"Gorgania" i.e. Georgia on Fra Mauro map
The Kingdom of Abkhazia was united through dynastic succession with the newly formed Kingdom of Georgia in 1008 when Bagrat II of Abkhazia became Bagrat III of Georgia.
Patera depicting Marcus Aurelius uncovered in central Georgia, 2nd century AD
The borders of the Sukhumi District of the Kutaisi Governorate in 1899 when Abkhazia was part of the Russian Empire.
Northwestern Georgia is home to the medieval defensive Svan towers of Ushguli
Abkhaz and Georgian generals in the Imperial Russian Army, 19th century
Gelati Monastery, a UNESCO World Heritage Site.
Map of the Soviet Caucasus (1957–91) showing the Abkhaz ASSR within the Georgian SSR.
Queen Tamar, the first woman to rule medieval Georgia in her own right.
Georgian Civil War and the War in Abkhazia in August–October 1993
King Vakhtang VI, a Georgian monarch caught between rival regional powers
Exhibition at the 2005 commemoration of the ethnic cleansing in Abkhazia, held on its 12th anniversary in Tbilisi.
The reign of George XII was marked by instability.
Abkhazians carrying the republic's flags in a parade.
Noe Zhordania, Prime Minister of Georgia who was exiled to France after the Soviet takeover
Seaside in Pitsunda, Abkhazia in 2006
The Bolshevik Red Army in Tbilisi on 25 February 1921. Saint David's church on the Holy Mountain is visible in the distance.
Map of Georgia highlighting Abkhazia (green) and South Ossetia (purple).
Georgian Civil War and the War in Abkhazia in August–October 1993
The Russian embassy in Sukhumi
The Rose Revolution, 2003
Dmitry Medvedev (centre, with dark tie) visited the Russian military base in Gudauta in 2010
US Secretary of State Condoleezza Rice holding a joint press conference with Georgian president Mikheil Saakashvili during the Russo-Georgian war
The leaders of Abkhazia, Russia and South Ossetia, shortly after the 2008 war. Left to right: South Ossetian President Eduard Kokoity; Russian President Dmitry Medvedev; Russian Foreign Minister Sergey Lavrov; Abkhazian President Sergei Bagapsh.
Salome Zourabichvili, the first woman elected as president of Georgia
Border checkpoint on the Psou River
Presidential residence at the Orbeliani Palace in Tbilisi
The breakaway republics of Abkhazia, South Ossetia and Nagorno-Karabakh within the Caucasus region
Pro-NATO poster in Tbilisi
Abkhazian President Alexander Ankvab with Transnistrian President Yevgeny Shevchuk in September 2013
President of Georgia Salome Zourabichvili, President of Moldova Maia Sandu, President of Ukraine Volodymyr Zelensky and President of the European Council Charles Michel during the 2021 Batumi International Conference. In 2014, the EU signed Association Agreements with all the three states.
"View of Mount Agepsta and Turyi gory (Tur Mountains) from the top of Kamennyi Stolb, Aibga Ridge.", 2014.
Georgian built Didgori-2 during the military parade in 2011
View from Pitsunda cape
A Ford Taurus Police Interceptor operated by the Georgian Patrol Police.
Logo of the Government of the Autonomous Republic of Abkhazia.
Map of Georgia highlighting the disputed territories of Abkhazia and Tskhinvali Region (South Ossetia), both of which are outside the control of the central government of Georgia
1) Gagra
2) Gudauta
3) Sukhumi
4) Gulripshi
5) Ochamchira
6) Tkvarcheli
7) Gali
Köppen climate classification map of Georgia
Beach in Gagra in May 2014
Mount Kazbek in eastern Georgia
New Athos monastery in Abkhazia
Svaneti region of Georgia
Russian Drama Theatre. Sukhumi, Abkhazia.
View of the cave city of Vardzia and the valley of the Kura River below
Daur Akhvlediani Stadium, Gagra
Georgia's diverse climate creates varied landscapes, like these flat marshlands in the country's west
Southwest Georgia has a subtropical climate, with frequent rain and thick green vegetation
Georgian Shepherd Dog
GDP per capita development since 1973
A proportional representation of Georgia's exports in 2019
One of several plants operated by HeidelbergCement in Georgia
Wine-making is a traditional component of the Georgian economy.
The most visited ski resort of Georgia, Gudauri
The Georgian Railways represent a vital artery linking the Black Sea and Caspian Sea – the shortest route between Europe and Central Asia.
Port of Batumi
Ethno-linguistic groups in the Caucasus region
Tbilisi State University, Corpus I
Illuminated manuscript from medieval Georgia, showing a scene from nativity
Old Tbilisi – Architecture in Georgia is in many ways a fusion of European and Asian.
Rather than serving food in courses, traditional supras often present all that a host has to offer
Château Mukhrani, one of the centres of Georgia's viticulture in the 19th century, has recently been restored to produce its eponymous wine.
Dinamo Tbilisi, winner of 1981 European Cup Winners' Cup on stamp of Georgia, 2002
Château Mukhrani, one of the centres of Georgia's viticulture in the 19th century, has recently been restored to produce its eponymous wine.

Abkhazia ( or ), officially the Republic of Abkhazia, is a de facto state in the South Caucasus, recognised by most countries as part of Georgia, which views the region as an autonomous republic.

- Abkhazia

For most of the subsequent decade, post-Soviet Georgia suffered from economic crisis, political instability, ethnic conflict, and secessionist wars in Abkhazia and South Ossetia.

- Georgia (country)

21 related topics

Alpha

Colchis and its eastern neighbor Iberia.

Colchis

Colchis and its eastern neighbor Iberia.
Map of Colchis and Iberia by Christoph Cellarius printed in Leipzig in 1706
Jason and the Argonauts arriving at Colchis. The Argonautica tells the myth of their voyage to retrieve the Golden Fleece. This painting is located in the Palace of Versailles.
Second century BC Greek bronze torso from Colchis, Georgian National Museum
Colchian pendants, riders and horses on wheeled platforms, Georgian National Museum

In Greco-Roman geography, Colchis was an exonym for the Georgian polity of Egrisi (ეგრისი) located on the coast of the Black Sea, centered in present-day western Georgia.

Its geography is mostly assigned to what is now the western part of Georgia and encompasses the present-day Georgian provinces of Samegrelo, Imereti, Guria, Adjara, Abkhazia, Svaneti, Racha; modern Russia's Sochi and Tuapse districts; and present-day Turkey’s Artvin, Rize, and Trabzon provinces.

Location of Georgia (including Abkhazia and South Ossetia) and Russian North Caucasus

Russo-Georgian War

Location of Georgia (including Abkhazia and South Ossetia) and Russian North Caucasus
Fragment of the 1856 map by J. H. Colton, showing the territory of modern South Ossetia within Georgia and Imeria. Modern North Ossetia corresponds to "Ossia" (Ossetia) in the North Caucasus. Ossetia became part of the Mountain ASSR in 1921 and was renamed into North Ossetia only in 1924.
Creation of the South Ossetian AO in the place of Georgian regions in 1922.
U.S. President George W. Bush and Georgian President Mikheil Saakashvili in Tbilisi, May 2005
Russian President Vladimir Putin at the 2008 Bucharest Summit
Situation in Georgia before the war
Russian BMP-2 from the 58th Army in South Ossetia
Destroyed Georgian tank in Tskhinvali
Nearly-intact Russian missile booster in a Gori house
Destroyed apartment houses after air raid of Russian army at Gori, picture taken 10 September 2008.
An air raid of the Russian army in August 2008 destroyed this house in Gori
"The Price of Independence", artwork on a residential building damaged by Russian strikes during the war in downtown Gori
Russian guided-missile ship 12341 Mirazh (Mirage) in Sevastopol
Joint press conference by Russian president Dmitry Medvedev and French President Nicolas Sarkozy after negotiations on the plan
Georgian police (left) and Russian soldiers evacuating destroyed Russian tank (right) after war of August 2008 (north of Gori, 10 October 2008).
Russian forces stayed in South Ossetia after the conflict, including at the Java base (pictured)
Sergey Bagapsh (left), Dmitry Medvedev (middle) and Eduard Kokoity (right) shortly after the recognition of Abkhazia and South Ossetia
BTC pipeline (green) and planned Nabucco gas pipeline (tangerine)
South Ossetian refugees in a camp in Alagir, North Ossetia
A burning house in the Georgian village of Kekhvi, on the road from Tskhinvali to Java.
After the Russian-Georgian war of August 2008, the construction of houses for refugees started very soon (near Gori, 10 October 2008)
Tserovani, one of the villages built by the Georgian government for IDPs from the conflict zone
US Secretary of State Condoleezza Rice and President of Georgia Mikheil Saakashvili at a Tbilisi press conference, August 2008
Georgian Coast Guard patrol boat P-24 Sokhumi passes the USS McFaul (DDG-74) on its arrival at the port of Batumi
Buk-M1 air defence system
Georgian DANA howitzer
Russian Tu-22M3

The 2008 Russo-Georgian War was a war between Georgia, on one side, and Russia and the Russian-backed self-proclaimed republics of South Ossetia and Abkhazia, on the other.

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Georgia–Russia relations

Georgia and Russia have had no formal diplomatic relations since August 2008, largely due to the Russo-Georgian War and Russian recognition of separatist regions.

Georgia and Russia have had no formal diplomatic relations since August 2008, largely due to the Russo-Georgian War and Russian recognition of separatist regions.

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Russia has supported separatist movements in Abkhazia and South Ossetia since the early 1990s. This is arguably the greatest problem of Georgian–Russian relations
Vladimir Putin with Mikheil Saakashvili in 2006
The Georgia–Russia border zone at Upper Lars has been closed since 2006
Restricted Weapons Zone
Russian military bases in Tskhinvali Region as of 2015
Protest sign in Tbilisi reads "Russia is an occupant".

Bilateral relations between Georgia and Russia date back hundreds of years and remain complicated despite certain religious and historical ties that exist between the two countries and their people.

The tensions between Georgia and Russia, which had been heightened even before the collapse of the Soviet Union, climaxed during the secessionist conflict in Abkhazia in 1992–93.

Democratic Republic of Georgia

Democratic Republic of Georgia with territorial claims and disputed areas
Nikolay Chkheidze, president of the Georgian Provisional Assembly, later the Constituent Assembly
Democratic Republic of Georgia with territorial claims and disputed areas
National Council meeting, May 26, 1918
British troops marching in Batumi, 1920
Noe Ramishvili became the chairman of the first government of the Republic. In 1930, he was assassinated by a Bolshevik spy in Paris.
The leaders of the Second International visiting Tbilisi, 1918
Fragments of the Constitution of Georgia adopted by the Constituent Assembly of Georgia on 21st February 1921
Noe Zhordania, the chairman of the second and the third government of the Republic
Map of the borders of the territory that was proposed by the Georgian delegation at the Paris Peace Conference of 1919 for inclusion in the Democratic Republic of Georgia, as well as the territories that after 1921 were part of neighboring states.
Soldiers of the People's Guard of Georgia
A bilingual plaque which reads: "On May 26, 1918, in this hall the National Council of Georgia adopted the act of independence, thereby restoring the statehood of Georgia"

The Democratic Republic of Georgia (DRG; საქართველოს დემოკრატიული რესპუბლიკა sakartvelos demokratiuli respublika) was the first modern establishment of a republic of Georgia, which existed from May 1918 through February 1921.

However, German support enabled the Georgians to repel the Bolshevik threat from Abkhazia.

Mikhail Gorbachev in 1987

Dissolution of the Soviet Union

The process of internal disintegration within the Soviet Union (USSR) which resulted in the end of the country's and the federal government's existence as a sovereign state, thereby resulting in its constituent republics gaining full sovereignty.

The process of internal disintegration within the Soviet Union (USSR) which resulted in the end of the country's and the federal government's existence as a sovereign state, thereby resulting in its constituent republics gaining full sovereignty.

Mikhail Gorbachev in 1987
The first exhibition on the crimes of Stalinism, called "Week of Conscience", was held in Moscow on November 19, 1988
Environmental concerns over the Metsamor nuclear power plant drove initial demonstrations in Yerevan.
Figure of Liberty on the Freedom Monument in Riga, focus of the 1986 Latvian demonstrations
Anti-Soviet rally in Vingis Park of about 250,000 people. Sąjūdis was a movement which led to the restoration of an Independent State of Lithuania.
Andrei Sakharov, formerly exiled to Gorky, was elected to the Congress of People's Deputies in March 1989.
The Eastern Bloc
Baltic Way 1989 demonstration in Šiauliai, Lithuania showing coffins decorated with national flags of the three Baltic republics placed symbolically beneath Soviet and Nazi flags
Photos of victims (mostly young women) of an April 1989 massacre in Tbilisi, Georgia
Meeting in Kurapaty, Belarus, 1989
Nursultan Nazarbayev became leader of the Kazakh SSR in 1989 and later led Kazakhstan to independence.
Lithuania's Vytautas Landsbergis
Estonia's Edgar Savisaar
Latvia's Ivars Godmanis
Azerbaijani stamp with photos of Black January
Viacheslav Chornovil, a prominent Ukrainian dissident and a lead figure of Rukh
Leonid Kravchuk became Ukraine's leader in 1990.
Saparmurat Niyazov, last head of the Turkmen SSR and first president of Turkmenistan
Following Georgia's declaration of independence in 1991, South Ossetia and Abkhazia declared their desire to leave Georgia and remain part of the Soviet Union/Russia.
Boris Yeltsin, Russia's first democratically elected president
Barricade erected in Riga to prevent the Soviet Army from reaching the Latvian Parliament, July 1991
Tanks in Red Square during the 1991 August coup attempt
Signing of the agreement to establish the Commonwealth of Independent States, 8 December
The state emblem of the Soviet Union and the СССР letters (top) in the façade of the Grand Kremlin Palace were replaced by five double-headed Russian eagles (bottom) after the dissolution of the Soviet Union, the eagles having been removed by the Bolsheviks after the revolution.
The upper chamber of the Supreme Soviet in its ultimate session, voting the USSR out of existence, December 26
Russian GDP since the end of the Soviet Union (from 2014 are forecasts)
Russian male life expectancy, 1980–2007
Animated map showing independent states and territorial changes to the Soviet Union in chronological order
Pro-Russian separatists in Donetsk celebrate the Soviet victory over Nazi Germany, May 9, 2018

Lithuania was the first republic to declare full independence restored from the Soviet Union by the Act of 11 March 1990 with its Baltic neighbours and the Southern Caucasus republic of Georgia joining it in a course of two months.

On April 7, 1989, Soviet troops and armored personnel carriers were sent to Tbilisi after more than 100,000 people protested in front of Communist Party headquarters with banners calling for Georgia to secede from the Soviet Union and for Abkhazia to be fully integrated into Georgia.

A map of the conflict region

War in Abkhazia (1992–1993)

A map of the conflict region
Events of the war in August 1992 – October 1992
Events of the war in October 1992 – August 1993
Events of the war in August 1993 – October 1993
The 12th anniversary of ethnic cleansing in Abkhazia, which was held in Tbilisi in 2005. One of the visitors of the gallery recognized her dead son on the photograph
"Monument to the heroes, who fell fighting for the territorial integrity of Georgia", Tbilisi
The names of Abkhaz troops and their allies killed in action during the war are inscribed on the "Alley of Glory" monument in Sukhumi
Ukrainian UNA - UNSO volunteers in Georgia

The War in Abkhazia was fought between Georgian government forces for the most part and Abkhaz separatist forces, Russian government armed forces and North Caucasian militants between 1992 and 1993.

Ethnic Georgians who lived in Abkhazia fought largely on the side of Georgian government forces.

Members of the National Council of Georgia, after declaring independence of Georgia, Tbilisi May 26, 1918

Parliament of Georgia

Members of the National Council of Georgia, after declaring independence of Georgia, Tbilisi May 26, 1918
A session hall of the Parliament of Georgia in Kutaisi
Main facade of the Georgian Parliament in Tbilisi

The Parliament of Georgia (საქართველოს პარლამენტი) the supreme national legislature of Georgia.

The Constitution of Georgia grants the Parliament of Georgia a central legislative power, which is limited by the legislatures of the autonomous republics of Adjara and Abkhazia.

South Ossetia

Breakaway state in the South Caucasus.

Breakaway state in the South Caucasus.

Fragment of 1856 map by J. H. Colton depicting Caucasus region. Modern South Ossetia is located below the green "Ossia", which approximately corresponds to modern North Ossetia
Historical Russian map of the Caucasus region at the beginning of the 19th century
Ossetian migration over time
Democratic Republic of Georgia (1918–1921) in 1921
Creation of South Ossetian AO on historical Georgian regions in 1922
Map of the South Ossetian Autonomous Oblast in 1922
Map of the Georgian Soviet Socialist Republic in 1957–1991
Georgian Civil War in October–December 1993
South Ossetia before the war
Tskhinvali in August 2008
Map of Georgia highlighting South Ossetia (purple) and Abkhazia (green)
Topographic map of South Ossetia (Polish transcription)
Russian Presidential Decree No. 1261 recognising South Ossetian independence.
Ethnic map of the Caucasus from 1995 Ossetians live in North and South Ossetia.
Palm Sunday procession in Tskhinvali
The Dzuarikau–Tskhinvali pipeline, delivering natural gas from Russia to South Ossetia, went online in 2009.

Although Georgia does not control South Ossetia, the Georgian government and the United Nations consider the territory part of Georgia, whose constitution designates the area as "the former autonomous district of South Ossetia", in reference to the South Ossetian Autonomous Oblast disbanded in 1990.

Russian forces left the buffer areas bordering Abkhazia and South Ossetia on 8 October and the European Union Monitoring Mission in Georgia assumed authority over the buffer areas.

Gudauta

Gudauta (გუდაუთა, ; Гәдоуҭа, Gwdowtha; Гудаута, Gudauta) is a town in Abkhazia, Georgia, and a centre of the eponymous district.

1994 map of Caucasus region prepared by the U.S. State Department

South Caucasus

Geographical region on the border of Eastern Europe and Western Asia, straddling the southern Caucasus Mountains.

Geographical region on the border of Eastern Europe and Western Asia, straddling the southern Caucasus Mountains.

1994 map of Caucasus region prepared by the U.S. State Department
Possible definitions of the boundary between Europe and Asia on the territory of Georgia, Armenia, and Azerbaijan
Contemporary political map of the Caucasus (including unrecognized states)
Administrative map of Caucasus in the USSR, 1957–1991.

The South Caucasus roughly corresponds to modern Armenia, Georgia, and Azerbaijan, which are sometimes collectively known as the Caucasian States.

It remains one of the most politically tense regions in the post-Soviet area, and contains three heavily disputed areas: Abkhazia, Artsakh, and South Ossetia.