Abundance of the chemical elements

abundanceabundancesabundantabundant elementelemental abundancecosmic abundanceabundance of chemical elementselemental abundancesabundance of elementsabundances of the elements in the Solar System
The abundance of the chemical elements is a measure of the occurrence of the chemical elements relative to all other elements in a given environment.wikipedia
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Oxygen

OO 2 molecular oxygen
For example, the abundance of oxygen in pure water can be measured in two ways: the mass fraction is about 89%, because that is the fraction of water's mass which is oxygen. Almost 99% of the mass of the human body is made up of six elements: hydrogen (H), carbon (C), nitrogen (N), oxygen (O), calcium (Ca), and phosphorus (P). In bulk, by mass, it is composed mostly of iron (32.1%), oxygen (30.1%), silicon (15.1%), magnesium (13.9%), sulfur (2.9%), nickel (1.8%), calcium (1.5%), and aluminium (1.4%); with the remaining 1.2% consisting of trace amounts of other elements.
By mass, oxygen is the third-most abundant element in the universe, after hydrogen and helium.

Hydrogen

HH 2 hydrogen gas
As another example, looking at the mass-fraction abundance of hydrogen and helium in both the Universe as a whole and in the atmospheres of gas-giant planets such as Jupiter, it is 74% for hydrogen and 23–25% for helium; while the (atomic) mole-fraction for hydrogen is 92%, and for helium is 8%, in these environments. Almost 99% of the mass of the human body is made up of six elements: hydrogen (H), carbon (C), nitrogen (N), oxygen (O), calcium (Ca), and phosphorus (P).
Hydrogen is the most abundant chemical substance in the Universe, constituting roughly 75% of all baryonic mass. Non-remnant stars are mainly composed of hydrogen in the plasma state.

Helium

Hehelium IIsuperfluid helium
As another example, looking at the mass-fraction abundance of hydrogen and helium in both the Universe as a whole and in the atmospheres of gas-giant planets such as Jupiter, it is 74% for hydrogen and 23–25% for helium; while the (atomic) mole-fraction for hydrogen is 92%, and for helium is 8%, in these environments.
Helium is the second lightest and second most abundant element in the observable universe (hydrogen is the lightest and most abundant).

Beryllium

Be 7 BeBerillium
Lithium, beryllium and boron are rare because although they are produced by nuclear fusion, they are then destroyed by other reactions in the stars.
It is a relatively rare element in the universe, usually occurring as a product of the spallation of larger atomic nuclei that have collided with cosmic rays.

Atmosphere of Jupiter

Oval BAJupiter's atmosphereGreat Red Spot
Changing the given environment to Jupiter's outer atmosphere, where hydrogen is diatomic while helium is not, changes the molecular mole-fraction (fraction of total gas molecules), as well as the fraction of atmosphere by volume, of hydrogen to about 86%, and of helium to 13%.
This is a result of the higher condensation heat of water and higher water abundance as compared to the ammonia and hydrogen sulfide (oxygen is a more abundant chemical element than either nitrogen or sulfur).

Metallicity

metalmetal-richmetal-poor
Thus, the metallicity of a galaxy or other object is an indication of stellar activity after the Big Bang.
In astronomy, metallicity is used to describe the abundance of elements present in an object that are heavier than hydrogen or helium.

Observational cosmology

cosmological observationsobservational cosmologistobservations
Cosmological observations suggest that only 4.6% of the universe's energy (including the mass contributed by energy, E = mc² ↔ m = E / c²) comprises the visible baryonic matter that constitutes stars, planets, and living beings.
Determination of the cosmic abundance of elements has a history dating back to early spectroscopic measurements of light from astronomical objects and the identification of emission and absorption lines which corresponded to particular electronic transitions in chemical elements identified on Earth.

Carbon

Ccarbonaceouscarbon atom
Almost 99% of the mass of the human body is made up of six elements: hydrogen (H), carbon (C), nitrogen (N), oxygen (O), calcium (Ca), and phosphorus (P).
Carbon is the 15th most abundant element in the Earth's crust, and the fourth most abundant element in the universe by mass after hydrogen, helium, and oxygen.

Silicon

Sisilicon revolutionsilicium
In bulk, by mass, it is composed mostly of iron (32.1%), oxygen (30.1%), silicon (15.1%), magnesium (13.9%), sulfur (2.9%), nickel (1.8%), calcium (1.5%), and aluminium (1.4%); with the remaining 1.2% consisting of trace amounts of other elements.
Silicon is the eighth most common element in the universe by mass, but very rarely occurs as the pure element in the Earth's crust.

Sulfur

sulphurSbrimstone
In bulk, by mass, it is composed mostly of iron (32.1%), oxygen (30.1%), silicon (15.1%), magnesium (13.9%), sulfur (2.9%), nickel (1.8%), calcium (1.5%), and aluminium (1.4%); with the remaining 1.2% consisting of trace amounts of other elements. All elements lighter than oxygen have been removed from the crust in this way, as have the heavier chalcogens sulfur, selenium and tellurium.
It is abundant, multivalent, and nonmetallic.

Lambda-CDM model

ΛCDMstandard cosmological modelLambda-CDM
The abundance of the lightest elements is well predicted by the standard cosmological model, since they were mostly produced shortly (i.e., within a few hundred seconds) after the Big Bang, in a process known as Big Bang nucleosynthesis.

Chemical element

elementelementschemical elements
The abundance of the chemical elements is a measure of the occurrence of the chemical elements relative to all other elements in a given environment.
The abundance of the chemical elements on Earth varies from air to crust to ocean, and in various types of life.

Iron

FeFe 2+ Fe(III)
In bulk, by mass, it is composed mostly of iron (32.1%), oxygen (30.1%), silicon (15.1%), magnesium (13.9%), sulfur (2.9%), nickel (1.8%), calcium (1.5%), and aluminium (1.4%); with the remaining 1.2% consisting of trace amounts of other elements.
Iron is the sixth most abundant element in the Universe, and the most common refractory element.

Dark matter

dark matter detectiondark-mattermissing mass
The rest is thought to be made up of dark energy (68%) and dark matter (27%).

Cosmic ray

cosmic rayscosmic radiationcosmic-ray
Very abundant hydrogen and helium are products of the Big Bang, while the next three elements are rare since they had little time to form in the Big Bang and are not made in stars (they are, however, produced in small quantities by breakup of heavier elements in interstellar dust, as a result of impact by cosmic rays).
The mass ratio of helium to hydrogen nuclei, 28%, is similar to the primordial elemental abundance ratio of these elements, 24%.

Periodic table

periodic table of elementsperiodic table of the elementsperiodic system
Also, elements with even atomic numbers are generally more common than their neighbors in the periodic table, due to favorable energetics of formation.

Francium

FrVirginiumelement 87
The eight naturally occurring very rare, highly radioactive elements (polonium, astatine, francium, radium, actinium, protactinium, neptunium, and plutonium) are not included, since any of these elements that were present at the formation of the Earth have decayed away eons ago, and their quantity today is negligible and is only produced from the radioactive decay of uranium and thorium.
It is the second-most electropositive element, behind only caesium, and is the second rarest naturally occurring element (after astatine).

Tellurium

Tenative telluriumtelluride
All elements lighter than oxygen have been removed from the crust in this way, as have the heavier chalcogens sulfur, selenium and tellurium.
Its extreme rarity in the Earth's crust, comparable to that of platinum, is due partly to its formation of a volatile hydride that caused tellurium to be lost to space as a gas during the hot nebular formation of Earth, and partly to tellurium's low affinity for oxygen, which causes it to bind preferentially to other chalcophiles in dense minerals that sink into the core.

Neon

Neneon gas 21 Ne
Neon is abundant on a universal scale; it is the fifth most abundant chemical element in the universe by mass, after hydrogen, helium, oxygen, and carbon (see chemical element).

Cerium

CeCe IV
In most rare earth ore deposits, the first four rare earth elements – lanthanum, cerium, praseodymium, and neodymium – constitute 80% to 99% of the total amount of rare earth metal that can be found in the ore.
It is the 26th-most abundant element, making up 66 ppm of the Earth's crust, half as much as chlorine and five times as much as lead.

Formation and evolution of the Solar System

solar nebulaformation of the Solar Systemoutward
The Earth formed from the same cloud of matter that formed the Sun, but the planets acquired different compositions during the formation and evolution of the solar system.
The ices that formed the Jovian planets were more abundant than the metals and silicates that formed the terrestrial planets, allowing the giant planets to grow massive enough to capture hydrogen and helium, the lightest and most abundant elements.

Natural abundance

isotopic ratioisotopic abundanceabundant
In physics, natural abundance (NA) refers to the abundance of isotopes of a chemical element as naturally found on a planet.

Cobalt

CoCo 2+ bush sickness
It comprises 0.0029% of the Earth's crust.

Precious metal

precious metalsbullionprecious
While aluminium is the third most abundant element and most abundant metal in the Earth's crust, it was at first found to be exceedingly difficult to extract the metal from its various non-metallic ores.