Academy

academicacademiaacademicsacademiesacademic communityacademescholarscholarsacademic institutionsscholarly
An academy (Attic Greek: Ἀκαδήμεια; Koine Greek Ἀκαδημία) is an institution of secondary education, higher learning, research, or honorary membership.wikipedia
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Higher education

higher learninghigherHigher Education Institution
An academy (Attic Greek: Ἀκαδήμεια; Koine Greek Ἀκαδημία) is an institution of secondary education, higher learning, research, or honorary membership.
It is delivered at universities, academies, colleges, seminaries, conservatories, and institutes of technology, and through certain college-level institutions, including vocational schools, trade schools, and other career colleges that award degrees.

Secondary education

secondarysecondary schoolhigh
An academy (Attic Greek: Ἀκαδήμεια; Koine Greek Ἀκαδημία) is an institution of secondary education, higher learning, research, or honorary membership.
Secondary schools may also be called academies, colleges, gymnasiums, high schools, lyceums, middle schools, preparatory schools, sixth-form colleges, upper schools, or vocational schools, among other names.

Musaeum

MuseionMouseionMuseum of Alexandria
The Musaeum, Serapeum and library of Alexandria Egypt was frequented by intellectuals from Africa, Europe and Asia studying various aspects of philosophy, language and mathematics.
This original Musaeum ("Institution of the Muses") was the home of music or poetry, a philosophical school and library such as Plato's Academy, also a storehouse of texts.

Wisdom

sapientsapiencewise
The name traces back to Plato's school of philosophy, founded approximately 385 BC at Akademia, a sanctuary of Athena, the goddess of wisdom and skill, north of Athens, Greece.
Nicholas Maxwell, a contemporary philosopher in the United Kingdom, advocates that academia ought to alter its focus from the acquisition of knowledge to seeking and promoting wisdom.

Military science

defence studiesmilitary affairsmilitary scientist
The Vedas and the Eighteen Arts, which included skills such as archery, hunting, and elephant lore, were taught, in addition to its law school, medical school, and school of military science.
In military history, military science had been used during the period of Industrial Revolution as a general term to refer to all matters of military theory and technology application as a single academic discipline, including that of the deployment and employment of troops in peacetime or in battle.

Intellectual

man of letterspublic intellectualintellectuals
The Musaeum, Serapeum and library of Alexandria Egypt was frequented by intellectuals from Africa, Europe and Asia studying various aspects of philosophy, language and mathematics.
Regardless of the academic field or the professional expertise, the public intellectual addresses and responds to the normative problems of society, and, as such, is expected to be an impartial critic who can "rise above the partial preoccupation of one's own profession—and engage with the global issues of truth, judgment, and taste of the time".

Platonic Academy (Florence)

Platonic AcademyFlorentine Academya Neoplatonic academy
During the Florentine Renaissance, Cosimo de' Medici took a personal interest in the new Platonic Academy that he determined to re-establish in 1439, centered on the marvellous promise shown by the young Marsilio Ficino.
It was never a formal group but the members considered themselves a modern form of Plato's Academy.

Accademia dei Lincei

Accademia Nazionale dei LinceiLincean AcademyReale Accademia dei Lincei
After the short-lived Academia Secretorum Naturae of Naples, the first academy exclusively devoted to sciences was the Accademia dei Lincei founded in 1603 in Rome, particularly focused on natural sciences.
The Accademia dei Lincei (literally the "Academy of the Lynx-Eyed", but anglicised as the Lincean Academy) is an Italian science academy, located at the Palazzo Corsini on the Via della Lungara in Rome, Italy.

Italian Renaissance

Renaissance ItalyRenaissanceFlorentine Renaissance
During the Florentine Renaissance, Cosimo de' Medici took a personal interest in the new Platonic Academy that he determined to re-establish in 1439, centered on the marvellous promise shown by the young Marsilio Ficino.
recovery of lost Greek classics (and, to a lesser extent, Arab advancements on them) following the Crusader conquest of the Byzantine heartlands, revitalized medieval philosophy in the Renaissance of the 12th century, just as the refugee Byzantine scholars who migrated to Italy during and following the Turkish conquest of the Byzantines between the 12th and 15th centuries were important in sparking the new linguistic studies of the Renaissance, in newly created academies in Florence and Venice.

Accademia degli Infiammati

InfiamattiInfiammati Academy
The Accademia degli Infiammati of Padova and the Accademia degli Umidi, soon renamed the Accademia Fiorentina, of Florence were both founded in 1540, and were both initially concerned with the proper basis for literary use of the volgare, or vernacular language of Italy, which would later become the Italian language.
The Accademia degli Infiammati ("Academy of the Burning Ones") was a short-lived but influential philosophical and literary academy in Padua, in northern Italy.

Prussian Academy of Sciences

Berlin AcademyBerlin Academy of SciencesPrussian Academy of Science
Although Prussia was a member of Holy Roman Empire, in 1700 Prince-elector Frederick III of Brandenburg founded its own Prussian Academy of Sciences upon the advice of Gottfried Leibniz, who was appointed president.
The Royal Prussian Academy of Sciences (Königlich-Preußische Akademie der Wissenschaften) was an academy established in Berlin, Germany on 11 July 1700, four years after the Akademie der Künste, or "Arts Academy," to which "Berlin Academy" may also refer.

Accademia della Crusca

Biblioteca RiccardianaCrusca AcademyAcademia della Crusca
In 1582 five Florentine literati gathered and founded the Accademia della Crusca to demonstrate and conserve the beauty of the Florentine vernacular tongue, modelled upon the authors of the Trecento.
It is the most important research institution on the Italian language as well as the oldest linguistic academy in the world.

Basilios Bessarion

BessarionCardinal BessarionBasilius Bessarion
At the head of this movement for renewal in Rome was Cardinal Bessarion, whose house from the mid-century was the centre of a flourishing academy of Neoplatonic philosophy and a varied intellectual culture.
His palazzo in Rome was a virtual Academy for the studies of new humanistic learning, a center for learned Greeks and Greek refugees, whom he supported by commissioning transcripts of Greek manuscripts and translations into Latin that made Greek scholarship available to Western Europeans.

Accademia Fiorentina

Accademia degli UmidiFlorentine Academy
The Accademia degli Infiammati of Padova and the Accademia degli Umidi, soon renamed the Accademia Fiorentina, of Florence were both founded in 1540, and were both initially concerned with the proper basis for literary use of the volgare, or vernacular language of Italy, which would later become the Italian language.
The Accademia Fiorentina was a philosophical and literary academy in Florence, Italy during the Renaissance.

Royal Danish Academy of Sciences and Letters

Kongelige Danske Videnskabernes SelskabRoyal Danish Academy of Science and LettersRoyal Danish Academy
During the 18th century many European kings followed and founded their own academy of sciences: in 1714 the Academy of Sciences of the Institute of Bologna, in 1724 the Russian Academy of Sciences, in 1731 the Royal Dublin Society, in 1735 in Tuscany, in 1739 the Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences, in 1742 the Royal Danish Academy of Sciences and Letters, in 1751 the Göttingen Academy of Sciences, in 1754 in Erfurt, in 1759 the Bavarian Academy of Sciences and Humanities, in 1763 the Academia Theodoro-Palatina in Heidelberg, in 1779 the Sciences Academy of Lisbon, in 1783 the Royal Society of Edinburgh, in 1782 the Accademia dei Quaranta in Rome, in 1784 in Turin.
The Royal Danish Academy of Sciences and Letters (Kongelige Danske Videnskabernes Selskab) is a Danish non-governmental science Academy, founded in 1742 for the advancement of science in Denmark.

Age of Enlightenment

Enlightenmentthe EnlightenmentFrench Enlightenment
During the Age of Enlightenment in 18th-century Europe, the academy started to change in Europe.
Philosophers and scientists of the period widely circulated their ideas through meetings at scientific academies, Masonic lodges, literary salons, coffeehouses and in printed books, journals, and pamphlets.

Academy of Finland

Academy Professor Academy of Finlandacademician
Finland even has two separate "academies": Academy of Finland is a government-run funding agency, Suomalainen tiedeakatemia is a learned society.
The Academy of Finland should not be confused with the Finnish arts and science school learned societies, The Finnish Academy of Science and Letters (Suomalainen tiedeakatemia) and The Finnish Society of Science and Letters (Finska Vetenskaps-Societeten) which are the two Finnish national honorary academies, for Finnish and Swedish-speaking scientists and scholars, respectively.

Academic ranks in the United States

academic rankacademic ranksAcademic ranks (United States)
In the United States, the term academic is approximately synonymous with that of the job title professor although in recent decades a growing number of institutions include librarians in the category of "academic staff".
Academic ranks in the United States are the titles, relative importance and power of professors, researchers, and administrative personnel held in academia.

Academic ranks in the United Kingdom

professorDemonstratorChair
In the United Kingdom, various titles of academic rank are used, typically research associate, research fellow (also senior research fellow and principal research fellow), lecturer (also senior lecturer and principal lecturer), reader, and professor.
Academic ranks in the United Kingdom are the titles, relative importance and power of academic employees.

List of academic ranks

DirectorAcademic ranksacademic rank
In the United Kingdom, various titles of academic rank are used, typically research associate, research fellow (also senior research fellow and principal research fellow), lecturer (also senior lecturer and principal lecturer), reader, and professor.
This list of academic ranks identifies the hierarchical ranking structure found amongst scholars and personnel in academia.

French language

FrenchfrancophoneFrench-language
The Crusca inspired Richelieu to found in 1634 the analogous Académie française with the task of acting as an official authority on the French language, charged with publishing the official dictionary of that language.
French is taught in universities around the world, and is one of the world's most influential languages because of its wide use in the worlds of journalism, jurisprudence, the academy, and diplomacy.

Scholar

scholarsindependent scholarprivate scholar
The term scholar is sometimes used with equivalent meaning to that of academic and describes in general those who attain mastery in a research discipline.
A scholar may also be an academic, a person who works as a teacher or researcher at a university or other higher education institution.

Dean (education)

deanAssociate DeanPrincipal
In addition, academic institutions generally have an overall administrative structure (usually including a president and several deans) which is controlled by no single department, discipline, or field of thought.
Dean is a title employed in academic administrations such as colleges or universities for a person with significant authority over a specific academic unit, over a specific area of concern, or both.

Ivory tower

elitistIvory Towersivory-tower
Academics are sometimes criticized as lacking practical experience and thus too insulated from the 'real world.' Academic insularity is colloquially criticized as being "ivory tower"; when used pejoratively, this term is criticized as anti-intellectualism.
Most contemporary uses of the term refer to academia or the college and university systems in many countries.

Discipline (academia)

academic disciplinedisciplinesdiscipline
Academia is usually conceived as divided into disciplines or fields of study.
Disciplines are defined (in part), and recognized by the academic journals in which research is published, and the learned societies and academic departments or faculties within colleges and universities to which their practitioners belong.