A report on Academic degreeDoctorate and University

Meeting of doctors at the University of Paris (16th-century miniature)
American academic doctors gather before the commencement exercises at Brigham Young University (April 2008). The American code for academic dress identifies academic doctors with three bands of velvet on the sleeve of the doctoral gown.
The University of Bologna in Italy, founded in 1088, is often regarded as the world's oldest university in continuous operation
Spanish Official University Education Legal Framework 02
Cover of the thesis presented by Claude Bernard to obtain his Doctor of Medicine degree (1843)
Harvard University, founded in 1636, is the oldest university in the United States and is routinely ranked among the world's best universities
Spanish Official University Education Legal Framework 01
The ancient ceremony of bestowing Complutense's Doctoral biretta.
Moroccan higher-learning institution Al-Qarawiyin (founded in 859 A.D.) was transformed into a university under the supervision of the ministry of education in 1963.
The newly conferred bachelor's degree holders after graduation at King's College London, one of the founding colleges of the University of London
Traditionally, the friends of a new doctor honored him painting a victor on the walls (in this case, the Seville Cathedral).
Meeting of doctors at the University of Paris. From a medieval manuscript.
Ph.D. Gown, University of Cambridge
The University of Oxford is the oldest university in the United Kingdom and among the world's top ranked
In 1861, Yale University awarded the first Doctor of Philosophy (Ph.D.) degree in the United States.
The University of St Andrews, founded in 1410, is Scotland's oldest university and one of the UK's best ranked universities.
Old main building of the University of Basel—Switzerland's oldest university (1460). The university is among the birthplaces of Renaissance humanism
17th-century classroom at the University of Salamanca
King's College London, established by Royal Charter having been founded by King George IV and Duke of Wellington in 1829, is one of the founding colleges of the University of London.
Peking University in Beijing was founded as the Imperial University of Peking
The University of Sydney is Australia's oldest university.
The University of Virginia in Charlottesville, Virginia in the United States was founded in 1819 by American founding father Thomas Jefferson

An academic degree is a qualification awarded to students upon successful completion of a course of study in higher education, usually at a college or university.

- Academic degree

A doctorate (from Latin docere, "to teach") or doctor's degree (from Latin doctor, "teacher") or doctoral degree is an academic degree awarded by universities and some other educational institutions, derived from the ancient formalism licentia docendi ("licence to teach").

- Doctorate

A university is an institution of higher (or tertiary) education and research which awards academic degrees in several academic disciplines.

- University

These institutions commonly offer degrees at various levels, usually including undergraduate degrees, master's, and doctorates, often alongside other academic certificates and professional degrees.

- Academic degree

George Makdisi theorizes that the ijazah issued in early Islamic madrasahs was the origin of the doctorate later issued in medieval European universities.

- Doctorate

Some states, such as Massachusetts, will only grant a school "university status" if it grants at least two doctoral degrees.

- University
Meeting of doctors at the University of Paris (16th-century miniature)

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Chronology of the universe as deduced by the prevailing Big Bang theory, a result from science and obtained knowledge

Science

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Systematic enterprise that builds and organizes knowledge in the form of testable explanations and predictions about the universe.

Systematic enterprise that builds and organizes knowledge in the form of testable explanations and predictions about the universe.

Chronology of the universe as deduced by the prevailing Big Bang theory, a result from science and obtained knowledge
The first diagram of an evolutionary tree made by Charles Darwin in 1837
First global view of the ozone hole in 1983, using a space telescope
Radio light image of M87* black hole, made by the earth-spanning Event Horizon Telescope array in 2019
Supply and demand curve in economics, crossing over at the optimal equilibrium
A steam turbine with the case opened, such turbines produce most of the electricity used today
A diagram variant of scientific method represented as an ongoing process
Cover of the first issue of Nature, 4 November 1869
For Kuhn, the addition of epicycles in Ptolemaic astronomy was "normal science" within a paradigm, whereas the Copernican revolution was a paradigm shift.
Marie Curie was the first person to be awarded two Nobel Prizes: Physics in 1903 and Chemistry in 1911.
Picture of scientists in 200th anniversary of the Prussian Academy of Sciences, 1900
Medal of the Nobel Prize, one of the most well-known science awards
Budget of NASA as percentage of United States federal budget, peaking at 4.4% in 1966 and slowly decline since
Dinosaur exhibit in the Houston Museum of Natural Science
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In modern times, many professional scientists are trained in an academic setting and upon completion, attain an academic degree, with the highest degree being a doctorate such as a Doctor of Philosophy or PhD. Many scientists pursue careers in various sectors of the economy such as academia, industry, government, and nonprofit organizations.

In the OECD, around two-thirds of research and development in scientific and technical fields is carried out by industry, and 20% and 10% respectively by universities and government.