgian generals in the Imperial Russian Army, 19th century
Andrei Sakharov, formerly exiled to Gorky, was elected to the Congress of People's Deputies in March 1989.
Gelati Monastery, a UNESCO World Heritage Site.
Map of the Soviet Caucasus (1957–91) showing the Abkhaz ASSR within the Georgian SSR.
The Eastern Bloc
Queen Tamar, the first woman to rule medieval Georgia in her own right.
Georgian Civil War and the War in Abkhazia in August–October 1993
Baltic Way 1989 demonstration in Šiauliai, Lithuania showing coffins decorated with national flags of the three Baltic republics placed symbolically beneath Soviet and Nazi flags
King Vakhtang VI, a Georgian monarch caught between rival regional powers
Exhibition at the 2005 commemoration of the ethnic cleansing in Abkhazia, held on its 12th anniversary in Tbilisi.
Photos of victims (mostly young women) of an April 1989 massacre in Tbilisi, Georgia
The reign of George XII was marked by instability.
Abkhazians carrying the republic's flags in a parade.
Meeting in Kurapaty, Belarus, 1989
Noe Zhordania, Prime Minister of Georgia who was exiled to France after the Soviet takeover
Seaside in Pitsunda, Abkhazia in 2006
Nursultan Nazarbayev became leader of the Kazakh SSR in 1989 and later led Kazakhstan to independence.
The Bolshevik Red Army in Tbilisi on 25 February 1921. Saint David's church on the Holy Mountain is visible in the distance.
Map of Georgia highlighting Abkhazia (green) and South Ossetia (purple).
Lithuania's Vytautas Landsbergis
Georgian Civil War and the War in Abkhazia in August–October 1993
The Russian embassy in Sukhumi
Estonia's Edgar Savisaar
The Rose Revolution, 2003
Dmitry Medvedev (centre, with dark tie) visited the Russian military base in Gudauta in 2010
Latvia's Ivars Godmanis
US Secretary of State Condoleezza Rice holding a joint press conference with Georgian president Mikheil Saakashvili during the Russo-Georgian war
The leaders of Abkhazia, Russia and South Ossetia, shortly after the 2008 war. Left to right: South Ossetian President Eduard Kokoity; Russian President Dmitry Medvedev; Russian Foreign Minister Sergey Lavrov; Abkhazian President Sergei Bagapsh.
Azerbaijani stamp with photos of Black January
Salome Zourabichvili, the first woman elected as president of Georgia
Border checkpoint on the Psou River
Viacheslav Chornovil, a prominent Ukrainian dissident and a lead figure of Rukh
Presidential residence at the Orbeliani Palace in Tbilisi
The breakaway republics of Abkhazia, South Ossetia and Nagorno-Karabakh within the Caucasus region
Leonid Kravchuk became Ukraine's leader in 1990.
Pro-NATO poster in Tbilisi
Abkhazian President Alexander Ankvab with Transnistrian President Yevgeny Shevchuk in September 2013
Saparmurat Niyazov, last head of the Turkmen SSR and first president of Turkmenistan
President of Georgia Salome Zourabichvili, President of Moldova Maia Sandu, President of Ukraine Volodymyr Zelensky and President of the European Council Charles Michel during the 2021 Batumi International Conference. In 2014, the EU signed Association Agreements with all the three states.
"View of Mount Agepsta and Turyi gory (Tur Mountains) from the top of Kamennyi Stolb, Aibga Ridge.", 2014.
Following Georgia's declaration of independence in 1991, South Ossetia and Abkhazia declared their desire to leave Georgia and remain part of the Soviet Union/Russia.
Georgian built Didgori-2 during the military parade in 2011
View from Pitsunda cape
Boris Yeltsin, Russia's first democratically elected president
A Ford Taurus Police Interceptor operated by the Georgian Patrol Police.
Logo of the Government of the Autonomous Republic of Abkhazia.
Barricade erected in Riga to prevent the Soviet Army from reaching the Latvian Parliament, July 1991
Map of Georgia highlighting the disputed territories of Abkhazia and Tskhinvali Region (South Ossetia), both of which are outside the control of the central government of Georgia
1) Gagra
2) Gudauta
3) Sukhumi
4) Gulripshi
5) Ochamchira
6) Tkvarcheli
7) Gali
Tanks in Red Square during the 1991 August coup attempt
Köppen climate classification map of Georgia
Beach in Gagra in May 2014
Signing of the agreement to establish the Commonwealth of Independent States, 8 December
Mount Kazbek in eastern Georgia
New Athos monastery in Abkhazia
The state emblem of the Soviet Union and the СССР letters (top) in the façade of the Grand Kremlin Palace were replaced by five double-headed Russian eagles (bottom) after the dissolution of the Soviet Union, the eagles having been removed by the Bolsheviks after the revolution.
Svaneti region of Georgia
Russian Drama Theatre. Sukhumi, Abkhazia.
The upper chamber of the Supreme Soviet in its ultimate session, voting the USSR out of existence, December 26
View of the cave city of Vardzia and the valley of the Kura River below
Daur Akhvlediani Stadium, Gagra
Russian GDP since the end of the Soviet Union (from 2014 are forecasts)
Georgia's diverse climate creates varied landscapes, like these flat marshlands in the country's west
Russian male life expectancy, 1980–2007
Southwest Georgia has a subtropical climate, with frequent rain and thick green vegetation
Animated map showing independent states and territorial changes to the Soviet Union in chronological order
Georgian Shepherd Dog
Pro-Russian separatists in Donetsk celebrate the Soviet victory over Nazi Germany, May 9, 2018
GDP per capita development since 1973
Changes in national boundaries after the end of the Cold War
A proportional representation of Georgia's exports in 2019
One of several plants operated by HeidelbergCement in Georgia
Wine-making is a traditional component of the Georgian economy.
The most visited ski resort of Georgia, Gudauri
The Georgian Railways represent a vital artery linking the Black Sea and Caspian Sea – the shortest route between Europe and Central Asia.
Port of Batumi
Ethno-linguistic groups in the Caucasus region
Tbilisi State University, Corpus I
Illuminated manuscript from medieval Georgia, showing a scene from nativity
Old Tbilisi – Architecture in Georgia is in many ways a fusion of European and Asian.
Rather than serving food in courses, traditional supras often present all that a host has to offer
Château Mukhrani, one of the centres of Georgia's viticulture in the 19th century, has recently been restored to produce its eponymous wine.
Dinamo Tbilisi, winner of 1981 European Cup Winners' Cup on stamp of Georgia, 2002
Château Mukhrani, one of the centres of Georgia's viticulture in the 19th century, has recently been restored to produce its eponymous wine.

Abkhazia ( or ), officially the Republic of Abkhazia, is a partially recognised state in the South Caucasus, recognised by most countries as part of Georgia, which views the region as an autonomous republic.

- Abkhazia

The region had autonomy within Soviet Georgia at the time when the Soviet Union began to disintegrate in the late 1980s.

- Abkhazia

Lithuania was the first republic to declare full independence restored from the Soviet Union by the Act of 11 March 1990 with its Baltic neighbours and the Southern Caucasus republic of Georgia joining it in a course of two months.

- Dissolution of the Soviet Union

By the 1980s, an independence movement emerged and grew quickly, leading to Georgia's secession from the Soviet Union in April 1991.

- Georgia (country)

For most of the subsequent decade, post-Soviet Georgia suffered from economic crisis, political instability, ethnic conflict, and secessionist wars in Abkhazia and South Ossetia.

- Georgia (country)

On April 7, 1989, Soviet troops and armored personnel carriers were sent to Tbilisi after more than 100,000 people protested in front of Communist Party headquarters with banners calling for Georgia to secede from the Soviet Union and for Abkhazia to be fully integrated into Georgia.

- Dissolution of the Soviet Union

3 related topics with Alpha

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Location of Georgia (including Abkhazia and South Ossetia) and Russian North Caucasus

Russo-Georgian War

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Location of Georgia (including Abkhazia and South Ossetia) and Russian North Caucasus
Fragment of the 1856 map by J. H. Colton, showing the territory of modern South Ossetia within Georgia and Imeria. Modern North Ossetia corresponds to "Ossia" (Ossetia) in the North Caucasus. Ossetia became part of the Mountain ASSR in 1921 and was renamed into North Ossetia only in 1924.
Creation of the South Ossetian AO in the place of Georgian regions in 1922.
U.S. President George W. Bush and Georgian President Mikheil Saakashvili in Tbilisi, May 2005
Russian President Vladimir Putin at the 2008 Bucharest Summit
Situation in Georgia before the war
Russian BMP-2 from the 58th Army in South Ossetia
Destroyed Georgian tank in Tskhinvali
Nearly-intact Russian missile booster in a Gori house
Destroyed apartment houses after air raid of Russian army at Gori, picture taken 10 September 2008.
An air raid of the Russian army in August 2008 destroyed this house in Gori
"The Price of Independence", artwork on a residential building damaged by Russian strikes during the war in downtown Gori
Russian guided-missile ship 12341 Mirazh (Mirage) in Sevastopol
Joint press conference by Russian president Dmitry Medvedev and French President Nicolas Sarkozy after negotiations on the plan
Georgian police (left) and Russian soldiers evacuating destroyed Russian tank (right) after war of August 2008 (north of Gori, 10 October 2008).
Russian forces stayed in South Ossetia after the conflict, including at the Java base (pictured)
Sergey Bagapsh (left), Dmitry Medvedev (middle) and Eduard Kokoity (right) shortly after the recognition of Abkhazia and South Ossetia
BTC pipeline (green) and planned Nabucco gas pipeline (tangerine)
South Ossetian refugees in a camp in Alagir, North Ossetia
A burning house in the Georgian village of Kekhvi, on the road from Tskhinvali to Java.
After the Russian-Georgian war of August 2008, the construction of houses for refugees started very soon (near Gori, 10 October 2008)
Tserovani, one of the villages built by the Georgian government for IDPs from the conflict zone
US Secretary of State Condoleezza Rice and President of Georgia Mikheil Saakashvili at a Tbilisi press conference, August 2008
Georgian Coast Guard patrol boat P-24 Sokhumi passes the USS McFaul (DDG-74) on its arrival at the port of Batumi
Buk-M1 air defence system
Georgian DANA howitzer
Russian Tu-22M3
Woman crying for help during the bombing of Gori

The 2008 Russo-Georgian War was a war between Georgia, on one side, and Russia and the Russian-backed self-proclaimed republics of South Ossetia and Abkhazia, on the other.

The Republic of Georgia declared its independence in early 1991 as the Soviet Union began to fall apart.

1994 map of Caucasus region prepared by the U.S. State Department

South Caucasus

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Geographical region on the border of Eastern Europe and Western Asia, straddling the southern Caucasus Mountains.

Geographical region on the border of Eastern Europe and Western Asia, straddling the southern Caucasus Mountains.

1994 map of Caucasus region prepared by the U.S. State Department
Possible definitions of the boundary between Europe and Asia on the territory of Georgia, Armenia, and Azerbaijan
Contemporary political map of the Caucasus (including unrecognized states)
Administrative map of Caucasus in the USSR, 1957–1991.

The South Caucasus roughly corresponds to modern Armenia, Georgia, and Azerbaijan, which are sometimes collectively known as the Caucasian States.

It remains one of the most politically tense regions in the post-Soviet area, and contains three heavily disputed areas: Abkhazia, Artsakh, and South Ossetia.

All three regained independence in 1991 when the Soviet Union dissolved.

1937 portrait of Stalin used in state propaganda

Joseph Stalin

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Georgian revolutionary and Soviet political leader who led the Soviet Union from 1922 until his death in 1953.

Georgian revolutionary and Soviet political leader who led the Soviet Union from 1922 until his death in 1953.

1937 portrait of Stalin used in state propaganda
In 1894 Stalin began his studies at the Tiflis Spiritual Seminary (pictured here in the 1870s).
Police photograph of Stalin, taken in 1902, when he was 23 years old.
Stalin first met Vladimir Lenin at a 1905 conference in Tampere. Lenin became "Stalin's indispensable mentor".
A mugshot of Stalin made in 1911 by the Tsarist secret police.
The first issue of Pravda, the Bolshevik newspaper of which Stalin was editor
Stalin in 1915
Joseph Stalin in 1917 as a young People's Commissar.
The Moscow Kremlin, which Stalin moved into in 1918
Joseph Stalin in 1920.
Stalin wearing a Order of the Red Banner. According to info published in Pravda (Pravda. 24 December 1939. No: 354 (8039)), this photograph was taken in Ordzhonikidze's house in 1921.
Stalin (right) confers with an ailing Lenin at Gorky in September 1922
(From left to right) Stalin, Alexei Rykov, Lev Kamenev, and Grigori Zinoviev in 1925
Stalin and his close associates Anastas Mikoyan and Sergo Ordzhonikidze in Tbilisi, 1925
Aleksei Grigorievich Stakhanov with a fellow miner; Stalin's government initiated the Stakhanovite movement to encourage hard work. It was partly responsible for a substantial rise in production during the 1930s.
Photograph taken of the 1931 demolition of the Cathedral of Christ the Saviour in Moscow in order to make way for the Palace of the Soviets
Soviet famine of 1932–33. Areas of most disastrous famine marked with black.
Review of Soviet armoured fighting vehicles used to equip the Republican People's Army during the Spanish Civil War
Exhumed mass grave of the Vinnytsia massacre
Victims of Stalin's Great Terror in the Bykivnia mass graves
Stalin greeting the German foreign minister Joachim von Ribbentrop in the Kremlin, 1939
With all the men at the front, women dig anti-tank trenches around Moscow in 1941
The center of Stalingrad after liberation, 2 February 1943
The Big Three: Stalin, U.S. President Franklin D. Roosevelt, and British Prime Minister Winston Churchill at the Tehran Conference, November 1943
Soviet soldiers in Polotsk, 4 July 1944
British Prime Minister Clement Attlee, U.S. President Harry S. Truman and Joseph Stalin at the Potsdam Conference, July 1945
Banner of Stalin in Budapest in 1949
Stalin at his 71st birthday celebration with (left to right) Mao Zedong, Nikolai Bulganin, Walter Ulbricht and Yumjaagiin Tsedenbal
The Eastern Bloc until 1989
Stalin's casket on howitzer carriage drawn by horses, caught on camera by US assistant army attaché Major Martin Manhoff from the embassy balcony
A mourning parade in honour of Stalin in Dresden, East Germany
A statue of Stalin in Grūtas Park near Druskininkai, Lithuania; it originally stood in Vilnius, Lithuania
Lavrenti Beria with Stalin's daughter, Svetlana, on his lap and Stalin seated in the background smoking a pipe. Photographed at Stalin's dacha near Sochi in the mid-1930s.
Chinese Marxists celebrate Stalin's seventieth birthday in 1949
Stalin carrying his daughter, Svetlana
A poster of Stalin at the 3rd World Festival of Youth and Students in East Berlin, East Germany, 1951
Interior of the Joseph Stalin Museum in Gori, Georgia
A contingent from the Communist Party of Great Britain (Marxist–Leninist) carrying a banner of Stalin at a May Day march through London in 2008
Interior of the Gulag Museum in Moscow
Stalin's tomb in the Kremlin Wall Necropolis
Marxist–Leninist activists from the opposition Communist Party of the Russian Federation laying wreaths at Stalin's Moscow grave in 2009

Born to a poor family in Gori in the Russian Empire (now Georgia), Stalin attended the Tbilisi Spiritual Seminary before joining the Marxist Russian Social Democratic Labour Party.

Since the dissolution of the Soviet Union in 1991, Stalin has retained popularity in Russia and Georgia as a victorious wartime leader who cemented the Soviet Union's status as a leading world power.

After 1932, he favoured holidays in Abkhazia, being a friend of its leader, Nestor Lakoba.