Academic degree

Meeting of doctors at the University of Paris (16th-century miniature)
Spanish Official University Education Legal Framework 02
Spanish Official University Education Legal Framework 01
The newly conferred bachelor's degree holders after graduation at King's College London, one of the founding colleges of the University of London

Qualification awarded to students upon successful completion of a course of study in higher education, usually at a college or university.

- Academic degree

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Magister degree

Johan Galtung, the principal founder of the discipline of peace and conflict studies, holds a degree as his highest degree, translated into English as a PhD

A magister degree (also magistar, female form: magistra; from magister, "teacher") is an academic degree used in various systems of higher education.

Undergraduate degree

National University of Saint Anthony the Abbot in Cuzco
12 sided stone in Cusco, Peru

An undergraduate degree (also called first degree or simply degree) is a colloquial term for an academic degree earned by a person who has completed undergraduate courses.


Educational institution or a constituent part of one.

Corpus Christi College, one of the constituent colleges of the University of Cambridge in England.
Williams College in Williamstown, Massachusetts, one of the oldest liberal arts colleges in the United States.
Seinäjoki College in Seinäjoki, South Ostrobothnia, Finland, in May 2018.
The "red siminar", a college building pictured in the coat of arms of Nuuk, the capital city of Greenland
King's College London, established by a Royal Charter in 1829, is one of the founding colleges of the University of London.
Scotch College, Melbourne, an independent secondary school in Australia.
St John's College, Johannesburg, a boys' school in South Africa.
Royal College Colombo, a boys' school located in Colombo, Sri Lanka.
The Indian Institute of Technology, Roorkee is the oldest technical institution in Asia.
Parliament Square, Trinity College Dublin in Ireland.
ORT Braude College of Engineering
The University of Otago in New Zealand.
Birkbeck, University of London
City College of New York
Saint Anselm College
Bowdoin College
Pomona College
Scripps College
Agnes Scott College
SUNY Purchase College

A college may be a degree-awarding tertiary educational institution, a part of a collegiate or federal university, an institution offering vocational education, or a secondary school.

Master's degree

A master's degree (from Latin magister) is an academic degree awarded by universities or colleges upon completion of a course of study demonstrating mastery or a high-order overview of a specific field of study or area of professional practice.


American academic doctors gather before the commencement exercises at Brigham Young University (April 2008). The American code for academic dress identifies academic doctors with three bands of velvet on the sleeve of the doctoral gown.
Cover of the thesis presented by Claude Bernard to obtain his Doctor of Medicine degree (1843)
The ancient ceremony of bestowing Complutense's Doctoral biretta.
Traditionally, the friends of a new doctor honored him painting a victor on the walls (in this case, the Seville Cathedral).
Ph.D. Gown, University of Cambridge
In 1861, Yale University awarded the first Doctor of Philosophy (Ph.D.) degree in the United States.

A doctorate (from Latin docere, "to teach") or doctor's degree (from Latin doctor, "teacher") or doctoral degree is an academic degree awarded by universities and some other educational institutions, derived from the ancient formalism licentia docendi ("licence to teach").


The University of Bologna in Italy, founded in 1088, is often regarded as the world's oldest university in continuous operation
Harvard University, founded in 1636, is the oldest university in the United States and is routinely ranked among the world's best universities
Moroccan higher-learning institution Al-Qarawiyin (founded in 859 A.D.) was transformed into a university under the supervision of the ministry of education in 1963.
Meeting of doctors at the University of Paris. From a medieval manuscript.
The University of Oxford is the oldest university in the United Kingdom and among the world's top ranked
The University of St Andrews, founded in 1410, is Scotland's oldest university and one of the UK's best ranked universities.
Old main building of the University of Basel—Switzerland's oldest university (1460). The university is among the birthplaces of Renaissance humanism
17th-century classroom at the University of Salamanca
King's College London, established by Royal Charter having been founded by King George IV and Duke of Wellington in 1829, is one of the founding colleges of the University of London.
Peking University in Beijing was founded as the Imperial University of Peking
The University of Sydney is Australia's oldest university.
The University of Virginia in Charlottesville, Virginia in the United States was founded in 1819 by American founding father Thomas Jefferson

A university is an institution of higher (or tertiary) education and research which awards academic degrees in several academic disciplines.


License authorizing its holder to transmit a certain text or subject, which is issued by someone already possessing such authority.

An ijazah certifying competency in calligraphy, 1206 AH/1791 AD.
Ra'ad bin Mohammed Al-Kurdi

George Makdisi, professor of oriental studies, theorized that the ijazah was the origin of the university academic degree as well as the doctorate.

Doctor of Philosophy

A group of new PhD graduates with their professors
A new PhD graduate from the University of Birmingham, wearing a doctor's bonnet, shakes hands with the Chancellor
A Yale University PhD diploma from 1861.
A South African PhD graduate (on right, wearing ceremonial gown)
PhD gown, University of Cambridge
PhD SPbSU certificate

A Doctor of Philosophy (PhD, Ph.D., or DPhil; Latin: philosophiae doctor or doctor philosophiae) is the most common degree at the highest academic level awarded following a course of study.

Bachelor's degree

A bachelor's degree (from Middle Latin baccalaureus) or baccalaureate (from Modern Latin baccalaureatus) is an undergraduate academic degree awarded by colleges and universities upon completion of a course of study lasting three to six years (depending on institution and academic discipline).

Higher education

Harvard University, an Ivy League university in Cambridge, Massachusetts, routinely ranks as the best, or one of the best, institutions of higher learning in the world.
Deakin University, one of Australia's 43 universities
Mean financial wealth of US families by education of the head of household, 1989-2010
Mean income of US families by education of the head of household, 1989-2010
Courtyard, Al-Qarawiyyin University, Fes, Morocco
University of Bologna, located in Bologna, Italy, is the oldest university created under that name in the world.<ref>Top Universities World University Rankings Retrieved 2010-1-6</ref><ref>Our History - Università di Bologna</ref><ref>{{cite book |url = |title = The Challenge of Bologna |author= Paul L. Gaston |year=2010|page=18|isbn=978-1-57922-366-3 }}</ref>
Colegio de Santa Cruz de Tlatelolco, located in Mexico City, Mexico, was the first and oldest European school of higher learning in the Americas<ref>{{cite book|url=|title=The first college in America: Santa Cruz de Tlatelolco.|location=Washington DC|year=1936|author1=Steck|author2=Francis Borgia}}</ref> and the first and oldest major school of interpreters and translators in the New World.<ref>{{cite book|url=|title=The Imperial College of Santa Cruz de Tlatelolco|author=Lourdes Arencibia Rodriguez}}</ref>
The University of Pennsylvania considers itself the first institution in the United States of America to use the term "university" in its name.
The University of Cambridge is an institution of higher learning in Cambridge, United Kingdom.
McGill University is an institution of higher learning in Montreal, Quebec, Canada and one of two Canadian members of the Association of American Universities.
The Moscow State University is an institution of higher learning in Moscow, Russia.
The Jeffersonian architecture of Tsinghua University, an institution of higher learning in Beijing, China.
The University of Tokyo is an institution of higher learning in Tokyo, Japan.
The University of São Paulo is an institution of higher learning in São Paulo, Brazil.

Higher education is tertiary education leading to award of an academic degree.