Abrasion (geology)

abrasionabradeabradedwind abrasionabradesabradingabrasiveglacial abrasionglacial scouringscouring
Abrasion is a process of erosion which occurs when material being transported wears away at a surface over time.wikipedia
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Erosion

erodedglacial erosioneroding
Abrasion is a process of erosion which occurs when material being transported wears away at a surface over time.
Natural rates of erosion are controlled by the action of geological weathering geomorphic drivers, such as rainfall; bedrock wear in rivers; coastal erosion by the sea and waves; glacial plucking, abrasion, and scour; areal flooding; wind abrasion; groundwater processes; and mass movement processes in steep landscapes like landslides and debris flows.

Weathering

weatheredchemical weatheringweather resistant
In addition to chemical weathering and the physical weathering of hydraulic action, freeze-thaw cycles (see frost weathering), and more, there is a suite of processes which have long been considered to contribute significantly to bedrock channel erosion include plucking, abrasion (due to both bedload and suspended load), solution, and cavitation.
The primary process in physical weathering is abrasion (the process by which clasts and other particles are reduced in size).

Hydraulic action

erosional activity
In addition to chemical weathering and the physical weathering of hydraulic action, freeze-thaw cycles (see frost weathering), and more, there is a suite of processes which have long been considered to contribute significantly to bedrock channel erosion include plucking, abrasion (due to both bedload and suspended load), solution, and cavitation.
Within this rubric are a number of specific erosional processes, including abrasion, attrition, corrasion, saltation, and scouring (downcutting).

Plucking (glaciation)

pluckingglacial pluckingglacial
In addition to chemical weathering and the physical weathering of hydraulic action, freeze-thaw cycles (see frost weathering), and more, there is a suite of processes which have long been considered to contribute significantly to bedrock channel erosion include plucking, abrasion (due to both bedload and suspended load), solution, and cavitation.
These entrained rock fragments can also cause abrasion along the subsequent bedrock and walls.

Geomorphology

geomorphologicalgeomorphologistgeomorphic
Today, the geomorphology community uses the term "abrasion" in a looser way, often interchangeably with the term "wear".
The gradual movement of ice down a valley causes abrasion and plucking of the underlying rock.

Bed load

bedloadbedload transport
In addition to chemical weathering and the physical weathering of hydraulic action, freeze-thaw cycles (see frost weathering), and more, there is a suite of processes which have long been considered to contribute significantly to bedrock channel erosion include plucking, abrasion (due to both bedload and suspended load), solution, and cavitation.
This is due in part to attrition and abrasion which results from the stones colliding with each other and against the river channel, thus removing the rough texture (rounding) and reducing the size of the particles.

Glacial striation

striationsglacial striationsGlacial striae
A smooth, polished surface is left behind by glacial abrasion, sometimes with glacial striations, which provide information about the mechanics of abrasion under temperate glaciers
Glacial striations are scratches or gouges cut into bedrock by glacial abrasion.

Raised beach

marine terraceterracesraised beaches
If the platform is permanently exposed above the high-water mark, it is probably a raised beach platform (aka, marine terrace), which is not considered a product of abrasion, but may be undercut by abrasion as sea level rises.
The retreat of the sea cliff generates a shore (wave-cut/abrasion-) platform through the process of abrasion.

Fluvial processes

fluvialfluviatilefluvio
Mathematical models of these forces are notably similar to models in fluvial environments.
However, if the river carries significant quantities of sediment, this material can act as tools to enhance wear of the bed (abrasion).

Friction

coefficient of frictionstatic frictionfriction coefficient
It is the process of friction caused by scuffing, scratching, wearing down, marring, and rubbing away of materials.

Hardness

hardhardersoft
The intensity of abrasion depends on the hardness, concentration, velocity and mass of the moving particles.

Concentration

concentrationsanalytical concentrationM
The intensity of abrasion depends on the hardness, concentration, velocity and mass of the moving particles.

Velocity

velocitiesvelocity vectorlinear velocity
The intensity of abrasion depends on the hardness, concentration, velocity and mass of the moving particles.

Mass

inertial massgravitational massweight
The intensity of abrasion depends on the hardness, concentration, velocity and mass of the moving particles.

Glacial period

glaciationglacialglaciations
Glaciation slowly grinds rocks picked up by ice against rock surfaces.

Sand

sand grainsandybeach sand
And, finally, abrasion can be caused by wind transporting sand or small stones against surface rocks.

Attrition (erosion)

attrition
Abrasion, under its strictest definition, is commonly confused with attrition.

Frost weathering

freeze-thawfrost actionhydrofracturing
In addition to chemical weathering and the physical weathering of hydraulic action, freeze-thaw cycles (see frost weathering), and more, there is a suite of processes which have long been considered to contribute significantly to bedrock channel erosion include plucking, abrasion (due to both bedload and suspended load), solution, and cavitation.

Bedrock

subsurfaceBed rockbare stone
In addition to chemical weathering and the physical weathering of hydraulic action, freeze-thaw cycles (see frost weathering), and more, there is a suite of processes which have long been considered to contribute significantly to bedrock channel erosion include plucking, abrasion (due to both bedload and suspended load), solution, and cavitation.

Suspended load

suspended sedimentsuspendedsuspension
In addition to chemical weathering and the physical weathering of hydraulic action, freeze-thaw cycles (see frost weathering), and more, there is a suite of processes which have long been considered to contribute significantly to bedrock channel erosion include plucking, abrasion (due to both bedload and suspended load), solution, and cavitation.

Solution

solutesolutessolutions
In addition to chemical weathering and the physical weathering of hydraulic action, freeze-thaw cycles (see frost weathering), and more, there is a suite of processes which have long been considered to contribute significantly to bedrock channel erosion include plucking, abrasion (due to both bedload and suspended load), solution, and cavitation.

Cavitation

cavitatecavitatingacoustic cavitation
In addition to chemical weathering and the physical weathering of hydraulic action, freeze-thaw cycles (see frost weathering), and more, there is a suite of processes which have long been considered to contribute significantly to bedrock channel erosion include plucking, abrasion (due to both bedload and suspended load), solution, and cavitation.

Clastic rock

clasticclastclasts
Bedload transport consists of mostly larger clasts, which cannot be picked up by the velocity of the stream flow, rolling, sliding, and/or saltating (bouncing) downstream along the bed.

Saltation (geology)

saltationsaltatingsaltation layer
Bedload transport consists of mostly larger clasts, which cannot be picked up by the velocity of the stream flow, rolling, sliding, and/or saltating (bouncing) downstream along the bed.

Sediment transport

transporttransportedtransport sediment
Suspended load typically refers to smaller particles, such as silt, clay, and finer grain sands uplifted by processes of sediment transport.