The Kingdom of Abkhazia was united through dynastic succession with the newly formed Kingdom of Georgia in 1008 when Bagrat II of Abkhazia became Bagrat III of Georgia.
Fragment of 1856 map by J. H. Colton depicting Caucasus region. Modern South Ossetia is located below the green "Ossia", which approximately corresponds to modern North Ossetia
"Gorgania" i.e. Georgia on Fra Mauro map
The borders of the Sukhumi District of the Kutaisi Governorate in 1899 when Abkhazia was part of the Russian Empire.
Historical Russian map of the Caucasus region at the beginning of the 19th century
Patera depicting Marcus Aurelius uncovered in central Georgia, 2nd century AD
Abkhaz and Georgian generals in the Imperial Russian Army, 19th century
Ossetian migration over time
Northwestern Georgia is home to the medieval defensive Svan towers of Ushguli
Map of the Soviet Caucasus (1957–91) showing the Abkhaz ASSR within the Georgian SSR.
Democratic Republic of Georgia (1918–1921) in 1921
Gelati Monastery, a UNESCO World Heritage Site.
Georgian Civil War and the War in Abkhazia in August–October 1993
Creation of South Ossetian AO on historical Georgian regions in 1922
Queen Tamar, the first woman to rule medieval Georgia in her own right.
Exhibition at the 2005 commemoration of the ethnic cleansing in Abkhazia, held on its 12th anniversary in Tbilisi.
Map of the South Ossetian Autonomous Oblast in 1922
King Vakhtang VI, a Georgian monarch caught between rival regional powers
Abkhazians carrying the republic's flags in a parade.
Map of the Georgian Soviet Socialist Republic in 1957–1991
The reign of George XII was marked by instability.
Seaside in Pitsunda, Abkhazia in 2006
Georgian Civil War in October–December 1993
Noe Zhordania, Prime Minister of Georgia who was exiled to France after the Soviet takeover
Map of Georgia highlighting Abkhazia (green) and South Ossetia (purple).
South Ossetia before the war
The Bolshevik Red Army in Tbilisi on 25 February 1921. Saint David's church on the Holy Mountain is visible in the distance.
The Russian embassy in Sukhumi
Tskhinvali in August 2008
Georgian Civil War and the War in Abkhazia in August–October 1993
Dmitry Medvedev (centre, with dark tie) visited the Russian military base in Gudauta in 2010
Map of Georgia highlighting South Ossetia (purple) and Abkhazia (green)
The Rose Revolution, 2003
The leaders of Abkhazia, Russia and South Ossetia, shortly after the 2008 war. Left to right: South Ossetian President Eduard Kokoity; Russian President Dmitry Medvedev; Russian Foreign Minister Sergey Lavrov; Abkhazian President Sergei Bagapsh.
Topographic map of South Ossetia (Polish transcription)
US Secretary of State Condoleezza Rice holding a joint press conference with Georgian president Mikheil Saakashvili during the Russo-Georgian war
Border checkpoint on the Psou River
Russian Presidential Decree No. 1261 recognising South Ossetian independence.
Salome Zourabichvili, the first woman elected as president of Georgia
The breakaway republics of Abkhazia, South Ossetia and Nagorno-Karabakh within the Caucasus region
Ethnic map of the Caucasus from 1995 Ossetians live in North and South Ossetia.
Presidential residence at the Orbeliani Palace in Tbilisi
Abkhazian President Alexander Ankvab with Transnistrian President Yevgeny Shevchuk in September 2013
Palm Sunday procession in Tskhinvali
Pro-NATO poster in Tbilisi
"View of Mount Agepsta and Turyi gory (Tur Mountains) from the top of Kamennyi Stolb, Aibga Ridge.", 2014.
The Dzuarikau–Tskhinvali pipeline, delivering natural gas from Russia to South Ossetia, went online in 2009.
President of Georgia Salome Zourabichvili, President of Moldova Maia Sandu, President of Ukraine Volodymyr Zelensky and President of the European Council Charles Michel during the 2021 Batumi International Conference. In 2014, the EU signed Association Agreements with all the three states.
View from Pitsunda cape
Georgian built Didgori-2 during the military parade in 2011
Logo of the Government of the Autonomous Republic of Abkhazia.
A Ford Taurus Police Interceptor operated by the Georgian Patrol Police.
1) Gagra
2) Gudauta
3) Sukhumi
4) Gulripshi
5) Ochamchira
6) Tkvarcheli
7) Gali
Map of Georgia highlighting the disputed territories of Abkhazia and Tskhinvali Region (South Ossetia), both of which are outside the control of the central government of Georgia
Beach in Gagra in May 2014
Köppen climate classification map of Georgia
New Athos monastery in Abkhazia
Mount Kazbek in eastern Georgia
Russian Drama Theatre. Sukhumi, Abkhazia.
Svaneti region of Georgia
Daur Akhvlediani Stadium, Gagra
View of the cave city of Vardzia and the valley of the Kura River below
Georgia's diverse climate creates varied landscapes, like these flat marshlands in the country's west
Southwest Georgia has a subtropical climate, with frequent rain and thick green vegetation
Georgian Shepherd Dog
GDP per capita development since 1973
A proportional representation of Georgia's exports in 2019
One of several plants operated by HeidelbergCement in Georgia
Wine-making is a traditional component of the Georgian economy.
The most visited ski resort of Georgia, Gudauri
The Georgian Railways represent a vital artery linking the Black Sea and Caspian Sea – the shortest route between Europe and Central Asia.
Port of Batumi
Ethno-linguistic groups in the Caucasus region
Tbilisi State University, Corpus I
Illuminated manuscript from medieval Georgia, showing a scene from nativity
Old Tbilisi – Architecture in Georgia is in many ways a fusion of European and Asian.
Rather than serving food in courses, traditional supras often present all that a host has to offer
Château Mukhrani, one of the centres of Georgia's viticulture in the 19th century, has recently been restored to produce its eponymous wine.
Dinamo Tbilisi, winner of 1981 European Cup Winners' Cup on stamp of Georgia, 2002
Château Mukhrani, one of the centres of Georgia's viticulture in the 19th century, has recently been restored to produce its eponymous wine.

Abkhazia ( or ), officially the Republic of Abkhazia, is a partially recognised state in the South Caucasus, recognised by most countries as part of Georgia, which views the region as an autonomous republic.

- Abkhazia

Although Georgia does not control South Ossetia, the Georgian government and the United Nations consider the territory part of Georgia, whose constitution designates the area as "the former autonomous district of South Ossetia", in reference to the South Ossetian Autonomous Oblast disbanded in 1990.

- South Ossetia

For most of the subsequent decade, post-Soviet Georgia suffered from economic crisis, political instability, ethnic conflict, and secessionist wars in Abkhazia and South Ossetia.

- Georgia (country)

Russian forces left the buffer areas bordering Abkhazia and South Ossetia on 8 October and the European Union Monitoring Mission in Georgia assumed authority over the buffer areas.

- South Ossetia

Abkhazia, Artsakh (also known as the Nagorno Karabakh Republic), Transnistria, and South Ossetia are post-Soviet "frozen conflict" zones.

- Abkhazia

6 related topics with Alpha


Location of Georgia (including Abkhazia and South Ossetia) and Russian North Caucasus

Russo-Georgian War

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Location of Georgia (including Abkhazia and South Ossetia) and Russian North Caucasus
Fragment of the 1856 map by J. H. Colton, showing the territory of modern South Ossetia within Georgia and Imeria. Modern North Ossetia corresponds to "Ossia" (Ossetia) in the North Caucasus. Ossetia became part of the Mountain ASSR in 1921 and was renamed into North Ossetia only in 1924.
Creation of the South Ossetian AO in the place of Georgian regions in 1922.
U.S. President George W. Bush and Georgian President Mikheil Saakashvili in Tbilisi, May 2005
Russian President Vladimir Putin at the 2008 Bucharest Summit
Situation in Georgia before the war
Russian BMP-2 from the 58th Army in South Ossetia
Destroyed Georgian tank in Tskhinvali
Nearly-intact Russian missile booster in a Gori house
Destroyed apartment houses after air raid of Russian army at Gori, picture taken 10 September 2008.
An air raid of the Russian army in August 2008 destroyed this house in Gori
"The Price of Independence", artwork on a residential building damaged by Russian strikes during the war in downtown Gori
Russian guided-missile ship 12341 Mirazh (Mirage) in Sevastopol
Joint press conference by Russian president Dmitry Medvedev and French President Nicolas Sarkozy after negotiations on the plan
Georgian police (left) and Russian soldiers evacuating destroyed Russian tank (right) after war of August 2008 (north of Gori, 10 October 2008).
Russian forces stayed in South Ossetia after the conflict, including at the Java base (pictured)
Sergey Bagapsh (left), Dmitry Medvedev (middle) and Eduard Kokoity (right) shortly after the recognition of Abkhazia and South Ossetia
BTC pipeline (green) and planned Nabucco gas pipeline (tangerine)
South Ossetian refugees in a camp in Alagir, North Ossetia
A burning house in the Georgian village of Kekhvi, on the road from Tskhinvali to Java.
After the Russian-Georgian war of August 2008, the construction of houses for refugees started very soon (near Gori, 10 October 2008)
Tserovani, one of the villages built by the Georgian government for IDPs from the conflict zone
US Secretary of State Condoleezza Rice and President of Georgia Mikheil Saakashvili at a Tbilisi press conference, August 2008
Georgian Coast Guard patrol boat P-24 Sokhumi passes the USS McFaul (DDG-74) on its arrival at the port of Batumi
Buk-M1 air defence system
Georgian DANA howitzer
Russian Tu-22M3
Woman crying for help during the bombing of Gori

The 2008 Russo-Georgian War was a war between Georgia, on one side, and Russia and the Russian-backed self-proclaimed republics of South Ossetia and Abkhazia, on the other.

1994 map of Caucasus region prepared by the U.S. State Department

South Caucasus

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Geographical region on the border of Eastern Europe and Western Asia, straddling the southern Caucasus Mountains.

Geographical region on the border of Eastern Europe and Western Asia, straddling the southern Caucasus Mountains.

1994 map of Caucasus region prepared by the U.S. State Department
Possible definitions of the boundary between Europe and Asia on the territory of Georgia, Armenia, and Azerbaijan
Contemporary political map of the Caucasus (including unrecognized states)
Administrative map of Caucasus in the USSR, 1957–1991.

The South Caucasus roughly corresponds to modern Armenia, Georgia, and Azerbaijan, which are sometimes collectively known as the Caucasian States.

It remains one of the most politically tense regions in the post-Soviet area, and contains three heavily disputed areas: Abkhazia, Artsakh, and South Ossetia.

Zviad Gamsakhurdia

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Leaders of Georgian independence movement in late 80s, Zviad Gamsakhurdia (left) and Merab Kostava (right)
Gravestone of President Gamsakhurdia in Tbilisi.
Gamsakhurdia on a 2019 postage stamp commemorating his would-be 80th birthday

Zviad Konstantines dze Gamsakhurdia (ზვიად გამსახურდია; Звиа́д Константи́нович Гамсаху́рдия; 31 March 1939 – 31 December 1993) was a Georgian politician, dissident, scholar, and writer who became the first democratically elected President of Georgia in the post-Soviet era.

In February 1991, he sent a letter to Mikhail Gorbachev demanding the withdrawal of Soviet army units and an additional contingent of interior troops of the USSR from the territory of the former Autonomous District of South Ossetia.

He announced that he would continue "the peaceful struggle against an illegal military junta" and concentrated on building an anti-Shevardnadze coalition, drawing on the support of the regions of Samegrelo (Mingrelia) and Abkhazia.

The EUMM patrols the South Ossetian administration boundary line in armored SUVs in February 2012.

European Union Monitoring Mission in Georgia

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The EUMM patrols the South Ossetian administration boundary line in armored SUVs in February 2012.
EUMM signs

The European Union Monitoring Mission in Georgia (EUMM Georgia) is an unarmed peacekeeping mission operated by the European Union in Georgia.

EUMM started its monitoring activities on 1 October 2008 and has since been patrolling both day and night, particularly in areas adjacent to the Administrative Boundary Lines with the Russian-backed separatist regions of Abkhazia and South Ossetia.

Shevardnadze in 1997

Eduard Shevardnadze

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Shevardnadze in 1997
Original CIA file on Shevardnadze, seized from the former United States Embassy in Tehran
Shevardnadze at the Reykjavik Summit with Ronald Reagan, Mikhail Gorbachev, Jack Matlock and George Shultz, 10.11.1986
Banners on Parliament of Georgia saying: "Georgia without Shevardnadze", "Poti is with you"

Eduard Ambrosis dze Shevardnadze (ედუარდ ამბროსის ძე შევარდნაძე, romanized: ; 25 January 1928 – 7 July 2014) was a Soviet and Georgian politician and diplomat who governed Georgia for several non-consecutive periods from 1972 until his resignation in 2003 and also served as the final Soviet Minister of Foreign Affairs from 1985 to 1990.

Shevardnadze also faced separatist conflicts in the regions of South Ossetia and Abkhazia.

Democratic Republic of Georgia

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Democratic Republic of Georgia with territorial claims and disputed areas
Nikolay Chkheidze, president of the Georgian Provisional Assembly, later the Constituent Assembly
Democratic Republic of Georgia with territorial claims and disputed areas
National Council meeting, May 26, 1918
British troops marching in Batumi, 1920
Noe Ramishvili became the chairman of the first government of the Republic. In 1930, he was assassinated by a Bolshevik spy in Paris.
The leaders of the Second International visiting Tbilisi, 1918
Fragments of the Constitution of Georgia adopted by the Constituent Assembly of Georgia on 21st February 1921
Noe Zhordania, the chairman of the second and the third government of the Republic
Map of the borders of the territory that was proposed by the Georgian delegation at the Paris Peace Conference of 1919 for inclusion in the Democratic Republic of Georgia, as well as the territories that after 1921 were part of neighboring states.
Soldiers of the People's Guard of Georgia
A bilingual plaque which reads: "On May 26, 1918, in this hall the National Council of Georgia adopted the act of independence, thereby restoring the statehood of Georgia"

The Democratic Republic of Georgia (DRG; საქართველოს დემოკრატიული რესპუბლიკა sakartvelos demokratiuli respublika) was the first modern establishment of a republic of Georgia, which existed from May 1918 to February 1921.

However, German support enabled the Georgians to repel the Bolshevik threat from Abkhazia.

These became more troublesome when carried out by ethnic minorities such as Abkhazians and Ossetians.