Abraham Lincoln

Portrait by Alexander Gardner, November 1863
The farm site where Lincoln grew up in Spencer County, Indiana
Lincoln's home in Springfield, Illinois
Lincoln in his late 30s as a member of the U.S. House of Representatives. Photo taken by one of Lincoln's law students around 1846.
Lincoln in 1857
Lincoln in 1858, the year of his debates with Stephen Douglas over slavery
A portrait of Dred Scott, petitioner in Dred Scott v. Sandford
Abraham Lincoln (1860) by Mathew Brady, taken the day of the Cooper Union speech
A Timothy Cole wood engraving taken from a May 20, 1860, ambrotype of Lincoln, two days following his nomination for president
Headlines on the day of Lincoln's inauguration portended hostilities with the Confederacy, Fort Sumter being attacked less than six weeks later.
March 1861 inaugural at the Capitol building. The dome above the rotunda was still under construction.
Lincoln with officers after the Battle of Antietam. Notable figures (from left) are 1. Col. Delos Sackett; 4. Gen. George W. Morell; 5. Alexander S. Webb, Chief of Staff, V Corps; 6. McClellan;. 8. Dr. Jonathan Letterman; 10. Lincoln; 11. Henry J. Hunt; 12. Fitz John Porter; 15. Andrew A. Humphreys; 16. Capt. George Armstrong Custer.
Running the Machine: An 1864 political cartoon satirizing Lincoln's administration – featuring William Fessenden, Edwin Stanton, William Seward, Gideon Welles, Lincoln, and others
Lincoln and McClellan
Lincoln, absent his usual top hat, is highlighted at Gettysburg.
An electoral landslide for Lincoln (in red) in the 1864 election; southern states (brown) and territories (gray) not in play
A poster of the 1864 election campaign with Lincoln as the candidate for president and Andrew Johnson as the candidate for vice president
Lincoln's second inaugural address in 1865 at the almost completed Capitol building
A political cartoon of Vice President Andrew Johnson (a former tailor) and Lincoln, 1865, entitled The 'Rail Splitter' At Work Repairing the Union. The caption reads (Johnson): "Take it quietly Uncle Abe and I will draw it closer than ever." (Lincoln): "A few more stitches Andy and the good old Union will be mended."
Shown in the presidential booth of Ford's Theatre, from left to right, are assassin John Wilkes Booth, Abraham Lincoln, Mary Todd Lincoln, Clara Harris, and Henry Rathbone.
Funeral of Lincoln
Abraham Lincoln, painting by George Peter Alexander Healy in 1869
Lincoln in February 1865, two months before his death
Lincoln Memorial in Washington, D.C.
The Lincoln cent, an American coin portraying Lincoln
Lincoln's image carved into the stone of Mount Rushmore|alt=See caption
Abraham Lincoln, a 1909 bronze statue by Adolph Weinman, sits before a historic church in Hodgenville, Kentucky.|alt=See caption
The Lincoln memorial postage stamp of 1866 was issued by the U.S. Post Office exactly one year after Lincoln's death.
Painting of Abraham Lincoln for the U.S. Capitol, by Ned Bittinger

American lawyer and statesman who served as the 16th president of the United States from 1861 until his assassination in 1865.

- Abraham Lincoln
Portrait by Alexander Gardner, November 1863

280 related topics

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Clockwise from top: Battle of Gettysburg

Union Captain John Tidball's artillery

Confederate prisoners

ironclad USS Atlanta (1861)

Ruins of Richmond, Virginia

Battle of Franklin

American Civil War

Civil war in the United States between the Union (states that remained loyal to the federal union, or "the North") and the Confederacy (states that voted to secede, or "the South").

Civil war in the United States between the Union (states that remained loyal to the federal union, or "the North") and the Confederacy (states that voted to secede, or "the South").

Clockwise from top: Battle of Gettysburg

Union Captain John Tidball's artillery

Confederate prisoners

ironclad USS Atlanta (1861)

Ruins of Richmond, Virginia

Battle of Franklin
Uncle Tom's Cabin by Harriet Beecher Stowe, aroused public opinion about the evils of slavery. According to legend, when Lincoln was introduced to her at the White House, his first words were, "So this is the little lady who started this Great War."
Frederick Douglass, a former slave, was a leading abolitionist
Marais des Cygnes massacre of anti-slavery Kansans, May 19, 1858
Mathew Brady, Portrait of Abraham Lincoln, 1860
The first published imprint of secession, a broadside issued by the Charleston Mercury, December 20, 1860
Jefferson Davis, President of the Confederate States of America (1861–1865)
Bombardment of the Fort by the Confederates
Rioters attacking a building during the New York anti-draft riots of 1863
Clashes on the rivers were melees of ironclads, cottonclads, gunboats and rams, complicated by naval mines and fire rafts.
Battle between the USS Monitor and USS Merrimack (1855)
General Scott's "Anaconda Plan" 1861. Tightening naval blockade, forcing rebels out of Missouri along the Mississippi River, Kentucky Unionists sit on the fence, idled cotton industry illustrated in Georgia.
Gunline of nine Union ironclads. South Atlantic Blockading Squadron off Charleston. Continuous blockade of all major ports was sustained by North's overwhelming war production.
A December 1861 cartoon in Punch magazine in London ridicules American aggressiveness in the Trent Affair. John Bull, at right, warns Uncle Sam, "You do what's right, my son, or I'll blow you out of the water."
County map of Civil War battles by theater and year
Robert E. Lee
"Stonewall" Jackson got his nickname at Bull Run.
George B. McClellan
The Battle of Antietam, the Civil War's deadliest one-day fight.
Confederate dead overrun at Marye's Heights, reoccupied next day May 4, 1863
Pickett's Charge
Ulysses S. Grant
Albert Sidney Johnston died at Shiloh
By 1863, the Union controlled large portions of the Western Theater, especially areas surrounding the Mississippi River
The Battle of Chickamauga, the highest two-day losses
Nathaniel Lyon secured St. Louis docks and arsenal, led Union forces to expel Missouri Confederate forces and government.
New Orleans captured
William Tecumseh Sherman
These dead soldiers—from Ewell's May 1864 attack at Spotsylvania—delayed Grant's advance on Richmond in the Overland Campaign.
Philip Sheridan
Map of Confederate territory losses year by year
Burying Union dead on the Antietam battlefield, 1862
Through the supervision of the Freedmen's Bureau, northern teachers traveled into the South to provide education and training for the newly freed population.
Beginning in 1961 the U.S. Post Office released commemorative stamps for five famous battles, each issued on the 100th anniversary of the respective battle.
The Battle of Fort Sumter, as depicted by Currier and Ives.

Disunion came after Abraham Lincoln won the 1860 United States presidential election on an anti-slavery expansion platform.

Confederate States of America

Unrecognized breakaway republic in North America that existed from February 8, 1861, to May 9, 1865.

Unrecognized breakaway republic in North America that existed from February 8, 1861, to May 9, 1865.

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Map of the division of the states in the American Civil War (1861–1865). Blue indicates the northern Union states; light blue represents five Union slave states (border states) that primarily stayed in Union control. Red represents southern seceded states in rebellion, also known as the Confederate States of America. Uncolored areas were U.S. territories, with the exception of the Indian Territory (later Oklahoma).
Evolution of the Confederate States, December 20, 1860 – July 15, 1870
Alexander H. Stephens, Confederate Vice President; author of the 'Cornerstone Speech'
The inauguration of Jefferson Davis in Montgomery, Alabama
Elias Boudinot, Cherokee secessionist, Rep. Indian Territory
William T. Sutherlin mansion, Danville, Virginia, temporary residence of Jefferson Davis and dubbed "Last Capitol of the Confederacy"
Map of the county secession votes of 1860–1861 in Appalachia within the ARC definition. Virginia and Tennessee show the public votes, while the other states show the vote by county delegates to the conventions.
The Seal, symbols of an independent agricultural Confederacy surrounding an equestrian Washington, sword encased
Recruitment poster: "Do not wait to be drafted". Under half re-enlisted.
Unionists throughout the Confederate States resisted the 1862 conscription
Jefferson Davis, President of the Confederacy from 1861 to 1865
Davis's cabinet in 1861, Montgomery, Alabama
Front row, left to right: Judah P. Benjamin, Stephen Mallory, Alexander H. Stephens, Jefferson Davis, John Henninger Reagan, and Robert Toombs
Back row, standing left to right: Christopher Memminger and LeRoy Pope Walker
Illustration printed in Harper's Weekly
Provisional Congress, Montgomery, Alabama
surviving Confederate mail
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Main railroads of Confederacy, 1861; colors show the different gauges (track width); the top railroad shown in the upper right is the Baltimore and Ohio, which was at all times a Union railroad
Passers-by abusing the bodies of Union supporters near Knoxville, Tennessee. The two were hanged by Confederate authorities near the railroad tracks so passing train passengers could see them.
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Richmond bread riot, 1863
Confederate memorial tombstone at Natchez City Cemetery in Natchez, Mississippi
This Confederate Flag pattern is the one most often thought of as the Confederate Flag today; it was one of many used by the Confederate armed forces. Variations of this design served as the Battle Flag of the Armies of Northern Virginia and Tennessee, and as the Confederate Naval Jack.
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A Home on the Mississippi, Currier and Ives, 1871
St. John's Episcopal Church, Montgomery. The Secession Convention of Southern Churches was held here in 1861.
Major-General John C. Breckinridge, Secretary of War (1865)
General Robert E. Lee, General in Chief (1865)
William L. Yancey, {{small|Alabama Fire-Eater, "The Orator of Secession"}}
William Henry Gist, {{small|Governor of South Carolina, called the Secessionist Convention}}
CSA Naval Jack
{{small|Battle Flag – square}}
Gen. Gabriel J. Rains, {{small|Conscription Bureau chief, April 1862 – May 1863}}
Gen. Gideon J. Pillow, {{small|military recruiter under Bragg, then J.E. Johnston<ref>Coulter, The Confederates States of America, p. 324.</ref>}}
Joseph E. Brown, governor of Georgia
Pendleton Murrah, governor of Texas
Jesse J. Finley
Henry R. Jackson
Asa Biggs
Andrew Magrath
John H. Reagan
Jefferson Davis, 5 cent
Andrew Jackson
George Washington
Potters House, Atlanta Ga
Downtown Charleston SC
Navy Yard, Norfolk Va
Rail bridge, Petersburg Va
1st National Flag
2nd National Flag
3rd National Flag
Battle Flag

Convinced that white supremacy and slavery were threatened by the November 1860 election of Republican candidate Abraham Lincoln to the U.S. presidency, on a platform which opposed the expansion of slavery into the western territories, the Confederacy declared its secession from the United States, with the loyal states becoming known as the Union during the ensuing American Civil War.

William H. Seward

American politician who served as United States Secretary of State from 1861 to 1869, and earlier served as governor of New York and as a United States Senator.

American politician who served as United States Secretary of State from 1861 to 1869, and earlier served as governor of New York and as a United States Senator.

Seward's wife Frances Adeline Seward
Gubernatorial portrait of William H. Seward
Seward around 1844. Painting by Henry Inman.
Seward in 1851
Seward in 1859
In this March 1860 cartoon, Seward serves "mild beer" in his February 29, 1860, address to position himself as a moderate after the "irrepressible conflict" speech.
Abraham Lincoln in 1860
Seward photographed by the studio of Mathew Brady
Seward's little bell, as depicted in a hostile postwar cartoon
Running The "Machine"
An 1864 cartoon mocking Lincoln's cabinet depicts Seward, William Fessenden, Lincoln, Edwin Stanton, Gideon Welles and other members
Lewis Powell attacking Frederick Seward after attempting to shoot him
Medal presented to George F. Robinson for saving Seward's life
Thomas Nast cartoon from before the 1866 midterm elections. Seward is depicted as Johnson's grand vizier, motioning for the execution of Thaddeus Stevens, and is seen again in the inset, scars from the assassination attempt visible.
Johnson, as Mercutio, wishes a plague on both their Houses (of Congress) as Seward (as Romeo, right) leans over him. Alfred Waud cartoon from 1868.
Signing the Alaska Purchase. Seward is seated at center.
Thomas Nast cartoon on Alaska, 1867. Seward hopes that the purchase will help cool Johnson's fevered political situation.
Statue of Seward by Randolph Rogers in Madison Square Park, New York City

Several factors, including attitudes to his vocal opposition to slavery, his support for immigrants and Catholics, and his association with editor and political boss Thurlow Weed, worked against him, and Abraham Lincoln secured the presidential nomination.

Portrait by Mathew Brady

Andrew Johnson

The 17th president of the United States, serving from 1865 to 1869.

The 17th president of the United States, serving from 1865 to 1869.

Portrait by Mathew Brady
Johnson's birthplace and childhood home, located at the Mordecai Historic Park in Raleigh, North Carolina
Eliza McCardle Johnson
The Andrew Johnson House, built in 1851 in Greeneville, Tennessee
Portrait of Johnson, 1856, attributed to William Brown Cooper
Senator Johnson, 1859
Johnson in 1860
Poster for the Lincoln and Johnson ticket by Currier and Ives
1865 cartoon showing Lincoln and Johnson using their talents as rail-splitter and tailor to repair the Union
Contemporary woodcut of Johnson being sworn in by Chief Justice Chase as Cabinet members look on, April 15, 1865
Official portrait of President Johnson, c. 1880
Thomas Nast cartoon of Johnson disposing of the Freedmen's Bureau as African Americans go flying
"The Situation", a Harper's Weekly editorial cartoon, shows Secretary of War Stanton aiming a cannon labeled "Congress" to defeat Johnson. The rammer is "Tenure of Office Bill" and cannonballs on the floor are "Justice".
Illustration of Johnson's impeachment trial in the United States Senate, by Theodore R. Davis, published in Harper's Weekly
Illustration of Sergeant at Arms of the United States Senate George T. Brown delivering a summons for the impeachment trial to Johnson at the White House on March 7, 1868
Illustration of Johnson consulting with his counsel for the trial
"Farewell, a long farewell, to all my greatness!": Harper's Weekly cartoon mocking Johnson on leaving office
Senator Andrew Johnson in 1875 (age 66)
The grave of Andrew Johnson, Greeneville, Tennessee

He assumed the presidency as he was vice president at the time of the assassination of Abraham Lincoln.

Portrait by Mathew Brady, 1870–1880

Ulysses S. Grant

American military officer and politician who served as the 18th president of the United States from 1869 to 1877.

American military officer and politician who served as the 18th president of the United States from 1869 to 1877.

Portrait by Mathew Brady, 1870–1880
Grant's birthplace, Point Pleasant, Ohio
Grant c. undefined 1845–1847
Battle of Monterrey Published 1847
Chinook Indian Plank House Published 1845
Grant believed Pacific Northwest Indians were a peaceful people and not a threat to settlers.
"Hardscrabble" Published 1891
The farm home Grant built in Missouri for his family. His wife Julia called the home an "unattractive cabin".
Brigadier General Grant photographed at Cairo, Illinois, September 1861 (Published 1911)
21st Illinois regiment monument in the Viniard Field, Chickamauga
Grant's successful gamble: Porter's gunboats night ran the Confederate gauntlet at Vicksburg on the Mississippi River.
Published 1863
The Battle of Jackson, fought on May 14, 1863, was part of the Vicksburg Campaign.
Published 1863
Union troops swarm Missionary Ridge and defeat Bragg's army. Published 1886
Commanding General Grant at the Battle of Cold Harbor, June 1864
Grant (center left) next to Lincoln with General Sherman (far left) and Admiral Porter (right) – The Peacemakers by Healy, 1868
Defeated by Grant, Lee surrendered at Appomattox Court House
Ulysses S. Grant by Balling (1865)
Grant–Colfax Republican Ticket
Published 1868
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Inauguration of President U.S. Grant, Capitol building steps.
March 4, 1869
Anthony Comstock Grant's vigorous prosecutor of abortionists and pornographers.
Amos T. Akerman, appointed Attorney General by Grant, who vigorously prosecuted the Ku Klux Klan
Image of mobs rioting entitled "The Louisiana Outrage". White Leaguers at Liberty Place attacked the integrated police force and state militia, New Orleans, September 1874.
Published October 1874
Secretary of Treasury George S. Boutwell aided Grant to defeat the Gold Ring.
Secretary of State Hamilton Fish and Grant successfully settled the Alabama Claims by treaty and arbitration.
Wharf of Santo Domingo City
Dominican Republic
Dominican Republic
American Captain Frye and his crew were executed by Spanish authority.
King Kalākaua of Hawaii meets President Grant at the White House on his state visit, 1874.
Published January 2, 1875
Ely Samuel Parker
Grant appointed Parker the first Native American (Seneca) Commissioner of Indian Affairs.
Battle of the Little Big Horn
Great Sioux War
Published 1889
Cartoon by Thomas Nast on Grant's opponents in the reelection campaign
Grant is congratulated for vetoing the "inflation bill" in 1874.
Cartoonist Thomas Nast praises Grant for rejecting demands by Pennsylvania politicians to suspend civil service rules.
Harper's Weekly
cartoon on Bristow's Whiskey Ring investigation
Grant and Bismarck in 1878
Cartoonist Joseph Keppler lampooned Grant and his associates. Grant's prosecutions of the Whiskey Ring and the Klan were ignored.
Puck, 1880
Official White House portrait of President Grant by Henry Ulke, 1875
Commanding General Grant
Constant Mayer's portrait of 1866
Grant National Memorial, known as "Grant's Tomb", largest mausoleum in North America

President Abraham Lincoln promoted him to lieutenant general after his victory at Chattanooga.

Republican Party (United States)

One of the two major contemporary political parties in the United States, along with its main historic rival, the Democratic Party.

One of the two major contemporary political parties in the United States, along with its main historic rival, the Democratic Party.

Abraham Lincoln, 16th president of the United States (1861–1865) and the first Republican to hold the office
Charles R. Jennison, an anti-slavery militia leader associated with the Jayhawkers from Kansas and an early Republican politician in the region
Ulysses S. Grant, 18th president of the United States (1869–1877)
James G. Blaine, 28th & 31st Secretary of State (1881; 1889–1892)
William McKinley, 25th president of the United States (1897–1901)
Theodore Roosevelt, 26th president of the United States (1901–1909)
Herbert Hoover, 31st president of the United States (1929–1933)
Ronald Reagan, 40th president of the United States (1981–1989)
Donald Trump, 45th president of the United States (2017–2021)
Calvin Coolidge, 30th president of the United States (1923–1929)
Arnold Schwarzenegger, 38th governor of California (2003–2011)
John McCain, United States senator from Arizona (1987–2018)
Donald Rumsfeld, 21st United States Secretary of Defense (2001–2006)
Colin Powell, 65th United States Secretary of State (2001–2005)
Newt Gingrich, 50th Speaker of the House of Representatives (1995–1999)
Annual population growth in the U.S. by county - 2010s
This map shows the vote in the 2020 presidential election by county.
Political Spectrum Libertarian Left    Centrist   Right  Authoritarian
U.S. opinion on gun control issues is deeply divided along political lines, as shown in this 2021 survey.

Beginning with its first president, Abraham Lincoln, the party largely dominated the national political scene until 1932.

An animation showing when United States territories and states forbade or allowed slavery, 1789–1861

Slavery in the United States

Prevalent in the United States of America from its founding in 1776 until 1865.

Prevalent in the United States of America from its founding in 1776 until 1865.

An animation showing when United States territories and states forbade or allowed slavery, 1789–1861
Slave auction block, Green Hill Plantation, Campbell County, Virginia, Historic American Buildings Survey
Slaves processing tobacco in 17th-century Virginia
Slaves on a South Carolina plantation (The Old Plantation, c. 1790)
Ledger of sale of 118 slaves, Charleston, South Carolina, c. 1754
Prince Estabrook memorial in front of Buckman Tavern on Lexington Green in Lexington, Massachusetts. Prince Estabrook, who was wounded in the Battle of Lexington and Concord, was the first black casualty of the Revolutionary War.
Continental soldiers at Yorktown. On the left, an African American soldier of the 1st Rhode Island Regiment.
This postage stamp, which was created at the time of the Bicentennial, honors Salem Poor, who was an enslaved African-American man who purchased his freedom, became a soldier, and rose to fame as a war hero during the Battle of Bunker Hill.
Advertisement in The Pennsylvania Gazette, May 24, 1796, seeking the return of Oney Judge, a fugitive slave who had escaped from the household of George Washington.
Confederate $100 bill, 1862–63, showing happy slaves farming. John C. Calhoun is at left, Columbia at right.
This portrait of Judge Samuel Sewall by John Smibert is in the Museum of Fine Arts, Boston Massachusetts.
Establishing the Northwest Territory as free soil – no slavery – by Manasseh Cutler and Rufus Putnam proved to be crucial to the outcome of the Civil War.
Statue of abolitionist and crusading minister Theodore Parker in front of the Theodore Parker Church in West Roxbury, Massachusetts.
Statue of prominent abolitionist Frederick Douglass in the Highland Park Bowl in Rochester, New York. Douglass was a great admirer of Theodore Parker.
Benjamin Kent, Old Burying Ground, Halifax, Nova Scotia
Simon Legree and Uncle Tom: a scene from Uncle Tom's Cabin (1852), an influential abolitionist novel
Henry Clay (1777–1852), one of three founders of the American Colonization Society, which assisted free blacks in moving to Africa. Liberia was a result.
Movement of slaves between 1790 and 1860
Slaves Waiting for Sale: Richmond, Virginia. Painting by Eyre Crowe
Ashley's Sack is a cloth that recounts a slave sale separating a mother and her daughter. The sack belonged to a nine-year-old girl Ashley and was a parting gift from her mother, Rose, after Ashley had been sold. Rose filled the sack with a dress, braid of her hair, pecans, and "my love always"
Slave trader's business in Atlanta, Georgia, 1864
Peter or Gordon, a whipped slave, photo taken at Baton Rouge, Louisiana, 1863; the guilty overseer was fired.
Wilson Chinn, a branded slave from Louisiana--Also exhibiting instruments of torture used to punish slaves
Slave sale, Charleston, 1856
U.S. brig Perry confronting the slave ship Martha off Ambriz on June 6, 1850
Eastman Johnson's 1863 painting "The Lord is My Shepherd"
Illustration from History of American conspiracies – a record of treason, insurrection, rebellion and c., in the United States of America, from 1760 to 1860 (1863)
James Hopkinson's Plantation. Planting sweet potatoes. ca. 1862/63
Slaves for sale, a scene in New Orleans, 1861
Mixed-race slave girls of predominant European ancestry, New Orleans, 1863 (see also white slave propaganda).
A slave auction, 1853
Five-dollar banknote showing a plantation scene with enslaved people in South Carolina. Issued by the Planters Bank, Winnsboro, 1853. On display at the British Museum in London.
Eastman Johnson (American, 1824–1906). A Ride for Liberty – The Fugitive Slaves (recto), ca. 1862. Oil on paperboard. Brooklyn Museum
Uncle Marian, a slave of great notoriety, of North Carolina. Daguerreotype of elderly North Carolina slave, circa 1850.
Slaves on J. J. Smith's cotton plantation near Beaufort, South Carolina, photographed by Timothy O'Sullivan standing before their quarters in 1862
Escaped slaves, ca. 1862, at the headquarters of General Lafayette
Four generations of a slave family, Smith's Plantation, Beaufort, South Carolina, 1862
Abraham Lincoln presents the first draft of the Emancipation Proclamation to his cabinet. Painted by Francis Bicknell Carpenter in 1864
An industrial school set up for ex-slaves in Richmond during Reconstruction
Many Native Americans were enslaved during the California Genocide by American settlers.
Percentage of slaves in each county of the slave states in 1860
Evolution of the enslaved population of the United States as a percentage of the population of each state, 1790–1860

When Abraham Lincoln won the 1860 election on a platform of halting the expansion of slavery, seven slave states seceded to form the Confederacy.

Photo by Mathew Brady

Stephen A. Douglas

American politician and lawyer from Illinois.

American politician and lawyer from Illinois.

Photo by Mathew Brady
Stephen A. Douglas
Adele Cutts, c. 1860
The United States in 1849, with Texas's land claims on New Mexico shown
The United States after the Compromise of 1850
Forcing Slavery Down the Throat of a Freesoiler – An 1856 cartoon depicts a giant "Free Soiler" being held down by James Buchanan and Lewis Cass standing on the Democratic platform marked "Kansas", "Cuba" and "Central America". Franklin Pierce also holds down the giant's beard as Douglas shoves a black man down his throat. A victim of lynching can also be seen in the background.
Stephen A. Douglas, photograph by Mathew Brady
Abraham Lincoln was Douglas's opponent in both the 1858 Senate election in Illinois and the 1860 presidential election.
Statue of Douglas at the site of the 1858 debate in Freeport, Illinois
Douglas (dark blue) had the support of most Northern delegates on the presidential ballot of the 1860 Democratic National Convention.
Douglas was defeated by Abraham Lincoln in the 1860 presidential election, as he won electoral votes from just two states.
Plaque at the Old State Capitol in Springfield, Illinois, commemorating Douglas's "Protect The Flag" speech of April 25, 1861
Douglas's tomb
Douglas's widow, Adele, in mourning dress. From the Liljenquist Family Collection of Civil War Photographs, Prints and Photographs Division, Library of Congress
Douglas depicted on the Series 1875 $10,000 Certificate of Deposit

A senator, he was one of two nominees of the badly split Democratic Party for president in the 1860 presidential election, which was won by Republican Abraham Lincoln.

Scott photographed in 1862

Winfield Scott

American military commander and political candidate.

American military commander and political candidate.

Scott photographed in 1862
Scott used this coat of arms for his bookplate. It has been incorporated into the heraldry of various units of the U.S. Army, including the 1st and 7th Engineer Battalions.
Map showing the northern theater of the War of 1812
Scott during the War of 1812
Maria DeHart Mayo (1789–1862), portrait by Asher Durand
Winfield Scott age of 49, 1835 portrait by George Catlin
Routes of Southern removals
Scott (purple) won three states on the first ballot of the 1839 Whig National Convention, but the convention nominated William Henry Harrison for president.
Engraving of Winfield Scott
Overview map of the war
A drawing of Scott at the Battle of Veracruz
Allegorical depiction of Winfield Scott on horseback during the Battle of Cerro Gordo
Scott (purple) received a significant amount of support on the first ballot of the 1848 Whig National Convention, but the convention nominated Zachary Taylor for president.
The Game-cock & the Goose, an 1852 Whig cartoon favoring Winfield Scott
Democrat Franklin Pierce defeated Whig Winfield Scott in the 1852 election.
Scott in 1855, painted by Robert Walter Weir
1861 Currier & Ives engraving of Winfield Scott and other Union generals, indicative of the Northern sentiment towards him and others in 1861
1861 characterized map of Scott's "Anaconda Plan" to squeeze the South
Scott in 1861
Statue of Winfield Scott on Scott Circle in Washington, D.C.
First Winfield Scott stamp, issue of 1870

Despite being a Virginia native, Scott stayed loyal to the Union and served as an important adviser to President Abraham Lincoln during the opening stages of the Civil War.

Abraham Lincoln

Emancipation Proclamation

Abraham Lincoln
The moment the proclamation was signed, portrayed by Lee Lawrie in Lincoln, Nebraska
Medical examination photograph of Gordon, widely distributed by abolitionists to expose the brutality of slavery
Eastman Johnson (American, 1824–1906) – A Ride for Liberty – The Fugitive Slaves (recto), ca. 1862
1864 reproduction of the Emancipation Proclamation from the Library of Congress Prints and Photographs Division
A printed broadside recruiting men of color to enlist in the U.S. military after the Emancipation Proclamation in 1863 (Philadelphia, Pennsylvania).
Areas covered by the Emancipation Proclamation are in red, slave-holding areas not covered are in blue
A photograph of two children who likely, were recently emancipated – circa 1870
Winslow Homer 1876 – "A Visit from the Old Mistress" depicts a tense meeting between a group of newly freed slaves and their former slaveholder – Smithsonian Museum of American Art
"Abe Lincoln's Last Card; Or, Rouge-et-Noir (Red and Black)", a cartoon by John Tenniel printed by Punch after the London Times wrote in October 1862 that Lincoln had played his "last card" in issuing the Proclamation. Lincoln's hair is in points, suggesting horns. The cartoon was reprinted often in the Copperhead press.
Emancipation from Freedmen's viewpoint, illustration from Harper's Weekly 1865
President Barack Obama views the Emancipation Proclamation in the Oval Office hung above a bust of Martin Luther King Jr. in 2010
U.S. commemorative stamp, 1963

The Emancipation Proclamation, officially Proclamation 95, was a presidential proclamation and executive order issued by United States President Abraham Lincoln on January 1, 1863, during the Civil War.