Absolute (philosophy)

AbsoluteThe AbsoluteUltimate RealityinterconnectedtotalityUltimateabsolute principleOneabsolute realityThe Ultimate
In idealist philosophy, the Absolute is "the sum of all being, actual and potential".wikipedia
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Philosophy

philosophicalphilosopherhistory of philosophy
In idealist philosophy, the Absolute is "the sum of all being, actual and potential".
What is most real?

Brahman

BrahmBrahmaBrahmam
According to Glyn Richards, the early texts of Hinduism state that the Brahman or the nondual Brahman–Atman is the Absolute.
In Hinduism, Brahman connotes the highest Universal Principle, the Ultimate Reality in the universe.

Absolute idealism

neo-HegelianNeo-HegelianismCritical idealism
It is Hegel's account of how being is ultimately comprehensible as an all-inclusive whole (das Absolute).

Madhyamaka

MadhyamikaMādhyamakaMādhyamika
Yet, the early Buddhist scholar Nagarjuna, states Paul Williams, does not present "emptiness" as some kind of Absolute, rather it is "the very absence (a pure non-existence) of inherent existence" in Mādhyamaka school of the Buddhist philosophy.
According to Paul Williams, Nāgārjuna associates emptiness with the ultimate truth but his conception of emptiness is not some kind of Absolute, but rather it is the very absence of true existence with regards to the conventional reality of things and events in the world.

Perennial philosophy

PerennialismPerennialistphilosophia perennis
The term has also been adopted by Aldous Huxley in his perennial philosophy to interpret various religious traditions, including Indian religions, and influenced other strands of nondualistic and New Age thought.
The Traditionalist School discerns a transcendent and an immanent dimension, namely the discernment of the Real or Absolute, c.q. that which is permanent; and the intentional "mystical concentration on the Real."

Conceptions of God

conception of Godconcept of Godconcepts of God
In Buddhism, the idea of the metaphysical absolute is deconstructed in the same way as of the idea of an enduring "self", but it is not necessarily denied.

Para Brahman

NirgunaNirguna BrahmanParabrahma
Brahman connotes the Highest Universal Principle in Hinduism, the Ultimate Reality in the universe.

Anekantavada

SyādvādaanekantaSyadvada
According to Jainism, no single, specific statement can describe the nature of existence and the absolute truth.

Existence of God

arguments for the existence of GodGod's existencethe existence of God
The five eternal principles to be discussed under ontology, beginning with God or Isvara, the Ultimate Reality cannot be established by the means of logic alone, and often require superior proof.

The All

AllNousTo Hen
The All (also called The One, The Absolute, The Great One, The Creator, The Supreme Mind, The Supreme Good, The Father, and The All Mother) is the Hermetic, pantheistic, pandeistic or panentheistic (and thus also panpsychism/monopsychism/unus mundus/anima mundi) view of God, which is that everything that is, or at least that can be experienced, collectively makes up The All.

Reality

real worldrealreality-based
Nihilism represents an extremely negative view of being, the absolute a positive one.

Intrinsic value (ethics)

intrinsic valueintrinsically goodintrinsic good
Absolute intrinsic value, on the other hand, is philosophically absolute and independent of individual and cultural views, as well as independent on whether it discovered or not what object has it.

God

Supreme BeingLordnature of God
According to Hegel, states Frederick Copleston – a historian of philosophy, "Logic studies the Absolute 'in itself'; the philosophy of Nature studies the Absolute 'for itself'; and the philosophy of Spirit studies the Absolute 'in and for itself'. The concept is also found in the works of F.W.J. Schelling, and was anticipated by Johann Gottlieb Fichte. In English philosophy, F. H. Bradley has distinguished the concept of Absolute from God, while Josiah Royce, the founder of American idealism school of philosophy, has equated them.

Idealism

idealistidealisticidealists
In monistic idealism, it serves as a concept for the "unconditioned reality which is either the spiritual ground of all being or the whole of things considered as a spiritual unity.

Georg Wilhelm Friedrich Hegel

HegelG. W. F. HegelG.W.F. Hegel
The concept of "the absolute" was introduced in modern philosophy, notably by Hegel, for "the sum of all being, actual and potential".

Martin Heidegger

HeideggerHeideggerianHeidegger, Martin
For Hegel, states the philosophy scholar Martin Heidegger, the Absolute is "the spirit, that which is present to itself in the certainty of unconditional self-knowing".

Frederick Copleston

Frederick Charles CoplestonCopleston, FrederickF. C. Copleston
According to Hegel, states Frederick Copleston – a historian of philosophy, "Logic studies the Absolute 'in itself'; the philosophy of Nature studies the Absolute 'for itself'; and the philosophy of Spirit studies the Absolute 'in and for itself'. The concept is also found in the works of F.W.J. Schelling, and was anticipated by Johann Gottlieb Fichte. In English philosophy, F. H. Bradley has distinguished the concept of Absolute from God, while Josiah Royce, the founder of American idealism school of philosophy, has equated them.

Friedrich Wilhelm Joseph Schelling

SchellingFriedrich SchellingFriedrich Wilhelm Joseph von Schelling
According to Hegel, states Frederick Copleston – a historian of philosophy, "Logic studies the Absolute 'in itself'; the philosophy of Nature studies the Absolute 'for itself'; and the philosophy of Spirit studies the Absolute 'in and for itself'. The concept is also found in the works of F.W.J. Schelling, and was anticipated by Johann Gottlieb Fichte. In English philosophy, F. H. Bradley has distinguished the concept of Absolute from God, while Josiah Royce, the founder of American idealism school of philosophy, has equated them.

Johann Gottlieb Fichte

FichteJ. G. FichteJohann Fichte
According to Hegel, states Frederick Copleston – a historian of philosophy, "Logic studies the Absolute 'in itself'; the philosophy of Nature studies the Absolute 'for itself'; and the philosophy of Spirit studies the Absolute 'in and for itself'. The concept is also found in the works of F.W.J. Schelling, and was anticipated by Johann Gottlieb Fichte. In English philosophy, F. H. Bradley has distinguished the concept of Absolute from God, while Josiah Royce, the founder of American idealism school of philosophy, has equated them.

F. H. Bradley

Francis Herbert BradleyBradleyFrancis Bradley
According to Hegel, states Frederick Copleston – a historian of philosophy, "Logic studies the Absolute 'in itself'; the philosophy of Nature studies the Absolute 'for itself'; and the philosophy of Spirit studies the Absolute 'in and for itself'. The concept is also found in the works of F.W.J. Schelling, and was anticipated by Johann Gottlieb Fichte. In English philosophy, F. H. Bradley has distinguished the concept of Absolute from God, while Josiah Royce, the founder of American idealism school of philosophy, has equated them.

Josiah Royce

RoyceRoyce, Josiah
According to Hegel, states Frederick Copleston – a historian of philosophy, "Logic studies the Absolute 'in itself'; the philosophy of Nature studies the Absolute 'for itself'; and the philosophy of Spirit studies the Absolute 'in and for itself'. The concept is also found in the works of F.W.J. Schelling, and was anticipated by Johann Gottlieb Fichte. In English philosophy, F. H. Bradley has distinguished the concept of Absolute from God, while Josiah Royce, the founder of American idealism school of philosophy, has equated them.

Indian religions

Dharmic religionsIndian religionreligion
The concept of the Absolute has been used to interpret the early texts of the Indian religions such as those attributed to Yajnavalkya, Nagarjuna and Adi Shankara.