The Kaaba at Masjid al-Haram in Mecca, Saudi Arabia, the holiest Islamic site
Symbols commonly used to represent the three largest Abrahamic religions. From top to bottom: the Star of David, the Christian cross, and the star and crescent.
Muhammad receiving his first revelation from the angel Gabriel. From the manuscript Jami' al-Tawarikh by Rashid-al-Din Hamadani, 1307.
A Jewish Rebbe holds a Torah scroll
The first chapter of the Quran, Al-Fatiha (The Opening), is seven verses
Christianity is based on the teachings of the Bible
A Persian miniature depicts Muhammad leading Abraham, Moses, Jesus and other prophets in prayer.
A cenotaph above the Cave of the Patriarchs traditionally considered to be the burial place of Abraham.
Silver coin of the Mughal Emperor Akbar, inscribed with the Shahadah
ʻAbdu'l-Bahá (1844-1921), the eldest son of Baháʼu'lláh, and leader of the Baháʼí Faith
Muslim men prostrating in prayer, at the Umayyad Mosque, Damascus.
Druze dignitaries celebrating the Ziyarat al-Nabi Shu'ayb festival
A fast-breaking feast, known as Iftar, is served traditionally with dates
Coronation of Haile Selassie of Abyssinia in 1928.
Pilgrims at the Great Mosque of Mecca during the Hajj season
Samaritan High Priest with the Samaritan Torah, Nablus, c. 1920
Muslim men reading the Quran
An interpretation of the borders (in red) of the Promised Land, based on God's promise to Abraham (Genesis 15:18)
Portrait of the Mughal Emperor Akbar supplicating to God.
The Star of David (or Magen David) is a generally recognized symbol of modern Jewish identity and Judaism.
Rashidun and Umayyad expansion
The Christian cross (or crux) is the best-known religious symbol of Christianity; this version is known as a Latin Cross.
Dome of the Rock built by caliph Abd al-Malik ibn Marwan; completed at the end of the Second Fitna
The word God written in Arabic
The eye, according to Hunain ibn Ishaq from a manuscript dated c. 1200
A Bible handwritten in Latin, on display in Malmesbury Abbey, Wiltshire, England. This Bible was transcribed in Belgium in 1407 for reading aloud in a monastery.
Ghazan Khan, 7th Ilkhanate ruler of the Mongol Empire, converts to Islam
9th-century Quran in Reza Abbasi Museum
Abdülmecid II was the last Caliph of Islam from the Ottoman dynasty.
The Sermon on the Mount by Carl Heinrich Bloch (1877)
World Muslim population by percentage (Pew Research Center, 2014).
The nine volumes of Sahih Al-Bukhari, one of the six Sunni hadith books
The Imam Hussein Shrine in Iraq is a holy site for Shia Muslims
An overview of the major sects and madhahib of Islam
The Whirling Dervishes, or Mevlevi Order by the tomb of Sufi-mystic Rumi
Islamic schools of law in the Muslim world
Crimean Tatar Muslim students (1856)
Islamic veils represent modesty
John of Damascus, under the Umayyad Caliphate, viewed Islamic doctrines as a hodgepodge from the Bible.
Great Mosque of Djenné, in the west African country of Mali
Dome in Po-i-Kalyan, Bukhara, Uzbekistan
14th century Great Mosque of Xi'an in China
16th century Menara Kudus Mosque in Indonesia showing Indian influence
The phrase Bismillah in an 18th-century Islamic calligraphy from the Ottoman region.
Geometric arabesque tiling on the underside of the dome of Hafiz Shirazi's tomb in Shiraz, Iran
Ulu mosque in Utrecht, Netherlands

Islam (الإسلام, ) is an Abrahamic monotheistic religion centred primarily around the Quran, a religious text that is considered by Muslims to be the direct word of God (or Allah) as it was revealed to Muhammad, the main and final Islamic prophet.

- Islam

Abrahamic religions are those that worship the God of Abraham, including Judaism, Christianity, and Islam.

- Abrahamic religions
The Kaaba at Masjid al-Haram in Mecca, Saudi Arabia, the holiest Islamic site

16 related topics

Alpha

Judaica (clockwise from top): Shabbat candlesticks, handwashing cup, Chumash and Tanakh, Torah pointer, shofar and etrog box

Judaism

Judaica (clockwise from top): Shabbat candlesticks, handwashing cup, Chumash and Tanakh, Torah pointer, shofar and etrog box
Maccabees by Wojciech Stattler (1842)
A painting of Moses decorates the Dura-Europos synagogue dating from 244 CE
The Western Wall in Jerusalem is a remnant of the wall encircling the Second Temple. The Temple Mount is the holiest site in Judaism.
Kennicott Bible, a 1476 Spanish Tanakh
Aleppo Codex, a Tanakh produced in Tiberias in the 10th century
A man holds up a Sephardi-style torah at the Western Wall, Jerusalem
Statue of Maimonides in Córdoba, Spain
Conservative women rabbis, Israel
El Ghriba synagogue in Djerba, Tunisia
Beta Israeli Kahen at the Western Wall
A Yemenite Jew at morning prayers, wearing a kippah skullcap, prayer shawl and tefillin
An Israeli female soldier prays at the Western Wall
Jewish boys wearing tzitzit and kippot play soccer in Jerusalem
Men wearing tallitot pray at the Western Wall
Two braided Shabbat challahs placed under an embroidered challah cover at the start of the Shabbat meal
Jews in Mumbai break the Yom Kippur fast with roti and samosas
Purim street scene in Jerusalem
Jewish personnel of the US Navy light candles on Hanukkah
A man reads a torah using a yad
The Sarajevo Synagogue in Sarajevo, Bosnia and Herzegovina
Great Synagogue (Jerusalem)
Congregation Emanu-El of New York
18th-century circumcision chair Museum of Jewish Art and History
Two boys wearing tallit at a bar mitzvah. The torah is visible in the foreground.
The Bereavement (Yahrtzeit) Hasidic tish, Bnei Brak, Israel
Jewish students with their teacher in Samarkand, Uzbekistan c. 1910.
Magen David Synagogue in Kolkata, India
A Yemeni sofer writing a torah in the 1930s
Judaism is practiced around the world. This is an 1889 siddur published in Hebrew and Marathi for use by the Bene Israel community
The 12th century Synagogue of Santa María la Blanca in Toledo, Spain was converted to a church shortly after anti-Jewish pogroms in 1391
Muslim women in the mellah of Essaouira
The bimah of the Ben Ezra Synagogue in Cairo, Egypt

Judaism is an Abrahamic, monotheistic, and ethnic religion comprising the collective religious, cultural, and legal tradition and civilization of the Jewish people.

Judaism's texts, traditions, and values strongly influenced later Abrahamic religions, including Christianity and Islam.

Stefan Lochner, Last Judgement, c. 1435. Wallraf-Richartz Museum, Cologne

Last Judgment

Stefan Lochner, Last Judgement, c. 1435. Wallraf-Richartz Museum, Cologne
Print of the Last Judgment, made by Johannes Wierix in the 16th century.
The Last Judgment by John Martin (1854)
The Last Judgment mosaic (14th-century), south facade of Saint Vitus Cathedral, Prague, Czech Republic.
The Last Judgment, Sistine Chapel by Michelangelo (1536-1541)
The Last Judgment, 17th-century icon from Lipie. Historic Museum in Sanok, Poland.
The Last Judgment, mural from Voroneț Monastery, Romania
Viktor Vasnetsov's The Last Judgment, 1904
William Blake's The Day of Judgment printed in 1808 to illustrate the Robert Blair's poem "The Grave"
Doom painting, St Mary's Church, North Leigh, Oxfordshire, 15th century
Armenian manuscript depicts the Last Judgment,1679
Last Judgment (Russia, 18th century)
Diagram of "Plain of Assembly" (Ard al-Hashr) on the Day of Judgment, from an autograph manuscript of Futuhat al-Makkiyya by Sufi mystic and Muslim philosopher Ibn Arabi, ca. 1238. Shown are the 'Arsh (Throne of God), pulpits for the righteous (al-Aminun), seven rows of angels, Gabriel (al-Ruh), A'raf (the Barrier), the Pond of Abundance, al-Maqam al-Mahmud (the Praiseworthy Station; where the prophet Muhammad will stand to intercede for the faithful), Mizan (the Scale), As-Sirāt (the Bridge), Jahannam (Hell), and Marj al-Jannat (Meadow of Paradise).

The Last Judgment, Final Judgment, Day of Reckoning, Day of Judgment, Judgment Day, Doomsday or The Day of the Lord (יום הדין; یوم القيامة or یوم الدین) is part of the Abrahamic religions and the Frashokereti of Zoroastrianism.

Patristic testimony to this dogma is clear and unanimous." resulting in the approval of some and the penalizing of others. The concept is found in all the canonical gospels, particularly in the Gospel of Matthew. The Christian tradition is also followed by Islam, where it is mentioned in the 43rd chapter (Az-Zukhruf) of the Quran, according to some interpretations. Christian futurists believe it will take place after the resurrection of the dead and the Second Coming of Jesus, while full preterists believe it has already occurred. The Last Judgment has inspired numerous artistic depictions.

The Mesha Stele bears the earliest known reference (840 BCE) to the Israelite god Yahweh.

God in Abrahamic religions

Conception of God that remains a common feature of all Abrahamic religions.

Conception of God that remains a common feature of all Abrahamic religions.

The Mesha Stele bears the earliest known reference (840 BCE) to the Israelite god Yahweh.
In his 1838 personal history, Joseph Smith wrote that he had seen two personages in the spring of 1820. In 1843, Smith stated that these personages, God the Father and Jesus Christ, had separate, tangible bodies.

In Islam, God (Allah) (ٱلل‍َّٰه,, lit. "the God") is the supreme being, all-powerful and all-knowing creator, sustainer, ordainer, and judge of the universe.

Muslims believe that Allah is the same God worshipped by the members of the Abrahamic religions that preceded Islam, i.e. Judaism and Christianity.

Prayer in Cairo (1865)
Jean-Léon Gérôme

Muslims

Prayer in Cairo (1865)
Jean-Léon Gérôme
World Muslim population by percentage ( from Pew Research Center)
A map of Muslim populations by absolute number

Muslims (مسلم, ) are people who adhere to Islam, an Abrahamic religion.

Moses Indignant at the Golden Calf by William Blake, 1799–1800

Idolatry

Worship of a cult image or "idol" as though it were god.

Worship of a cult image or "idol" as though it were god.

Moses Indignant at the Golden Calf by William Blake, 1799–1800
Moses breaks the Ten Commandments in response to the golden calf worship in this 1860 woodcut by Julius Schnorr von Carolsfeld.
A 1768 synagogue parchment with the Ten Commandments by Jekuthiel Sofer. Among other things, it prohibits idolatry
St. Benedict destroying a pagan idol, by Juan Rizi (1600–1681)
Pope Pius V praying with a crucifix, painting by August Kraus
The veneration of images of Mary is called Marian devotion (above: Lithuania), a practice questioned in the majority of Protestant Christianity.
Altar with Christian Bible and crucifix on it, in a Lutheran Protestant church
An expression of reverence to Gomateshwara statue in Jainism.
Inti Raymi, a winter solstice festival of the Inca people, reveres Inti – the sun deity. Offerings include round bread and maize beer.
The Aztec Tula Atlantean statues (above) have been called as symbols of idolatry, but may have just been stone images of warriors.

In Abrahamic religions (namely Judaism, Samaritanism, Christianity, the Baháʼí Faith, and Islam) idolatry connotes the worship of something or someone other than the Abrahamic God as if it were God.

The tetragrammaton in Paleo-Hebrew (10th century BCE to 135 CE), old Aramaic (10th century BCE to 4th century CE), and square Hebrew (3rd century BCE to present) scripts.

Monotheism

Belief that there is only one deity, an all-supreme being that is universally referred to as God.

Belief that there is only one deity, an all-supreme being that is universally referred to as God.

The tetragrammaton in Paleo-Hebrew (10th century BCE to 135 CE), old Aramaic (10th century BCE to 4th century CE), and square Hebrew (3rd century BCE to present) scripts.
The Trinity is the belief in Christianity that God is one God in essence but three persons: God the Father, God the Son (Jesus), and God the Holy Spirit.
God in The Creation of Adam, fresco by Michelangelo (c. 1508–1512)
Arabic calligraphy reading "Allah, may his glory be glorified"
Mandaean pendant
Baháʼí House of Worship, Langenhain, Germany
Pharaoh Akhenaten and his family adoring the Aten.
Shang Dynasty bronze script character for tian (天), which translates to Heaven and sky.
Krishna displays his Vishvarupa (universal form) to Arjuna on the battlefield of Kurukshetra.
Faravahar (or Ferohar), one of the primary symbols of Zoroastrianism, believed to be the depiction of a Fravashi (guardian spirit)
A Sikh temple, known as Nanaksar Gurudwara, in Alberta, Canada.
Ik Onkār, a Sikh symbol representing "the One Supreme Reality"
Fictionalized portrait of Xenophanes from a 17th-century engraving
Remains of the Temple of Apollo at Delphi, Greece.

Monotheism characterizes the traditions of Bábism, the Baháʼí Faith, Cheondoism, Christianity, Deism, Druzism, Eckankar, Sikhism, some sects of Hinduism (such as Shaivism and Vaishnavism), Islam, Judaism, Mandaeism, Rastafari, Seicho-no-Ie, Tenrikyo, Yazidism, and Atenism.

However this religion was mostly replaced with the Abrahamic religions.

Detail of Gabriel from Pinturicchio's The Annunciation (1501)

Gabriel

Detail of Gabriel from Pinturicchio's The Annunciation (1501)
Annunciation of Gabriel by Jan van Eyck, 1434
Statue of Archangel Gabriel (15th century), adorning the top of the northwest corner pillar of the Palazzo Ducale in Venice
Archangel Gabriel. A fresco from the Tsalenjikha Cathedral by Cyrus Emanuel Eugenicus. 14th century.
Gabriel on the southern deacons' door of the iconostasis in the Cathedral of Hajdúdorog, Hungary
Icon of Gabriel, Byzantine, c. 1387–1395 (Tretyakov Gallery)
The Annunciation, Henry Ossawa Tanner (1898)
The Annunciation, Gabriel kneeling on one knee. Llanbeblig Book of Hours (f. 1r.).
Detail of Gabriel from Leonardo da Vinci's Annunciation (c. 1472–1475)
Angel of the Annunciation by Titian (1520–1522)
Archangel Gabriel Millennium Monument at Heroes' Square in Budapest
Archangel Gabriel in the church of St. Georg in Bermatingen
Archangel Gabriel in the church of St. Magnus in Waldburg
Archangel Gabriel at the facade of the Cathedral of Reims
Archangel Gabriel at the Liberty square, Budapest

In the Abrahamic religions, Gabriel or Cebrail ([djébraïl]) is an archangel who appears in the Hebrew Bible, the New Testament, and the Quran.

Islam regards Gabriel as an archangel sent by God to various prophets, including Muhammad.

A rock carved with the text of "al-'Aqida al-Murshida" (the Guiding Creed) by Ibn Tumart (d. 524/1130) — the student of al-Ghazali (d. 505/ 1111) and the founder of the Almohad dynasty — praised and approved by Fakhr al-Din Ibn 'Asakir (d. 620/1223), located at al-Salah Islamic secondary school in Baalbek, Lebanon.

God in Islam

Eternal being who originated the creation, preserves all things and then will repeat it.

Eternal being who originated the creation, preserves all things and then will repeat it.

A rock carved with the text of "al-'Aqida al-Murshida" (the Guiding Creed) by Ibn Tumart (d. 524/1130) — the student of al-Ghazali (d. 505/ 1111) and the founder of the Almohad dynasty — praised and approved by Fakhr al-Din Ibn 'Asakir (d. 620/1223), located at al-Salah Islamic secondary school in Baalbek, Lebanon.

In Islam, God is conceived as absolutely one, unique, and perfect, free from all faults, deficiencies, and defects, and further held to be omnipotent, omniscient, and completely infinite in all of his attributes, having no partner or equal, and being the sole creator of everything in existence.

As in the other Abrahamic religions, God is believed to communicate with his creation via revelations given to prophets to remind people of God.

Mecca

Panorama of Mecca, 1845, from the Khalili Collection of Hajj and the Arts of Pilgrimage
The area surrounding the Haram Shareef.
The Hajj involves pilgrims visiting Al-Haram Mosque, but mainly camping and spending time in the plains of Mina and Arafah
Jabal al-Nour, the mountain atop which is the Hira cave, where it is believed Muhammad received his first revelation.
The Quran Gate
Mecca as seen from the International Space Station
The al-'Aziziyah district of Mecca
Kaaba in July 2021, during COVID-19 restrictions.
Al-Haram Mosque and the Kaaba
Kaaba during expansion in 2013
Hajj terminal
Entry Gate of Mecca on Highway 40
Mecca Metro Route Map
Mecca, {{circa}} 1718 CE
Mecca, c. 1778 CE
Mecca, in the 1880s
Mecca in 1910
Pilgrims surround the Ka'bah in 1910

Mecca, officially Makkah al-Mukarramah (مكة المكرمة, ) and commonly shortened to Makkah (مكة, ), is a city and administrative center of the Mecca Province of Saudi Arabia, and the holiest city in Islam.

Advocating his form of Abrahamic monotheism against Meccan paganism, and after enduring persecution from the pagan tribes for 13 years, Muhammad emigrated to Medina (hijrah) in 622 with his companions, the Muhajirun, to Yathrib (later renamed Medina).

Egyptian gods in the Carnegie Museum of Natural History

Polytheism

Belief in multiple deities, which are usually assembled into a pantheon of gods and goddesses, along with their own religious sects and rituals.

Belief in multiple deities, which are usually assembled into a pantheon of gods and goddesses, along with their own religious sects and rituals.

Egyptian gods in the Carnegie Museum of Natural History
Bulul statues serve as avatars of rice deities in the Anitist beliefs of the Ifugao in the Philippines.
Procession of the Twelve Olympians
It is sometimes claimed that Christianity is not truly monotheistic because of its idea of the Trinity

Polytheism was the typical form of religion before the development and spread of the Abrahamic religions of Judaism, Christianity and Islam, which enforce monotheism.