Abundance (ecology)

Effects of herbivore abundance in seagrass meadows.

Relative representation of a species in a particular ecosystem.

- Abundance (ecology)

78 related topics



Study of the relationships between living organisms, including humans, and their physical environment.

Biodiversity of a coral reef. Corals adapt to and modify their environment by forming calcium carbonate skeletons. This provides growing conditions for future generations and forms a habitat for many other species.
Long-tailed broadbill building its nest
Termite mounds with varied heights of chimneys regulate gas exchange, temperature and other environmental parameters that are needed to sustain the internal physiology of the entire colony.
Interspecific interactions such as predation are a key aspect of community ecology.
A riparian forest in the White Mountains, New Hampshire (USA) is an example of ecosystem ecology
Generalized food web of waterbirds from Chesapeake Bay
A trophic pyramid (a) and a food-web (b) illustrating ecological relationships among creatures that are typical of a northern boreal terrestrial ecosystem. The trophic pyramid roughly represents the biomass (usually measured as total dry-weight) at each level. Plants generally have the greatest biomass. Names of trophic categories are shown to the right of the pyramid. Some ecosystems, such as many wetlands, do not organize as a strict pyramid, because aquatic plants are not as productive as long-lived terrestrial plants such as trees. Ecological trophic pyramids are typically one of three kinds: 1) pyramid of numbers, 2) pyramid of biomass, or 3) pyramid of energy.
Sea otters, an example of a keystone species
Social display and colour variation in differently adapted species of chameleons (Bradypodion spp.). Chameleons change their skin colour to match their background as a behavioural defence mechanism and also use colour to communicate with other members of their species, such as dominant (left) versus submissive (right) patterns shown in the three species (A-C) above.
Mutualism: Leafhoppers (Eurymela fenestrata) are protected by ants (Iridomyrmex purpureus) in a mutualistic relationship. The ants protect the leafhoppers from predators and stimulate feeding in the leafhoppers, and in return, the leafhoppers feeding on plants exude honeydew from their anus that provides energy and nutrients to tending ants.
Bumblebees and the flowers they pollinate have coevolved so that both have become dependent on each other for survival.
Parasitism: A harvestman arachnid being parasitized by mites. The harvestman is being consumed, while the mites benefit from traveling on and feeding off of their host.
The leaf is the primary site of photosynthesis in most plants.
The architecture of the inflorescence in grasses is subject to the physical pressures of wind and shaped by the forces of natural selection facilitating wind-pollination (anemophily).
The layout of the first ecological experiment, carried out in a grass garden at Woburn Abbey in 1816, was noted by Charles Darwin in The Origin of Species. The experiment studied the performance of different mixtures of species planted in different kinds of soils.

The abundance, biomass, and distribution of organisms in the context of the environment

Relative species abundance

Component of biodiversity and is a measure of how common or rare a species is relative to other species in a defined location or community.

Figure 1. Relative species abundance of beetles sampled from the river Thames showing the universal "hollow curve". (derived from data presented in Magurran (2004) and collected by C.B. Williams (1964) )
Figure 2. Preston plot of beetles sampled from the river Thames showing a strong right-skew.
Figure 3. Whittaker plot of beetles sampled from the river Thames showing a slight "s"-shape.
Figure 4. Generic Rank-abundance diagram of three common mathematical models used to fit species abundance distributions: Motomura's geometric series, Fisher's logseries, and Preston's log-normal series (modified from Magurran 1988)
Figure 5. Plant succession in abandoned fields within Brookhaven National Laboratory, NY. Species abundances conform to the geometric series during early succession but approach lognormal as the community ages. (modified from Whittaker 1972 )
Figure 6. An example of Preston's veil. Fish species abundances sampled using repeated trawling over a one-month (blue bars), two month (gold bars) and one-year period (yellow). One year of sampling indicates that the fish community is log-normally distributed. (derived from Magurran 2004 )

Relative species abundances tend to conform to specific patterns that are among the best-known and most-studied patterns in macroecology.

Plant cover

Effects of herbivore abundance in seagrass meadows.

The abundances of plant species are often measured by plant cover, which is the relative area covered by different plant species in a small plot.

Measurement of biodiversity

Conservation biologists have designed a variety of objective means to measure biodiversity empirically.

Polar bears on the sea ice of the Arctic Ocean, near the north pole.

It does this in line with the CBD 2010 indicator for species abundance.

Relative abundance distribution

Biodiversity of a coral reef. Corals adapt to and modify their environment by forming calcium carbonate skeletons. This provides growing conditions for future generations and forms a habitat for many other species.

In the field of ecology, the relative abundance distribution (RAD) or species abundance distribution describes the relationship between the number of species observed in a field study as a function of their observed abundance.

Japanese robin

Small passerine bird in the family Muscicapidae.

The Japanese robin is an abundant species of robin from the islands of Japan.

Uluṟu-Kata Tjuṯa National Park

Protected area in the Northern Territory of Australia.

Uluru (close) and Kata Tjuta (far)
Aboriginal rock art at Uluru
Geologic cross-section of the national park.
This image presents dubious facts, compare Website of www.environment.gov.au "Formation of Uluru-Kata Tjuta" see also Talk:"Geological Formation"
A close up view of the crevasses on Uluru
Bush tucker (bush foods) harvested at Alice Springs Desert Park.
An aerial view of Uluru shows its large size.
Wildflowers in bloom with Kata Tjuta in the background
Desert oaks with Kata Tjuta in the background
Spinifex grass
Black-footed rock-wallaby (Petrogale lateralis), Australia
Brushtail possum, Australia
Perentie lizard, Australia
Cultural Centre Uluru
Specially designed Coke machine for the Uluru Cultural Centre opening in 1995.
Locals at the opening of the Cultural Centre, Uluru. 1995
Driving – Lasseter Highway to Uluru-Kata Tjuta National Park
Mala Walk Uluru
Climbers and sign
Aboriginal Anangu ranger at Uluru doing a demonstration

Four species of frog are abundant at the base of Uluru and Kata Tjuta following summer rains.

Species richness

Number of different species represented in an ecological community, landscape or region.

Global mammal richness (2015)
Global amphibian richness (2015)

Species richness is simply a count of species, and it does not take into account the abundances of the species or their relative abundance distributions.

Species diversity

Number of different species that are represented in a given community .

All adult Eurasian blue tits share the same coloration, unmistakably identifying the morphospecies.

Species evenness quantifies how equal the abundances of the species are.


Large sandstone formation in the centre of Australia.

Panorama of Uluru around sunset, showing its distinct red colouration at dusk.
View of Uluru from the ISS
Uluru rock formations
Panorama from the top of Uluru, showing a typical gully
Close-up view of Uluru's surface, composed of arkose
Rain water flows off Uluru along channels, marked by dark algae, forming small ponds at the base. This flow also sometimes creates the rare phenomenon of Uluru falls.
Black-flanked rock-wallaby near Uluru (Petrogale lateralis)
Trees at the base of Uluru
Tony Tjamiwa's map of Uluru
Petroglyphs on Uluru
Driving on the A4 Lasseter Highway from Uluṟu-Kata Tjuṯa National Park, April 2007
Climbers and a warning sign in 2005, before climbing was banned.
Prince Charles and Diana, The Princess of Wales returning from photo session on Uluru, March 1983

Four species of frogs are abundant at the base of Uluru and Kata Tjuta following summer rains.