A report on Absolute (philosophy), Brahman and Jainism
Brahman is discussed in Hindu texts with the concept of Atman (आत्मन्), (Self), personal, impersonal or Para Brahman, or in various combinations of these qualities depending on the philosophical school.- Brahman
In Jainism, Absolute Knowledge or Kewalya Gnan, is said to be attained by the Arihantas and Tirthankaras, who reflects in their knowing the 360 degrees of the truth and events of past, present and future.- Absolute (philosophy)
According to Glyn Richards, the early texts of Hinduism state that the Brahman or the nondual Brahman–Atman is the Absolute.- Absolute (philosophy)
Buddhism and Carvaka school of Hinduism deny that there exists anything called "a Self" (individual Atman or Brahman in the cosmic sense), while the orthodox schools of Hinduism, Jainism and Ajivikas hold that there exists "a Self".- Brahman
According to him, the "many pointedness, multiple perspective" teachings of the Mahāvīra is about the nature of absolute reality and human existence.- Jainism
Hindu thought generally discusses Atman and Brahman through a monistic or dualistic framework.- Jainism
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In spirituality, nondualism, also called nonduality and interconnectedness; and nondual awareness, is a fuzzy concept for which many definitions can be found, including: a rejection of dualistic thinking originating in Indian philosophy; the nondifference of subject and object; the common identity of metaphysical phenomena and the Absolute; the "nonduality of duality and nonduality"; the unity of God and man; or simply monism, the nonplurality of the world, or double-aspect theory.
The original and early Buddhist concepts of nirvana may have been similar to those found in competing Śramaṇa (strivers/ascetics) traditions such as Jainism and Upanishadic Vedism.
Madhyamaka also rejects the existence of absolute realities or beings such as Brahman or Self.