Acanthamoeba keratitis

Acanthamoeba'' keratitisAcanthamoebic keratitiskeratitis
Acanthamoeba keratitis is a rare disease in which amoebae invade the cornea of the eye, and affects roughly 1.2 to 3 million people each year.wikipedia
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Acanthamoeba

Acanthamoeba castellaniiAcanthamoeba polyphagaAcanthamoeba'' spp.
Acanthamoeba are protozoa found nearly ubiquitously in soil and water, and can cause infections of the skin, eyes, and central nervous system.
Diseases caused by Acanthamoeba include keratitis and granulomatous amoebic encephalitis

Contact lens

contact lensescontactscontact lense
In the United States, Acanthamoeba keratitis is nearly always associated with soft contact lens use.
Poor lens care can lead to infections by various microorganisms including bacteria, fungi, and Acanthamoeba (Acanthamoeba keratitis).

Protozoa

protozoanprotozoanspellicle
Acanthamoeba are protozoa found nearly ubiquitously in soil and water, and can cause infections of the skin, eyes, and central nervous system.
A number of protozoan pathogens are human parasites, causing diseases such as malaria (by Plasmodium), amoebiasis, giardiasis, toxoplasmosis, cryptosporidiosis, trichomoniasis, Chagas disease, leishmaniasis, African trypanosomiasis (sleeping sickness), amoebic dysentery, acanthamoeba keratitis, and primary amoebic meningoencephalitis (naegleriasis).

Chlorhexidine

chlorhexidine gluconatechlorhexidine digluconateCorsodyl
One class of medications used in treatment is the biguanides, which include polyhexamethylene biguanide (PHMB) 0.02% to 0.06% drops, and chlorhexidine 0.02 to 0.2% drops.
Chlorhexidine eye drops have been used as a treatment for eyes affected by Acanthamoeba keratitis.

Polyhexanide

polihexanideExtraseptPHMB
One class of medications used in treatment is the biguanides, which include polyhexamethylene biguanide (PHMB) 0.02% to 0.06% drops, and chlorhexidine 0.02 to 0.2% drops.
PHMB eye drops have been used as a treatment for eyes affected by Acanthamoeba keratitis.

Amoeba

amoeboidamoebaeSarcodina
Acanthamoeba keratitis is a rare disease in which amoebae invade the cornea of the eye, and affects roughly 1.2 to 3 million people each year.

Cornea

cornealcorneal diseasecorneal diseases
Acanthamoeba keratitis is a rare disease in which amoebae invade the cornea of the eye, and affects roughly 1.2 to 3 million people each year.

Human eye

eyeeyeseyeball
Acanthamoeba keratitis is a rare disease in which amoebae invade the cornea of the eye, and affects roughly 1.2 to 3 million people each year.

Rare disease

rareorphan diseaserare diseases
Acanthamoeba keratitis is a rare disease in which amoebae invade the cornea of the eye, and affects roughly 1.2 to 3 million people each year.

Hypopyon

Corneal ulceration, or in severe cases, perforation, can also occur and may be accompanied by hypopyon.

Gram stain

Gram stainingGram-variableGram
Scrapings are taking from the cornea, and plated on agar for culture, and also can be stained using Gram stain and Giemsa stain to differentiate between bacterial keratitis and AK.

Giemsa stain

GiemsaGiemsa stainingGiemsa-stained
Scrapings are taking from the cornea, and plated on agar for culture, and also can be stained using Gram stain and Giemsa stain to differentiate between bacterial keratitis and AK.

Escherichia coli

E. coliE.coliE-coli
To culture Acanthamoeba, scrapings are placed on a non-nutrient agar saline plate seeded with a gram-negative bacteria such as E. coli.

Polymerase chain reaction

PCRPCR amplificationpolymerase chain reaction (PCR)
Polymerase chain reaction can be used to confirm a diagnosis of Acanthamoeba keratitis, especially when contact lenses are not involved.

Confocal microscopy

confocal microscopeconfocal laser scanning microscopyconfocal
Confocal microscopy is a non-invasive technique that allows visualization of Acanthamoeba in vivo in cases in which corneal scraping, culture, and cytology do not yield a diagnosis.

Propamidine

propamidine isethionate
Biguanides have also been found to act synergistically when used in combination with diamidines, with propamidine isethionate and hexamidine being the most commonly used. A combined regimen of propamidine, miconazole nitrate, and neomycin has also been suggested.

Miconazole

miconazole nitrateDaktarinMonistat
A combined regimen of propamidine, miconazole nitrate, and neomycin has also been suggested.

Neomycin

Framycetinneomycin sulfateneomycin B
A combined regimen of propamidine, miconazole nitrate, and neomycin has also been suggested.

Corneal transplantation

corneal transplantkeratoplastycornea transplant
In cases of corneal ulceration or perforation, or if corneal scarring is severe, keratoplasty may be required.

Waterborne diseases

water-borne diseasewaterborne diseasewater-borne diseases