Abolitionism in the United States

abolitionistabolitionistsabolitionismabolitionemancipationanti-slaveryabolition of slaveryabolitionist movementabolition movementanti-slavery movement
Abolitionism (or the Anti-Slavery Movement) in the United States of America was the movement which sought to end slavery in the United States, active both before and during the American Civil War.wikipedia
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Evangelicalism in the United States

evangelicalevangelicalsEvangelical Protestant
In the 17th century, enlightenment thinkers condemned slavery on humanistic grounds and English Quakers and some Evangelical denominations condemned slavery as un-Christian.
They were involved in the temperance movement and supported the abolition of slavery in addition to working towards education and criminal justice reform.

Moses Brown

MosesBrown brothersMoses Brown of Providence
Rhode Island Quakers, associated with Moses Brown, were among the first in America to free slaves.
Moses Brown (September 23, 1738 – September 6, 1836) was an American abolitionist and industrialist from New England, who funded the design and construction of some of the first factory houses for spinning machines during the American industrial revolution, including Slater Mill.

Benjamin Franklin

Ben FranklinFranklinFranklin, Benjamin
The society suspended operations during the American Revolutionary War and was reorganized in 1784, with Benjamin Franklin as its first president.
He initially owned and dealt in slaves but, by the late 1750s, he began arguing against slavery and became an abolitionist.

Benjamin Lay

Within a few decades the entire slave trade was under attack, being opposed by such Quaker leaders as William Burling, Benjamin Lay, Ralph Sandiford, William Southby, and John Woolman.
Benjamin Lay (January 26, 1682 – February 8, 1759) was an Anglo-American Quaker humanitarian and abolitionist.

John Woolman

Woolman
Within a few decades the entire slave trade was under attack, being opposed by such Quaker leaders as William Burling, Benjamin Lay, Ralph Sandiford, William Southby, and John Woolman.
John Woolman (October 19, 1720 (O.S.)/October 30, 1720 (N.S.) – October 7, 1772) was a North American merchant, tailor, journalist, and itinerant Quaker preacher, and an early abolitionist in the colonial era.

Thirteenth Amendment to the United States Constitution

Thirteenth Amendment13th AmendmentThirteenth
The United States criminalized the international slave trade in 1808 and made slavery unconstitutional in 1865 as a result of the American Civil War, except as a punishment for crime for which the person has been "duly convicted".
An abolitionist movement headed by such figures as William Lloyd Garrison grew in strength in the North, calling for the end of slavery nationwide and exacerbating tensions between North and South.

New York Manumission Society

New-York Manumission SocietyNew-York Manumission SocietyNew-York Society for Promoting the Manumission of Slaves, and Protecting Such of Them as Have Been, or May be Liberated
The New York Manumission Society was founded in 1785 by powerful politicians: John Jay, Alexander Hamilton, and Aaron Burr.
The New-York Manumission Society was an American organization founded in 1785 by U.S. Founding Father John Jay, among others, to promote the gradual abolition of slavery and manumission of slaves of African descent within the state of New York.

Abraham Lincoln

LincolnPresident LincolnPresident Abraham Lincoln
He does not include antislavery activists such as Abraham Lincoln, U.S. President during the Civil War, or the Republican Party, which called for the gradual ending of slavery.
He was known for his "free soil" stance of opposing both slavery and abolitionism.

Oneida Institute

Whitestown SeminaryOneida Institute of Science and IndustryOneida County, New York
(Oberlin Collegiate Institute was the first college that survived to admit them by policy; the Oneida Institute was a short-lived predecessor.) In wages, housing, access to services, and transportation, separate but equal or Jim Crow treatment would have been a great improvement.
The Oneida Institute was a short-lived (1827–1843) but highly influential school that was a national leader in the emerging abolitionism movement.

John Jay

Chief Justice John JayJayfirst Chief Justice of the United States
The New York Manumission Society was founded in 1785 by powerful politicians: John Jay, Alexander Hamilton, and Aaron Burr.
Long an opponent of slavery, he helped enact a law that provided for the gradual emancipation of slaves, and the institution of slavery was abolished in New York in Jay's lifetime.

History of slavery in New York

slavesSlavery in New Yorkslavery
However what was passed in 1799 by New York, which had more slaves than any other Northern state, and in New York City more slaves than any other city except Charleston, South Carolina, was an act "for the gradual abolition of slavery".
The state passed a 1799 law for gradual abolition; after that date, children born to slave mothers were free but required to work for the mother's master for an extended period as indentured servants into their late twenties.

New York anti-abolitionist riots (1834)

Anti-abolitionist riots of 1834Farren RiotsAnti-abolitionist riots
There were anti-abolitionist riots in New York (1834), Cincinnati (1829, 1836, and 1841), Norwich, Connecticut (1834), Washington, D.C. (1835), Philadelphia (1838 and 1842), and Granville, Ohio (following the Ohio State Anti-Slavery Convention, 1836), although there was also a pro-abolition riot (more precisely a pro-fugitive slave riot) in Boston in 1836.
Their deeper origins lay in the combination of nativism and abolitionism among Protestants who had controlled the booming city since the American Revolutionary War, and fear and resentment of blacks among the growing underclass of Irish immigrants and their kin.

Noyes Academy

Canaan, New HampshireNew HampshireNoyes Institute
Schools in which blacks and whites studied together in Canaan, New Hampshire, and Canterbury, Connecticut, were physically destroyed by mobs.
The Noyes Academy was a racially integrated school, which also admitted women, founded by New England abolitionists in 1835 in Canaan, New Hampshire, near Dartmouth College, whose then-abolitionist president, Nathan Lord, was "the only seated New England college president willing to admit black students to his college".

Harriet Beecher Stowe

Harriett Beecher StoweHarrietStowe
Similarly, Harriet Beecher Stowe stated that "The bitterness of Southern slaveholders was tempered by many considerations of kindness for servants born in their houses, or upon their estates; but the Northern slaveholder traded in men and women whom he never saw, and of whose separations, tears, and miseries he determined never to hear."
Harriet Elisabeth Beecher Stowe (June 14, 1811 – July 1, 1896) was an American abolitionist and author.

John Brown (abolitionist)

John Brownabolitionist John BrownBrown
They pointed to John Brown's attempt in 1859 to start a slave uprising as proof that multiple Northern conspiracies were afoot to ignite slave rebellions.
John Brown (May 9, 1800 – December 2, 1859) was an American abolitionist.

John Brown's raid on Harpers Ferry

raid on Harpers FerryJohn Brown's raidraid
They pointed to John Brown's attempt in 1859 to start a slave uprising as proof that multiple Northern conspiracies were afoot to ignite slave rebellions.
John Brown's raid on Harpers Ferry (also known as John Brown's raid or The raid on Harpers Ferry) was an 1859 effort by abolitionist John Brown to initiate an armed slave revolt in Southern states by taking over a United States arsenal at Harpers Ferry, Virginia.

Lucy Stone

Lucy Stone Blackwell
She recruited Susan B Anthony and Lucy Stone to the movement.
Lucy Stone (August 13, 1818 – October 18, 1893) was a prominent U.S. orator, abolitionist, and suffragist, and a vocal advocate and organizer promoting rights for women.

Uxbridge, Massachusetts

UxbridgeUxbridge, MAMendon-Uxbridge
The local anti-slavery society at Uxbridge, Massachusetts had more than one quarter of the town's population as members.
Two local Quakers served as national leaders in the American anti-slavery movement.

Massachusetts

MACommonwealth of MassachusettsMass.
The famous, "fiery" abolitionist, Abby Kelley Foster, from Massachusetts, was considered an "ultra" abolitionist who believed in full civil rights for all black people.
Before the American Civil War, Massachusetts was a center for the abolitionist, temperance, and transcendentalist movements.

Somerset v Stewart

Somersett's CaseSomersett CaseJames Somersett
Within the British Empire, the Massachusetts courts began to follow England when, in 1772, England became the first country in the world to outlaw the slave trade within its borders (see Somerset v Stewart) followed by the Knight v. Wedderburn decision in Scotland in 1778.
These lawyers included Francis Hargrave, a young lawyer who made his reputation with this, his first case; James Mansfield, Serjeant-at-law William Davy, Serjeant-at-law John Glynn; John Alleyne, and the noted Irish lawyer and orator John Philpot Curran whose lines in defence of Somerset were often quoted by American abolitionists (such as Frederick Douglass).

James Forten

sailmaker
One notable opponent of such plans was the wealthy free black abolitionist James Forten of Philadelphia.
James Forten (September 2, 1766 – March 4, 1842) was an African -American abolitionist and wealthy businessman in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania.

1688 Germantown Quaker Petition Against Slavery

American antislavery movementthe 1688 Germantown Quaker Petition Against Slaveryfirst American anti-slavery protest
The 1688 Germantown Quaker Petition Against Slavery was an unusually early, clear and forceful argument against slavery and initiated the spirit that finally led to the end of slavery in the Society of Friends (1776) and in the commonwealth of Pennsylvania (1780).
The men gathered at Thones Kunders's house and wrote a petition based upon the Bible's Golden Rule, "Do unto others as you would have them do unto you," urging the Meeting to abolish slavery.

Back-to-Africa movement

Back to AfricaBack-to-AfricaColonization Movement
(This was the policy in some Southern states; newly freed slaves had to leave the state.) Should they go "back to Africa"?
As the failure became known in the United States in the 1820s, it spawned and energized the abolitionist movement.

Charleston, South Carolina

CharlestonCharleston, SCCharles Town
However what was passed in 1799 by New York, which had more slaves than any other Northern state, and in New York City more slaves than any other city except Charleston, South Carolina, was an act "for the gradual abolition of slavery".
In a sign of Charleston's antipathy to abolitionists, a white co-conspirator pled for leniency from the court on the grounds that his involvement had been motivated only by greed and not by any sympathy with the slaves' cause.

William Lloyd Garrison

GarrisonGarrisonianWilliam Garrison
The followers of William Lloyd Garrison, including Wendell Phillips and Frederick Douglass, demanded the "immediate abolition of slavery", hence the name.
Lloyd Garrison''', was a prominent American abolitionist, journalist, suffragist, and social reformer.