Abraham ibn Ezra

An illustration of Ibn Ezra (center) making use of an astrolabe.
The Book Exodus, with commentary by Abraham ibn Ezra, Naples 1488

One of the most distinguished Jewish biblical commentators and philosophers of the Middle Ages.

- Abraham ibn Ezra

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Judah Halevi

Spanish Jewish physician, poet and philosopher.

Statue in Caesarea, Israel.

The tradition that this daughter was married to Abraham Ibn Ezra does not rest on any evidence, though Halevi and Abraham Ibn Ezra were well acquainted, as we know from the writings of the latter.

Tudela, Navarre

Municipality in Spain, the second largest city of the autonomous community of Navarre and twice a former Latin bishopric.

Fiestas in the Plaza Nueva or Plaza de los Fueros
Cathedral - Puerta del Juicio
Monreal Tower

Abraham ibn Ezra, scholar

Ecclesiastes

One of the Ketuvim ("Writings") of the Hebrew Bible and one of the "Wisdom" books of the Christian Old Testament.

Ecclesiastes 3 in the Leningrad Codex
Colorized version of King Solomon in Old Age by Gustave Doré (1866); a depiction of the purported author of Ecclesiastes, according to rabbinic tradition.

The final poem of Kohelet has been interpreted in the Targum, Talmud and Midrash, and by the rabbis Rashi, Rashbam and ibn Ezra, as an allegory of old age.

Saadia Gaon

Prominent rabbi, gaon, Jewish philosopher, and exegete who was active in the Abbasid Caliphate.

A street sign at the intersection of Se’adya Ga’on and HaHashmona’im streets in Tel Aviv.
Sign on Saadia Gaon street

Later, one of Saadia's chief disputants was the Karaite by the name of Abu al-Surri ben Zuṭa, who is referred to by Abraham ibn Ezra, in his commentary on the Pentateuch (Exo.

Baruch Spinoza

Dutch philosopher of Portuguese Sephardic Jewish origin.

Statue (2008) of Spinoza by Nicolas Dings, Amsterdam, Zwanenburgwal, with inscription "The objective of the state is freedom" (translation, quote from Tractatus Theologico-Politicus, 1677)
Map by Balthasar Florisz van Berckenrode (1625) with the present location of the Moses and Aaron Church in white, but also the spot where Spinoza grew up.
Spinoza lived where the Moses and Aaron Church is located now, and there is strong evidence that he may have been born there.
Ban in Portuguese of Baruch Spinoza by his Portuguese Jewish synagogue community of Amsterdam, Amsterdam, 6 Av 5416 (27 July 1656).
"Baruch Espinosa", son of Michael Espinosa was erased from the list of pupils of the school Ets Haim, Amsterdam, 17th century. His brother "Ishac" is registered just above.
Statue of Spinoza, near the Museum Het Spinozahuis in The Hague by Frédéric Hexamer
Spinoza and the Rabbis by Samuel Hirszenberg (1907)
Spinoza's house in Rijnsburg from 1661 to 1663, now a museum
Study room of Spinoza
Spinoza House in The Hague, where Spinoza lived from 1670 until his death in 1677
The opening page of Spinoza's magnum opus, Ethics
Engraving of Spinoza, captioned in Latin, "A Jew and an atheist"
Tractatus Theologico-Politicus

For example, he cited a series of cryptic statements by medieval Biblical commentator Abraham ibn Ezra intimating that some apparently anachronistic passages of the Pentateuch (e.g., "[t]he Canaanite was then in the land", Genesis 12:6, which ibn Ezra called a "mystery" and exhorted those "who understand it [to] keep silent") were not of Mosaic authorship as proof that his own views had valid historical precedent.

Moses ibn Ezra

Jewish, Spanish philosopher, linguist, and poet.

Map of Canaan

He was related to Abraham ibn Ezra and a pupil of Isaac ibn Ghiyyat.

Torah

Compilation of the first five books of the Hebrew Bible, namely the books of Genesis, Exodus, Leviticus, Numbers and Deuteronomy.

Torah scroll at old Glockengasse Synagogue (reconstruction), Cologne
Silver Torah case, Ottoman Empire, displayed in the Museum of Jewish Art and History
Reading of the Torah
One common formulation of the documentary hypothesis
The supplementary hypothesis, one potential successor to the documentary hypothesis
Presentation of The Torah, by Édouard Moyse, 1860, Museum of Jewish Art and History
Torahs in Ashkenazi Synagogue (Istanbul, Turkey)
Page pointers, or yad, for reading of the Torah
Open Torah case with scroll.

Abraham ibn Ezra and Joseph Bonfils observed that phrases in those verses present information that people should only have known after the time of Moses.

Muwashshah

Name for both an Arabic poetic form and a secular musical genre.

He was followed in this tradition by Moses Ibn Ezra, Abraham Ibn Ezra, and Judah Halevi among others.

Hebrew language

Northwest Semitic language of the Afroasiatic language family.

The word HEBREW written in modern Hebrew language (top) and in Paleo-Hebrew alphabet (bottom)
The Shebna Inscription, from the tomb of a royal steward found in Siloam, dates to the 7th century BCE.
Hebrew script used in writing a Torah scroll. Note ornamental "crowns" on tops of certain letters.
Rashi script
A silver matchbox holder with inscription in Hebrew
Aleppo Codex: 10th century Hebrew Bible with Masoretic pointing (Joshua 1:1).
Kochangadi Synagogue in Kochi, India dated to 1344.
Eliezer Ben-Yehuda
Hebrew, Arabic and English multilingual signs on an Israeli highway
Dual language Hebrew and English keyboard
Academy of the Hebrew Language
Hebrew alphabet

Important Hebrew grammarians were Judah ben David Hayyuj, Jonah ibn Janah, Abraham ibn Ezra and later (in Provence), David Kimhi.

Dunash ben Labrat

Medieval Jewish commentator, poet, and grammarian of the Golden age of Jewish culture in Spain.

Philadelphia, University of Pennsylvania, Center for Advanced Judaic Studies Library, Cairo Genizah Collection, Halper 317, f. 2v, from the tenth to twelfth century CE. Lines 21ff. contain a twenty-line riddle attributed to Dunash ben Labrat.

Rabbi Abraham Ibn Ezra also wrote a response to Dunash's work, in defense of Saadia Gaon.