Abstract (summary)

Doctoral ceremony at Leiden University, Netherlands (7 July 1721).

Brief summary of a research article, thesis, review, conference proceeding, or any in-depth analysis of a particular subject and is often used to help the reader quickly ascertain the paper's purpose.

- Abstract (summary)
Doctoral ceremony at Leiden University, Netherlands (7 July 1721).

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Conference on medicament-assisted rehabilitation in Oslo, Norway

Academic conference

Event for researchers (not necessarily academics) to present and discuss their work.

Event for researchers (not necessarily academics) to present and discuss their work.

Conference on medicament-assisted rehabilitation in Oslo, Norway
Presentations form the core of most conferences
Panel discussions are intended to bring multiple perspectives on a topic
Presentations may be Plenary sessions designed for all attendees (shown here) or breakout sections designed for smaller groups.
Larger conferences may have exhibits and displays for participants between sessions

It describes the broad theme and lists the meeting's topics and formalities such as what kind of abstract (summary) or paper has to be submitted, to whom, and by what deadline.

First page, introduction to In Flanders Fields

Introduction (writing)

Essay, article, or book, an introduction is a beginning section which states the purpose and goals of the following writing.

Essay, article, or book, an introduction is a beginning section which states the purpose and goals of the following writing.

First page, introduction to In Flanders Fields

In a book of technical writing, the introduction may include one or more standard subsections: abstract or summary, preface, acknowledgments, and foreword.

Fish for sale in Dhaka, Bangladesh, with a price tag of 395 Bangladeshi taka per kilogram.

Executive summary

Short document or section of a document produced for business purposes.

Short document or section of a document produced for business purposes.

Fish for sale in Dhaka, Bangladesh, with a price tag of 395 Bangladeshi taka per kilogram.

It differs from an abstract in that an abstract will usually be shorter and is typically intended as an overview or orientation rather than being a condensed version of the full document.

Doctoral ceremony at Leiden University, Netherlands (7 July 1721).

Thesis

Document submitted in support of candidature for an academic degree or professional qualification presenting the author's research and findings.

Document submitted in support of candidature for an academic degree or professional qualification presenting the author's research and findings.

Doctoral ceremony at Leiden University, Netherlands (7 July 1721).
Cover page to Søren Kierkegaard's university thesis (1841).
The cover of the thesis presented by Claude Bernard to obtain his Doctorate of Medicine (1843).
Cover page of a licentiate dissertation in Sweden

An ordinary monograph has a title page, an abstract, a table of contents, comprising the various chapters like introduction, literature review, methodology, results, discussion, and bibliography or more usually a references section.

An SQL select statement and its result

Bibliographic database

Individual's bibliographic references, see Reference management software

Individual's bibliographic references, see Reference management software

An SQL select statement and its result

In contrast to library catalogue entries, a large proportion of the bibliographic records in bibliographic databases describe articles, conference papers, etc., rather than complete monographs, and they generally contain very rich subject descriptions in the form of keywords, subject classification terms, or abstracts.

A table of contents

Table of contents

List, usually found on a page before the start of a written work, of its chapter or section titles or brief descriptions with their commencing page numbers.

List, usually found on a page before the start of a written work, of its chapter or section titles or brief descriptions with their commencing page numbers.

A table of contents

Within an English-language book, the table of contents usually appears after the title page, copyright notices, and, in technical journals, the abstract; and before any lists of tables or figures, the foreword, and the preface.

A video abstract accompanying a journal article. An example extracted from New Journal of Physics.

Video abstract

A video abstract accompanying a journal article. An example extracted from New Journal of Physics.

A video abstract is the motion picture equivalent of a written abstract.

Interpretations of the random patterns of craters on the Moon. A common example of a perceptual bias caused by pareidolia.

Bias

Disproportionate weight in favor of or against an idea or thing, usually in a way that is closed-minded, prejudicial, or unfair.

Disproportionate weight in favor of or against an idea or thing, usually in a way that is closed-minded, prejudicial, or unfair.

Interpretations of the random patterns of craters on the Moon. A common example of a perceptual bias caused by pareidolia.
Confirmation bias has been described as an internal "yes man", echoing back a person's beliefs like Charles Dickens' character Uriah Heep.
Box offered by tobacco lobbyists to Dutch Member of the European Parliament Kartika Liotard in September 2013
Sampling is supposed to collect of a representative sample of a population.

The related bias, no abstract available bias (NAA bias) is scholars' tendency to cite journal articles that have an abstract available online more readily than articles that do not.

The lowercase Greek letter λ (lambda) is an unofficial symbol of the field of programming-language theory. This usage derives from the lambda calculus, a model of computation introduced by Alonzo Church in the 1930s and widely used by programming-language researchers. It graces the cover of the classic text Structure and Interpretation of Computer Programs, and the title of the so-called Lambda Papers of 1975 to 1980, written by Gerald Jay Sussman and Guy Steele, the developers of the Scheme programming language.

DocBook

Semantic markup language for technical documentation.

Semantic markup language for technical documentation.

The lowercase Greek letter λ (lambda) is an unofficial symbol of the field of programming-language theory. This usage derives from the lambda calculus, a model of computation introduced by Alonzo Church in the 1930s and widely used by programming-language researchers. It graces the cover of the classic text Structure and Interpretation of Computer Programs, and the title of the so-called Lambda Papers of 1975 to 1980, written by Gerald Jay Sussman and Guy Steele, the developers of the Scheme programming language.

For example, rather than explaining how the abstract for an article might be visually formatted, DocBook simply says that a particular section is an abstract.

Portrait by Henry William Pickersgill

Jeremy Bentham

English philosopher, jurist, and social reformer regarded as the founder of modern utilitarianism.

English philosopher, jurist, and social reformer regarded as the founder of modern utilitarianism.

Portrait by Henry William Pickersgill
Portrait of Bentham by the studio of Thomas Frye, 1760–1762
Elevation, section and plan of Bentham's panopticon prison, drawn by Willey Reveley in 1791.
Defence of Usury, 1788
Bentham's public dissection
Bentham's auto-icon in a new display case at University College London's Student Centre in 2020.
Bentham's auto-icon in 2003
Jeremy Bentham's severed head, on temporary display at UCL
Henry Tonks' imaginary scene of Bentham approving the building plans of London University
The back of No. 19, York Street (1848). In 1651 John Milton moved into a "pretty garden-house" in Petty France. He lived there until the Restoration. Later it became No. 19 York Street, belonged to Jeremy Bentham (who for a time lived next door), was occupied successively by James Mill and William Hazlitt, and finally demolished in 1877.
Jeremy Bentham House in Bethnal Green, East London; a modernist apartment block named after the philosopher

When the essay was published in the Journal of Homosexuality in 1978, the abstract stated that Bentham's essay was the "first known argument for homosexual law reform in England."