Absolutive case

absolutiveABSabsolutemarked absolutiveabs.absolutive case (singular)
The absolutive case (abbreviated ) is the grammatical case of a core argument of a verb (generally other than the nominative) that is used as the citation form of a noun.wikipedia
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List of glossing abbreviations

abbreviatedglossing abbreviationglossing abbreviations
The absolutive case (abbreviated ) is the grammatical case of a core argument of a verb (generally other than the nominative) that is used as the citation form of a noun.

Ergative–absolutive language

ergativeergative–absolutiveergativity
In ergative–absolutive languages, the absolutive is the case used to mark both the subject of an intransitive verb and the object of a transitive verb in addition to being used for the citation form of a noun.
In ergative–absolutive languages with grammatical case, the case used for the single argument of an intransitive verb and the object of a transitive verb is the absolutive, and the case used for the agent of a transitive verb is the ergative.

Ergative case

ergativeERGergatively
It contrasts with the marked ergative case, which marks the subject of a transitive verb.
In such languages, the ergative case is typically marked (most salient), while the absolutive case is unmarked.

Grammatical case

casecasescase marking
The absolutive case (abbreviated ) is the grammatical case of a core argument of a verb (generally other than the nominative) that is used as the citation form of a noun.
Ergative–absolutive (or simply ergative): The argument (subject) of an intransitive verb is in the same case as the patient (direct object) of a transitive verb; this case is then called the absolutive case, with the agent (subject) of a transitive verb being in the ergative case.

Intransitive verb

intransitiveintransitive verbsintransitively
In ergative–absolutive languages, the absolutive is the case used to mark both the subject of an intransitive verb and the object of a transitive verb in addition to being used for the citation form of a noun.
But in an ergative–absolutive language like Dyirbal, "I" in the transitive I hug him would take the ergative case, but the "I" in I was hugged would take the absolutive, and so by analogy the antipassive construction more closely resembles *was hugged me.

Nominative–absolutive language

marked nominativeNominative-Absolutive languagenominative-accusative
In nominative–absolutive languages, also called marked-nominative languages, the nominative has a case inflection, and it is the accusative and citation form that are unmarked.
Because that resembles an absolutive case, it is often called a nominative–absolutive system.

Basque language

BasqueEuskeraBasque-language
For example, in Basque the noun mutil ("boy") takes the bare singular article -a both as the subject of the intransitive clause mutila etorri da ("the boy came") and as the object of the transitive clause Irakasleak mutila ikusi du ("the teacher has seen the boy") in which the subject bears the ergative ending -a-k.
The subject of an intransitive verb is in the absolutive case (which is unmarked), and the same case is used for the direct object of a transitive verb.

Nominative–accusative language

nominative–accusativenominative-accusativeaccusative
In nominative–accusative languages, both core cases may be marked, but often, it is only the accusative that is marked.
In an ergative–absolutive system, A is coded as ergative while S and O are coded as absolutive.

Sochiapam Chinantec

cso
In a very few cases, a marked absolutive has been reported, including in Nias and Sochiapam Chinantec.
More unusually, it has also been reported to have a rare marked absolutive case system.

Morphosyntactic alignment

alignmentcore relationdistinguishing between their relations
* Morphosyntactic alignment
2) Ergative–absolutive (or ergative) alignment treats an intransitive argument like a transitive O argument (S=O; A separate) (see ergative–absolutive language). An A may be marked with an ergative case (or sometimes an oblique case used also for the genitive or instrumental case roles) while the S argument of an intransitive verb and the O argument of a transitive verb are left unmarked or sometimes marked with an absolutive case. Ergative–absolutive languages can detransitivize transitive verbs by demoting the O and promoting the A to an S, thus taking the absolutive case, called the antipassive voice. About a sixth of the world's languages have ergative alignment. The best known are probably Inuit and Basque.

Intransitive case

intransitive subject
It is occasionally called the intransitive case, but absolutive is also used and is perhaps more accurate since it is not limited to core agents of intransitive verbs.
It is generally seen in languages that display tripartite nominal morphologies; it contrasts with the nominative and absolutive cases employed in other languages' morphosyntax to mark the argument of intransitive clauses.

Argument (linguistics)

argumentargumentsverb argument
The absolutive case (abbreviated ) is the grammatical case of a core argument of a verb (generally other than the nominative) that is used as the citation form of a noun.

Nominative case

nominativenom.NOM
The absolutive case (abbreviated ) is the grammatical case of a core argument of a verb (generally other than the nominative) that is used as the citation form of a noun.

Lemma (morphology)

lemmacitation formdictionary form
The absolutive case (abbreviated ) is the grammatical case of a core argument of a verb (generally other than the nominative) that is used as the citation form of a noun.

Transitive verb

transitivetransitive verbstransitivity
In ergative–absolutive languages, the absolutive is the case used to mark both the subject of an intransitive verb and the object of a transitive verb in addition to being used for the citation form of a noun.

Article (grammar)

definite articlearticlearticles
For example, in Basque the noun mutil ("boy") takes the bare singular article -a both as the subject of the intransitive clause mutila etorri da ("the boy came") and as the object of the transitive clause Irakasleak mutila ikusi du ("the teacher has seen the boy") in which the subject bears the ergative ending -a-k.

Nias language

Niasnia
In a very few cases, a marked absolutive has been reported, including in Nias and Sochiapam Chinantec.

Tripartite language

tripartiteergative-accusativeergative-accusative languages
In tripartite languages, both the agent and object of a transitive clause have case forms, ergative and accusative, and the agent of an intransitive clause is the unmarked citation form.

Sorginak

Basque witchesSorginwitchery
Sorginak (root form: sorgin, absolutive case (singular): sorgina) are the assistants of the goddess Mari in Basque mythology.

Kingdom of Navarre

NavarrePamplonaNavarrese
Basque nabar (declined absolute singular nabarra): "brownish", "multicolor", which would be a contrast with the green mountain lands north of the original County of Navarre.

Navarre

NavarraNavarreseForal Community of Navarre
Basque nabar (declined absolute singular nabarra): "brownish", "multicolour" (i. e. in contrast to the green mountainous lands north of the original County of Navarre).

Australian Aboriginal languages

AboriginalAustralian Aboriginal languageAustralian Aboriginal
For morphosyntactic alignment, many Australian languages have ergative–absolutive case systems.