Nāgārjuna (right) and Āryadeva (middle).
Thangkha with Jonang lama Dolpopa Sherab Gyaltsen (1292–1361)
Gorampa Sonam Senge, the most important madhyamaka philosopher in Sakya
Mikyö Dorje, 8th Karmapa Lama
Jamgön Ju Mipham Gyatso (1846–1912), a key exponent of madhyamaka thought in the Nyingma school, known for harmonizing madhyamaka with the dzogchen view.
A painting of Kumārajīva at White Horse Pagoda, Dunhuang

Yet, the early Buddhist scholar Nagarjuna, states Paul Williams, does not present "emptiness" as some kind of Absolute, rather it is "the very absence (a pure non-existence) of inherent existence" in Mādhyamaka school of the Buddhist philosophy.

- Absolute (philosophy)

According to Paul Williams, Nāgārjuna associates emptiness with the ultimate truth but his conception of emptiness is not some kind of Absolute, but rather it is the very absence of true existence with regards to the conventional reality of things and events in the world.

- Madhyamaka
Nāgārjuna (right) and Āryadeva (middle).

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The layman Vimalakīrti Debates Manjusri, Dunhuang Mogao Caves
Nagarjuna (right), Aryadeva (middle) and the Tenth Karmapa (left).
Asaṅga (fl. 4th century C.E.), a Mahayana scholar who wrote numerous works which discuss the Yogacara view and practice.
Saṃvara with Vajravārāhī in Yab-Yum. These tantric Buddhist depictions of sexual union symbolize the non-dual union of compassion and emptiness.
A 3D rendering of Indra's net, an illustration of the Huayan concept of interpenetration.
Swans are important figures in Advaita
Ramanuja, founder of Vishishtadvaita Vedanta, taught 'qualified nondualism' doctrine.
Ramana Maharshi (1879–1950) explained his insight using Shaiva Siddhanta, Advaita Vedanta and Yoga teachings.
The Mystic Marriage of St Catherine, St John the Baptist, St Antony Abbot

In spirituality, nondualism, also called nonduality and interconnectedness; and nondual awareness, is a fuzzy concept for which many definitions can be found, including: a rejection of dualistic thinking originating in Indian philosophy; the nondifference of subject and object; the common identity of metaphysical phenomena and the Absolute; the "nonduality of duality and nonduality"; the unity of God and man; or simply monism, the nonplurality of the world, or double-aspect theory.

In the Buddhist tradition, non-duality (advaya) is associated with the teachings of interdependence and emptiness (śūnyatā) and the two truths doctrine, particularly the Madhyamaka teaching of the non-duality of absolute and relative truth; and with the Yogachara notion of "mind/thought only" (citta-matra) or "representation-only" (vijñaptimātra).