A report on Abugida

Comparison of various abugidas descended from Brahmi script. Meaning: May Śiva protect those who take delight in the language of the gods. (Kalidasa)
A 19th-century manuscript in the Devanagari script
The Ge'ez script, an abugida of Eritrea and Ethiopia

Segmental writing system in which consonant-vowel sequences are written as units; each unit is based on a consonant letter, and vowel notation is secondary.

- Abugida
Comparison of various abugidas descended from Brahmi script. Meaning: May Śiva protect those who take delight in the language of the gods. (Kalidasa)

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A Sanskrit Phrase in different Brahmic Scripts.

Brahmic scripts

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A Sanskrit Phrase in different Brahmic Scripts.
A map of Indo-Aryan languages using their respective Brahmic family scripts (except dark blue colored Khowar, Pashai, Kohistani, and Urdu, not marked here, which use Arabic-derived scripts).
A map of Dravidian languages using their respective Brahmic family scripts (except Brahui, which uses an Arabic-derived script).
A fragment of Ashoka's 6th pillar edict, in Brahmi, the ancestor of all Brahmic scripts
Spread of Brahmic family of scripts (and Kharosthi) from India

The Brahmic scripts, also known as Indic scripts, are a family of abugida writing systems.

Uṣṇīṣa Vijaya Dhāraṇī Sūtra in Siddham on palm-leaf in 609 CE. Hōryū-ji, Japan. The last line is a complete Sanskrit syllabary in Siddhaṃ script.

Devanagari

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Uṣṇīṣa Vijaya Dhāraṇī Sūtra in Siddham on palm-leaf in 609 CE. Hōryū-ji, Japan. The last line is a complete Sanskrit syllabary in Siddhaṃ script.
Vowel diacritics on क
The Jnanesvari is a commentary on the Bhagavad Gita, dated to 1290 CE. It is in written in Marathi using Devanagari script.
A few palm leaves from the Buddhist Sanskrit text Shisyalekha composed in the 5th century by Candragomin. Shisyalekha was written in Devanagari script by a Nepalese scribe in 1084 CE (above). The manuscript is in the Cambridge University library.
A mid 10th-century college land grant in Devanagari inscription (Sanskrit) discovered on a buried, damaged stone in north Karnataka. Parts of the inscription are in Canarese script.
Indic scripts share common features, and along with Devanagari, all major Indic scripts have been historically used to preserve Vedic and post-Vedic Sanskrit texts.
Devanagari INSCRIPT bilingual keyboard layout
Devanagari Phonetic Keyboard Layout

Devanagari (देवनागरी,, Sanskrit pronunciation: ), also called Nagari , is a left-to-right abugida (a type of segmental writing system), based on the ancient Brāhmī script, used in the Indian subcontinent.

Charles Morton's 1759 updated version of Edward Bernard's "Orbis eruditi", comparing all known alphabets as of 1689

Alphabet

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Standardized set of basic written symbols or graphemes that represent the phonemes of certain spoken languages.

Standardized set of basic written symbols or graphemes that represent the phonemes of certain spoken languages.

Charles Morton's 1759 updated version of Edward Bernard's "Orbis eruditi", comparing all known alphabets as of 1689
A Specimen of typeset fonts and languages, by William Caslon, letter founder; from the 1728 Cyclopaedia
A specimen of Proto-Sinaitic script, one of the earliest (if not the very first) phonemic scripts
Illustration from Acta Eruditorum, 1741
Codex Zographensis in the Glagolitic alphabet from Medieval Bulgaria
Zhuyin on a cell phone
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Ge'ez Script of Ethiopia and Eritrea
A Venn diagram showing the Greek (left), Cyrillic (bottom) and Latin (right) alphabets, which share many of the same letters, although they have different pronunciations
Old Georgian alphabet inscription on monastery gate
Terracotta jar (probably inkwell) with abecedarium of the Etruscan alphabet, 630–620 BC

However, Peter T. Daniels distinguishes an abugida, or alphasyllabary, a set of graphemes that represent consonantal base letters which diacritics modify to represent vowels (as in Devanagari and other South Asian scripts), an abjad, in which letters predominantly or exclusively represent consonants (as in the original Phoenician, Hebrew or Arabic), and an "alphabet", a set of graphemes that represent both consonants and vowels.

Chinese characters (hànzì, 漢字) are morpho-syllabic. Each one represents a syllable with a distinct meaning, but some characters may have multiple meanings or pronunciations

Writing system

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Method of visually representing verbal communication, based on a script and a set of rules regulating its use.

Method of visually representing verbal communication, based on a script and a set of rules regulating its use.

Chinese characters (hànzì, 漢字) are morpho-syllabic. Each one represents a syllable with a distinct meaning, but some characters may have multiple meanings or pronunciations
A Specimen of typefaces and styles, by William Caslon, letter founder; from the 1728 Cyclopaedia
Comparative evolution from pictograms to abstract shapes, in Mesopotamian cuneiforms, Egyptian hieroglyphs and Chinese characters.
Table of scripts in the introduction to Sanskrit-English Dictionary by Monier Monier-Williams
This textbook for Puyi shows the English alphabet. Although the English letters run from left to right, the Chinese explanations run from top to bottom then right to left, as traditionally written
Early Chinese character for sun (ri), 1200 B.C
Modern Chinese character (ri) meaning "day" or "Sun"
A bilingual stop sign in English and the Cherokee syllabary in Tahlequah, Oklahoma
A Bible printed with Balinese script
An overview of the writing directions used in the world

Abjads differ from alphabets in that vowels are not indicated, and in abugidas or alphasyllabaries each character represents a consonant–vowel pairing.

Genesis 1:9 "And God said, Let the waters be collected". Letters in black, niqqud in red, cantillation in blue

Diacritic

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Glyph added to a letter or to a basic glyph.

Glyph added to a letter or to a basic glyph.

Genesis 1:9 "And God said, Let the waters be collected". Letters in black, niqqud in red, cantillation in blue
Hangul, the Korean alphabet
keyboard
Blackboard used in class at Harvard shows students' efforts at placing the ü and acute accent diacritic used in Spanish orthography.

In abugida scripts, like those used to write Hindi and Thai, diacritics indicate vowels, and may occur above, below, before, after, or around the consonant letter they modify.

A northern example of Brahmi epigraphy: ancient terracotta sculpture from Sugh "Child learning Brahmi", showing the first letters of the Brahmi alphabet, 2nd century BCE.

Brahmi script

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Writing system of ancient South Asia that appeared as a fully developed script in the third century BCE.

Writing system of ancient South Asia that appeared as a fully developed script in the third century BCE.

A northern example of Brahmi epigraphy: ancient terracotta sculpture from Sugh "Child learning Brahmi", showing the first letters of the Brahmi alphabet, 2nd century BCE.
A later (mistaken) theory of a pictographic-acrophonic origin of the Brahmi script, on the model of the Egyptian hieroglyphic script, by Alexander Cunningham in 1877.
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Coin of Agathocles with Hindu deities, in Greek and Brahmi.
Obverse: Balarama-Samkarshana with Greek legend: ΒΑΣΙΛΕΩΣ ΑΓΑΘΟΚΛΕΟΥΣ.
Reverse: Vasudeva-Krishna with Brahmi legend:𑀭𑀸𑀚𑀦𑁂 𑀅𑀕𑀣𑀼𑀓𑁆𑀮𑀬𑁂𑀲 Rājane Agathukleyesa "King Agathocles". Circa 180 BCE.
A 2nd-century BCE Tamil Brahmi inscription from Arittapatti, Madurai India. The southern state of Tamil Nadu has emerged as a major source of Brahmi inscriptions dated between 3rd to 1st centuries BCE.
A proposed connection between the Brahmi and Indus scripts, made in the 19th century by Alexander Cunningham.
The word Lipī used by Ashoka to describe his "Edicts". Brahmi script (Li= La+ i; pī= Pa+ ii). The word would be of Old Persian origin ("Dipi").
Connections between Phoenician (4th column) and Brahmi (5th column). Note that 6th-to-4th-century BCE Aramaic (not shown) is in many cases intermediate in form between the two.
The Prakrit word "Dha-ṃ-ma" (Dharma) in the Brahmi script, as inscribed by Ashoka in his Edicts. Topra Kalan pillar, now in New Delhi (3rd century BCE).
Calligraphical evolution: 3rd century BCE calligraphy (top), and a sample of the new calligraphic style introduced by the Indo-Scythians (bottom, fragment of the Mirzapur stele inscription, in the vicinity of Mathura, circa 15 CE). The text is Svāmisya Mahakṣatrapasya Śudasasya "Of the Lord and Great Satrap Śudāsa"
Classification of Brahmi characters by James Prinsep in March 1834. The structure of Brahmi (consonantal characters with vocalic "inflections") was properly identified, but the individual values of characters remained undetermined, except for four of the vocalic inflections. Journal of the Asiatic Society of Bengal Volume 3 (March 1834).
Norwegian scholar Christian Lassen used the bilingual Greek-Brahmi coinage of Indo-Greek king Agathocles to correctly achieve in 1836 the first secure decipherement of several letters of the Brahmi script, which was later completed by James Prinsep.
Consonants of the Brahmi script, and evolution down to modern Devanagari, according to James Prinsep, as published in the Journal of the Asiatic Society of Bengal, in March 1838. All the letters are correctly deciphered, except for two missing on the right: 𑀰(ś) and 𑀱(ṣ). Vowels and compounds [[:File:Brahmi script vowels according to James Prinsep March 1838.jpg|here]]. All scripts derived from Brahmi are gathered under the term "Brahmic scripts".
danam
The word Brā-hmī in modern Brahmi font
Brahmi consonants.
Some major conjunct consonants in the Brahmi script.
Early Brahmi vowel diacritics.
The Brahmi symbol for /ka/, modified to represent different vowels
A 1st century BCE/CE inscription from Sanchi: "Vedisakehi daṃtakārehi rupakaṃmaṃ kataṃ" (, "Ivory workers from Vidisha have done the carving").
Middle Brahmi vowel diacritics
1800 years separate these two inscriptions: Brahmi script of the 3rd century BCE (Edict of Ashoka), and its derivative, 16th century CE Devanagari script (1524 CE), on the Delhi-Topra pillar.
Kya (vertical assembly of consonants "Ka" Brahmi k.svg and "Ya" Brahmi y.svg), as in "Sa-kya-mu-nī " ( 𑀲𑀓𑁆𑀬𑀫𑀼𑀦𑀻, "Sage of the Shakyas")
Sva (Sa+Va)
Sya (Sa+Ya)
Hmī (Ha+Ma+i+i), as in the word "Brāhmī" (𑀩𑁆𑀭𑀸𑀳𑁆𑀫𑀻).
Early/Middle Brahmi legend on the coinage of Chastana: RAJNO MAHAKSHATRAPASA GHSAMOTIKAPUTRASA CHASHTANASA "Of the Rajah, the Great Satrap, son of Ghsamotika, Chashtana". 1st–2nd century CE.<ref>{{cite book |title=Seaby's Coin and Medal Bulletin: July 1980 |date=1980 |publisher=Seaby Publications Ltd. |page=219 |url=https://archive.org/details/seabyscoinmedalb1980base_r0l5/page/218}}</ref>
Inscribed Kushan statue of Western Satraps King Chastana, with inscription "Shastana" in Middle Brahmi script of the Kushan period (Gupta ashoka ss.svg{{sub|Gupta ashoka sta.jpg}}Gupta ashoka n.svg Ṣa-sta-na).<ref name="JBO">"The three letters give us a complete name, which I read as Ṣastana (vide facsimile and cast). Dr. Vogel read it as Mastana but that is incorrect for Ma was always written with a circular or triangular knob below with two slanting lines joining the knob" in {{cite book |title=Journal of the Bihar and Orissa Research Society |date=1920 |publisher=The Society |url=https://books.google.com/books?id=yKZEAQAAMAAJ |language=en}}</ref>
The rulers of the Western Satraps were called Mahākhatapa ("Great Satrap") in their Brahmi script inscriptions, as here in a dedicatory inscription by Prime Minister Ayama in the name of his ruler Nahapana, Manmodi Caves, circa 100 CE.<ref>{{cite book|last1=Burgess|first1=Jas|title=Archaeological Survey Of Western India|date=1883|page=103|url=https://archive.org/stream/in.ernet.dli.2015.35775}}</ref>
Nasik Cave inscription No.10. of Nahapana, Cave No.10.
Gupta script on stone Kanheri Caves, one of the earliest descendants of Brahmi
The Gopika Cave Inscription of Anantavarman, in the Sanskrit language and using the Gupta script. Barabar Caves, Bihar, or 6th century CE.
Coin of Alchon Huns ruler Mihirakula. Obv: Bust of king, with legend in Gupta script (Gupta_allahabad_j.svg)Gupta_allahabad_y.svgGupta_allahabad_tu.jpg{{sup|Gupta_allahabad_mi.jpg}}{{sup|Gupta ashoka hi.jpg}}Gupta_allahabad_r.svgGupta_allahabad_ku.jpgGupta_allahabad_l.svg,<ref>The "h" (Gupta ashoka h.svg) is an early variant of the Gupta script</ref> (Ja)yatu Mihirakula ("Let there be victory to Mihirakula").<ref>{{cite book |last1=Verma |first1=Thakur Prasad |title=The Imperial Maukharis: History of Imperial Maukharis of Kanauj and Harshavardhana |date=2018 |publisher=Notion Press |isbn=9781643248813 |page=264 |url=https://books.google.com/books?id=09FqDwAAQBAJ&pg=PT264 |language=hi}}</ref><ref>{{cite book |last1=Sircar |first1=D. C. |title=Studies in Indian Coins |date=2008 |publisher=Motilal Banarsidass |isbn=9788120829732 |page=376 |url=https://books.google.com/books?id=m1JYwP5tVQUC&pg=PA376 |language=en}}</ref><ref>{{cite book |last1=Tandon |first1=Pankaj | pages=24–34|title=Notes on the Evolution of Alchon Coins Journal of the Oriental Numismatic Society, No. 216, Summer 2013 |date=2013 |publisher= Oriental Numismatic Society |url=http://coinindia.com/galleries-alchon-early.html}} also Coinindia Alchon Coins (for an exact description of this coin type)</ref>
Sanchi inscription of Chandragupta II.

Brahmi is an abugida which uses a system of diacritical marks to associate vowels with consonant symbols.

Indian cultural extent.

Baybayin

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Philippine script.

Philippine script.

Indian cultural extent.
The Laguna Copperplate Inscription.
The Eastern Cham script.
Pages of the Doctrina Christiana, an early Christian book in Spanish and Tagalog, both in the Latin script and in baybayin (1593).
Amami, a fragment of the Ilocano Lord's Prayer, written in Ilocano baybayin (Kur-itan, Kurdita), the first to use krus-kudlít.
The Monreal stone, which is the centerpiece at the baybayin section of the National Museum of Anthropology.
A Filipino dha sword inscribed with baybayin characters
Variants of baybayin
1613 (Document A) and 1625 (Document B)
Philippine passport (2016 edition) showing the Baybayin script
Article 1 of The Universal Declaration of Human Rights, handwritten in Filipino Baybayin script.
A screenshot image of the baybayin keyboard on Gboard.
The surat guhit (basahan) of the Bikol region.
The abakada in the Tagalog script.
Various badlit styles.
The word kulitan in Modern Kulitan.
Buhid urukay, from Violeta B. Lopez's book The Mangyan of Mindoro.<ref>{{Cite journal |last=Casiño |first=Eric S. |date=1977 |title=Reviewed Work: The Mangyans of Mindoro: An Ethnohistory, Violeta B. Lopez; Born Primitive in The Philippines, Severino N. Luna |journal=Philippine Studies |volume=25 |issue=4 |pages=470–472 |jstor=42632398}}</ref>
Mayad pagyabi (good morning), written in Hanunuo script using the b17 and b17x{{Clarify|reason=Are these actually official terms?|date=October 2020}} methods respectively.
Every {{Lang|tl|baybayin}} variant has letters with stylistic variants, just as the tail of the letter {{Angbr|Q}} can be written in different ways.
Flag of the Katipunan Magdiwang faction, with the {{Lang|tl|baybayin}} letter ka.
Seal of the National Historical Commission of the Philippines, with the two Baybayin ka and pa letters in the center.
Logo of the National Library of the Philippines. The Baybayin text reads as karunungan (ka r(a)u n(a)u nga n(a), wisdom).
Logo of the National Museum of the Philippines, with a Baybayin pa letter in the center, in a traditional rounded style.
Logo of the Cultural Center of the Philippines, with three rotated occurrences of the Baybayin ka letter.
The insignia of the Order of Lakandula contains an inscription with Baybayin characters represents the name Lakandula, read counterclockwise from the top.
The front page of the publication "Panitik Silangan", mostly printed in Baybayin, September 1963.
The Pamudpod sign

The script is an Abugida belonging to the family of the Brahmic scripts.

Tibetan map of the Kizil Caves, Tarim Basin. 13th century CE

Tibetan script

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Tibetan map of the Kizil Caves, Tarim Basin. 13th century CE
A text in Tibetan script suspected to be Sanskrit in content. From the personal artifact collection of Donald Weir.
Tibetan keyboard layout
Dzongkha keyboard layout

The Tibetan script is a segmental writing system (abugida) of Indic origin used to write certain Tibetic languages, including Tibetan, Dzongkha, Sikkimese, Ladakhi, Jirel and Balti.

A specimen of Proto-Sinaitic script containing a phrase which may mean 'to Baalat'. The line running from the upper left to lower right reads mt l bclt.

Abjad

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Writing system in which only consonants are represented, leaving vowel sounds to be inferred by the reader.

Writing system in which only consonants are represented, leaving vowel sounds to be inferred by the reader.

A specimen of Proto-Sinaitic script containing a phrase which may mean 'to Baalat'. The line running from the upper left to lower right reads mt l bclt.
Al-ʻArabiyya, meaning "Arabic": an example of the Arabic script, which is an impure abjad.

Abjads differ from abugidas, another category defined by Daniels, in that in abjads, the vowel sound is implied by phonology, and where vowel marks exist for the system, such as nikkud for Hebrew and ḥarakāt for Arabic, their use is optional and not the dominant (or literate) form.

Devanagari combining forms compared to syllabics

Canadian Aboriginal syllabics

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Family of writing systems used in a number of Indigenous Canadian languages of the Algonquian, Inuit, and Athabaskan language families.

Family of writing systems used in a number of Indigenous Canadian languages of the Algonquian, Inuit, and Athabaskan language families.

Devanagari combining forms compared to syllabics
A modern typeface, 2005
A 1901 gravestone from Saskatchewan that included some writing in syllabics.
Evans' script, as published in 1841. Long vowels were indicated by breaking the characters. The length distinction was not needed in the case of e, as Cree has only long ē.
The orientation of a perfectly symmetrical vowel triangle may be difficult to discern. In the type of this Ojibwe sign, left-pointing a is an isosceles right-angled triangle, but upright i is acute-angled and isosceles.
Presentations style variations of the Canadian Aboriginal Syllabics SH-series in commonly available typefaces.
Canadian Aboriginal Syllabics—Round form and Square form comparison
A page from a prayer book written in the Carrier syllabics, an Athabascan adaptation of Canadian Aboriginal syllabic writing
Syllabics is a co-official script in the territory of Nunavut, and is used by the territorial government, as here.

Syllabics are abugidas, where glyphs represent consonant-vowel pairs.