The University of Bologna in Italy, founded in 1088, is often regarded as the world's oldest university in continuous operation
Meeting of doctors at the University of Paris (16th-century miniature)
Harvard University, founded in 1636, is the oldest university in the United States and is routinely ranked among the world's best universities
Spanish Official University Education Legal Framework 02
Moroccan higher-learning institution Al-Qarawiyin (founded in 859 A.D.) was transformed into a university under the supervision of the ministry of education in 1963.
Spanish Official University Education Legal Framework 01
Meeting of doctors at the University of Paris. From a medieval manuscript.
The newly conferred bachelor's degree holders after graduation at King's College London, one of the founding colleges of the University of London
The University of Oxford is the oldest university in the United Kingdom and among the world's top ranked
The University of St Andrews, founded in 1410, is Scotland's oldest university and one of the UK's best ranked universities.
Old main building of the University of Basel—Switzerland's oldest university (1460). The university is among the birthplaces of Renaissance humanism
17th-century classroom at the University of Salamanca
King's College London, established by Royal Charter having been founded by King George IV and Duke of Wellington in 1829, is one of the founding colleges of the University of London.
Peking University in Beijing was founded as the Imperial University of Peking
The University of Sydney is Australia's oldest university.
The University of Virginia in Charlottesville, Virginia in the United States was founded in 1819 by American founding father Thomas Jefferson

A university is an institution of higher (or tertiary) education and research which awards academic degrees in several academic disciplines.

- University

An academic degree is a qualification awarded to students upon successful completion of a course of study in higher education, usually at a college or university.

- Academic degree
The University of Bologna in Italy, founded in 1088, is often regarded as the world's oldest university in continuous operation

6 related topics

Alpha

Harvard University, an Ivy League university in Cambridge, Massachusetts, routinely ranks as the best, or one of the best, institutions of higher learning in the world.

Higher education

Harvard University, an Ivy League university in Cambridge, Massachusetts, routinely ranks as the best, or one of the best, institutions of higher learning in the world.
Deakin University, one of Australia's 43 universities
Mean financial wealth of US families by education of the head of household, 1989-2010
Mean income of US families by education of the head of household, 1989-2010
Courtyard, Al-Qarawiyyin University, Fes, Morocco
University of Bologna, located in Bologna, Italy, is the oldest university created under that name in the world.<ref>Top Universities World University Rankings Retrieved 2010-1-6</ref><ref>Our History - Università di Bologna</ref><ref>{{cite book |url =https://books.google.com/books?id=wyjnHZ1IIlgC&q=the+oldest+university+in+the+world+Bologna&pg=PA18 |title = The Challenge of Bologna |author= Paul L. Gaston |year=2010|page=18|isbn=978-1-57922-366-3 }}</ref>
Colegio de Santa Cruz de Tlatelolco, located in Mexico City, Mexico, was the first and oldest European school of higher learning in the Americas<ref>{{cite book|url=https://catalog.hathitrust.org/Record/101392426|title=The first college in America: Santa Cruz de Tlatelolco.|location=Washington DC|year=1936|author1=Steck|author2=Francis Borgia}}</ref> and the first and oldest major school of interpreters and translators in the New World.<ref>{{cite book|url=https://books.openedition.org/uop/336?lang=es|title=The Imperial College of Santa Cruz de Tlatelolco|author=Lourdes Arencibia Rodriguez}}</ref>
The University of Pennsylvania considers itself the first institution in the United States of America to use the term "university" in its name.
The University of Cambridge is an institution of higher learning in Cambridge, United Kingdom.
McGill University is an institution of higher learning in Montreal, Quebec, Canada and one of two Canadian members of the Association of American Universities.
The Moscow State University is an institution of higher learning in Moscow, Russia.
The Jeffersonian architecture of Tsinghua University, an institution of higher learning in Beijing, China.
The University of Tokyo is an institution of higher learning in Tokyo, Japan.
The University of São Paulo is an institution of higher learning in São Paulo, Brazil.

Higher education is tertiary education leading to award of an academic degree.

In the US, higher education is provided by universities, academies, colleges, seminaries, conservatories, and institutes of technology, and certain college-level institutions, including vocational schools, universities of applied sciences, trade schools, and other career-based colleges that award degrees.

Chronology of the universe as deduced by the prevailing Big Bang theory, a result from science and obtained knowledge

Science

Systematic enterprise that builds and organizes knowledge in the form of testable explanations and predictions about the universe.

Systematic enterprise that builds and organizes knowledge in the form of testable explanations and predictions about the universe.

Chronology of the universe as deduced by the prevailing Big Bang theory, a result from science and obtained knowledge
The first diagram of an evolutionary tree made by Charles Darwin in 1837
First global view of the ozone hole in 1983, using a space telescope
Radio light image of M87* black hole, made by the earth-spanning Event Horizon Telescope array in 2019
Supply and demand curve in economics, crossing over at the optimal equilibrium
A steam turbine with the case opened, such turbines produce most of the electricity used today
A diagram variant of scientific method represented as an ongoing process
Cover of the first issue of Nature, 4 November 1869
For Kuhn, the addition of epicycles in Ptolemaic astronomy was "normal science" within a paradigm, whereas the Copernican revolution was a paradigm shift.
Marie Curie was the first person to be awarded two Nobel Prizes: Physics in 1903 and Chemistry in 1911.
Picture of scientists in 200th anniversary of the Prussian Academy of Sciences, 1900
Medal of the Nobel Prize, one of the most well-known science awards
Budget of NASA as percentage of United States federal budget, peaking at 4.4% in 1966 and slowly decline since
Dinosaur exhibit in the Houston Museum of Natural Science
300x300px

In modern times, many professional scientists are trained in an academic setting and upon completion, attain an academic degree, with the highest degree being a doctorate such as a Doctor of Philosophy or PhD. Many scientists pursue careers in various sectors of the economy such as academia, industry, government, and nonprofit organizations.

In the OECD, around two-thirds of research and development in scientific and technical fields is carried out by industry, and 20% and 10% respectively by universities and government.

The enrollment of some students in the University of Bologna.

Postgraduate education

The enrollment of some students in the University of Bologna.

Postgraduate education (graduate education in North America) involves learning and studying for academic or professional degrees, academic or professional certificates, academic or professional diplomas, or other qualifications for which a first or bachelor's degree generally is required, and it is normally considered to be part of higher education.

For historical reasons dating back to the French Revolution of 1789, France has a dual education system, with Grandes Écoles on one side, and universities on the other hand, with the Grandes Écoles.

American academic doctors gather before the commencement exercises at Brigham Young University (April 2008). The American code for academic dress identifies academic doctors with three bands of velvet on the sleeve of the doctoral gown.

Doctorate

American academic doctors gather before the commencement exercises at Brigham Young University (April 2008). The American code for academic dress identifies academic doctors with three bands of velvet on the sleeve of the doctoral gown.
Cover of the thesis presented by Claude Bernard to obtain his Doctor of Medicine degree (1843)
The ancient ceremony of bestowing Complutense's Doctoral biretta.
Traditionally, the friends of a new doctor honored him painting a victor on the walls (in this case, the Seville Cathedral).
Ph.D. Gown, University of Cambridge
In 1861, Yale University awarded the first Doctor of Philosophy (Ph.D.) degree in the United States.

A doctorate (from Latin docere, "to teach") or doctor's degree (from Latin doctor, "teacher") or doctoral degree is an academic degree awarded by universities and some other educational institutions, derived from the ancient formalism licentia docendi ("licence to teach").

George Makdisi theorizes that the ijazah issued in early Islamic madrasahs was the origin of the doctorate later issued in medieval European universities.

University of Paris

The Sorbonne covered by snow.
Meeting of doctors at the University of Paris. From a 16th-century miniature.
Map showing the territories covered by the four nations of the University of Paris during the Middle Ages.
Rue Saint-Jacques and the Sorbonne in Paris
The Old Sorbonne on fire in 1670.
The Sorbonne, Paris, in a 17th-century engraving
The Sorbonne as seen from rue des Écoles.
Victor Cousin
John Calvin
Thomas Aquinas
Denis Diderot
Antoine-Henri Becquerel
Marie Skłodowska Curie
Henri Bergson
Jean-Paul Sartre
Jean Tirole
Gabriel Lippmann
Jean Perrin
Alfred Kastler
Jules Bordet
T. S. Eliot

The University of Paris (Université de Paris), metonymically known as the Sorbonne, was the leading university in Paris, France, active from 1150 to 1970, with the exception of 1793–1806 under the French Revolution.

At this period, therefore, the university had two principal degrees, the baccalaureate and the doctorate.

Coat of arms

McGill University

English-language public research university located in Montreal, Quebec, Canada.

English-language public research university located in Montreal, Quebec, Canada.

Coat of arms
James McGill, the original benefactor of McGill University.
The first Principal of McGill College, The Rt. Rev. Dr. George Mountain
Sir John William Dawson, Principal of McGill University, 1855–1893
The Arts Building, completed in 1843 and designed by John Ostell, is the oldest building on campus
The interior of the Redpath Museum
McGill University and Mount Royal, 1906, Panoramic Photo Company
The Second University Company prior to their departure for France
Stained Glass Great War Memorial entrance to the Blackader-Lauterman Library of Architecture and Art
Lower campus at sunset
The recently renovated McTavish Street is a critical artery connecting the lower campus to the upper campus
Roddick Gates act as the main entrance to the downtown campus
Built in 1892, Old Chancellor Day Hall houses the Faculty of Law
The "McGill Ghetto"
A hockey game on campus in 1884, just seven years after McGill students wrote the then-new game's first rule book, with the Arts Building, Redpath Museum, and Morrice Hall (then the Presbyterian College) visible
Solin Hall, situated in Saint-Henri near Lionel-Groulx station, serves as an off-campus apartment-style dorm.
Macdonald Campus under construction in 1906
The Macdonald Campus coat of arms
The newly built McGill University Health Centre at the Glen Site
Parc Rutherford at night. The Genome Building (left), Wong Building (middle), and McTavish Reservoir (right) are seen in the background.
McGill's coat of arms
The laboratory of Rutherford, early 20th century
Radon, discovered at McGill by physicist Ernest Rutherford
The Falcon, a statue outside of the Humanities and Social Sciences Library, part of the McLennan–Redpath Library Complex
Elizabeth Wirth Music Building, also a library, sits adjacent to the old Strathcona Music Building
PhD candidates march at Commencement in McGill's distinctive scarlet regalia.
Opening of the Student Union building, 1906
McGill's Molson Stadium
A hockey match at McGill in 1901
McGill Hockey Team, 1904
McGill announces new name for men's varsity sports teams
The Queen's-McGill Challenge Blade
The Lorne Gales Trophy
3rd prime minister of Canada Sir John Abbott (BCL, 1847).
7th prime minister of Canada Sir Wilfrid Laurier (BCL, 1864).
Inventor of the game of basketball James Naismith (BA, 1887).
Co-inventor of the charge-coupled device and Nobel prize laureate in Physics Willard Boyle (BSc, 1947; MSc 1948; PhD 1950).
Emmy Award winner known for his portrayal of Captain Kirk in the Star Trek franchise William Shatner (BComm, 1952).
Balzan Prize winner, referred to as "the founder of neuropsychology" Brenda Milner (PhD, 1952)
Grammy Award winner and poet Leonard Cohen (BA, 1955).
6th President of Latvia Vaira Vīķe-Freiberga (PhD, 1965).
48th Prime Minister of Egypt Ahmed Nazif (PhD, 1983).
Former astronaut and 29th governor general of Canada Julie Payette (BEng, 1986).
Turing Award winner Yoshua Bengio (BEng, 1986; MSc, 1988; PhD, 1991).
The current and 23rd prime minister of Canada Justin Trudeau (BA, 1994).
Former international president of Médecins Sans Frontières Joanne Liu (MDCM, 1991; IMHL, 2014).

The charter provided the college should be deemed and taken as a university, with the power of conferring degrees.