Accusative case

accusativeacc.ACCObjectAaccusative formaccusative singularobjective(accusative)accusative of motion towards
The accusative case (abbreviated ) of a noun is the grammatical case used to mark the direct object of a transitive verb.wikipedia
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List of glossing abbreviations

abbreviatedglossing abbreviationglossing abbreviations
The accusative case (abbreviated ) of a noun is the grammatical case used to mark the direct object of a transitive verb.

Grammatical case

casecasescase marking
The accusative case (abbreviated ) of a noun is the grammatical case used to mark the direct object of a transitive verb.
English has largely lost its case system although personal pronouns still have three cases, which are simplified forms of the nominative, accusative and genitive cases.

Romanian language

RomanianRomanian-languagero
The accusative case existed in Proto-Indo-European and is present in some Indo-European languages (including Latin, Sanskrit, Greek, German, Icelandic, Bulgarian, Polish, Czech, Serbo-Croatian, Slovak, Romanian, Russian, Ukrainian), in the Uralic languages, in Altaic languages and in Semitic languages (such as Classical Arabic).
Romanian has preserved a part of the Latin declension, but whereas Latin had six cases, from a morphological viewpoint, Romanian has only five: the nominative, accusative, genitive, dative, and marginally the vocative.

Icelandic language

IcelandicModern IcelandicIcel.
The accusative case existed in Proto-Indo-European and is present in some Indo-European languages (including Latin, Sanskrit, Greek, German, Icelandic, Bulgarian, Polish, Czech, Serbo-Croatian, Slovak, Romanian, Russian, Ukrainian), in the Uralic languages, in Altaic languages and in Semitic languages (such as Classical Arabic).
Modern Icelandic is still a heavily inflected language with four cases: nominative, accusative, dative and genitive.

Serbo-Croatian

Serbo-CroatSerbo-Croato-SlovenianCroatian
The accusative case existed in Proto-Indo-European and is present in some Indo-European languages (including Latin, Sanskrit, Greek, German, Icelandic, Bulgarian, Polish, Czech, Serbo-Croatian, Slovak, Romanian, Russian, Ukrainian), in the Uralic languages, in Altaic languages and in Semitic languages (such as Classical Arabic).
Traditional grammars list seven cases for nouns and adjectives: nominative, genitive, dative, accusative, vocative, locative, and instrumental, reflecting the original seven cases of Proto-Slavic, and indeed older forms of Serbo-Croatian itself.

Czech language

CzechcsCzech-language
The accusative case existed in Proto-Indo-European and is present in some Indo-European languages (including Latin, Sanskrit, Greek, German, Icelandic, Bulgarian, Polish, Czech, Serbo-Croatian, Slovak, Romanian, Russian, Ukrainian), in the Uralic languages, in Altaic languages and in Semitic languages (such as Classical Arabic).
For example, to change "Peter killedPaul" to "Paul was killed by Peter" the order of subject and object is inverted: Petr zabil Pavla ("Peter killed Paul") becomes "Paul, Peter killed" (Pavla zabil Petr). Pavla is in the accusative case, the grammatical object (in this case, the victim) of the verb.

Morphosyntactic alignment

alignmentcore relationdistinguishing between their relations
In morphosyntactic alignment terms, both perform the accusative function, but the accusative object is telic, while the partitive is not.
These are called nominative–accusative languages, or just accusative languages, after the nominative and accusative cases, which are how A/S and O are distinguished in Latin.

Partitive case

partitivepartitivelypart.
Finnic languages, such as Finnish and Estonian, have two cases to mark objects, the accusative and the partitive case.
As an example of the irresultative meaning of the partitive, ammuin karhun (accusative) means "I shot the bear (dead)", whereas ammuin karhua (partitive) means "I shot (at) the bear" without specifying if it was even hit.

Latin declension

genitive casedeclensionsecond declension
For the accusative endings, see Latin declension.
A complete Latin noun declension consists of up to seven grammatical cases: nominative, vocative, accusative, genitive, dative, ablative and locative.

German language

GermanGerman-languageGerman-speaking
The accusative case existed in Proto-Indo-European and is present in some Indo-European languages (including Latin, Sanskrit, Greek, German, Icelandic, Bulgarian, Polish, Czech, Serbo-Croatian, Slovak, Romanian, Russian, Ukrainian), in the Uralic languages, in Altaic languages and in Semitic languages (such as Classical Arabic).
four cases: nominative, accusative, genitive and dative.

Oblique case

obliqueobjectiveobjective case
This conflation of the old accusative, dative, and (after prepositions) genitive cases is the oblique case.
The term objective case is generally preferred by modern English grammarians, where it supplanted Old English's dative and accusative.

English language

EnglishEnglish-languageen
Modern English, which almost entirely lacks declension in its nouns, does not have an explicitly marked accusative case even in the pronouns.
The translation of Matthew 8:20 from 1000 CE shows examples of case endings (nominative plural, accusative plural, genitive singular) and a verb ending (present plural):

Proto-Indo-European language

Proto-Indo-EuropeanIndo-EuropeanPIE
The accusative case existed in Proto-Indo-European and is present in some Indo-European languages (including Latin, Sanskrit, Greek, German, Icelandic, Bulgarian, Polish, Czech, Serbo-Croatian, Slovak, Romanian, Russian, Ukrainian), in the Uralic languages, in Altaic languages and in Semitic languages (such as Classical Arabic).
accusative: used for the direct object of a transitive verb.

Latin

Lat.Latin languagelat
The accusative case existed in Proto-Indo-European and is present in some Indo-European languages (including Latin, Sanskrit, Greek, German, Icelandic, Bulgarian, Polish, Czech, Serbo-Croatian, Slovak, Romanian, Russian, Ukrainian), in the Uralic languages, in Altaic languages and in Semitic languages (such as Classical Arabic). It is a noun that is having something done to it, usually used together (such as in Latin) with the nominative case.
4) Accusative – used when the noun is the direct object of the subject and as the object of a preposition demonstrating place to which.: The man killed the boy. Vir puerum necāvit.

Nominative case

nominativenom.NOM
It is a noun that is having something done to it, usually used together (such as in Latin) with the nominative case.
English still retains some nominative pronouns, which are contrasted with the accusative (comparable to the oblique or disjunctive in some other languages): I (accusative me), we (accusative us), he (accusative him), she (accusative her), they (accusative them) and who (accusative whom).

Dative case

dativedat.DAT
Such forms as whom, them, and her derive rather from the old Germanic dative forms, of which the -m and -r endings are characteristic.
The modern objective case pronoun whom is derived from the dative case in Old English, specifically the Old English dative pronoun "hwām" (as opposed to the modern subjective "who", which descends from Old English "hwā") — though "whom" also absorbed the functions of the Old English accusative pronoun "hwone".

Altaic languages

AltaicAltaic language familyAltaic family
The accusative case existed in Proto-Indo-European and is present in some Indo-European languages (including Latin, Sanskrit, Greek, German, Icelandic, Bulgarian, Polish, Czech, Serbo-Croatian, Slovak, Romanian, Russian, Ukrainian), in the Uralic languages, in Altaic languages and in Semitic languages (such as Classical Arabic).

Finnish language

FinnishFinnish-languagefi
Finnic languages, such as Finnish and Estonian, have two cases to mark objects, the accusative and the partitive case.
Nouns may be suffixed with the markers for the aforementioned accusative case and partitive case, the genitive case, eight different locatives, and a few other cases.

Ukrainian language

Ukrainianukrukr.
The accusative case existed in Proto-Indo-European and is present in some Indo-European languages (including Latin, Sanskrit, Greek, German, Icelandic, Bulgarian, Polish, Czech, Serbo-Croatian, Slovak, Romanian, Russian, Ukrainian), in the Uralic languages, in Altaic languages and in Semitic languages (such as Classical Arabic).
Nouns decline for 7 cases: nominative, accusative, genitive, dative, instrumental, locative, vocative; 3 genders: masculine, feminine, neuter; and 2 numbers: singular, plural.

Semitic languages

SemiticSemitic languageArabian
The accusative case existed in Proto-Indo-European and is present in some Indo-European languages (including Latin, Sanskrit, Greek, German, Icelandic, Bulgarian, Polish, Czech, Serbo-Croatian, Slovak, Romanian, Russian, Ukrainian), in the Uralic languages, in Altaic languages and in Semitic languages (such as Classical Arabic).
The proto-Semitic three-case system (nominative, accusative and genitive) with differing vowel endings (-u, -a -i), fully preserved in Qur'anic Arabic (see ʾIʿrab), Akkadian and Ugaritic, has disappeared everywhere in the many colloquial forms of Semitic languages.

Ancient Greek

GreekClassical GreekGr.
to indicate duration of time. E.g., multos annos, "for many years"; ducentos annos, "for 200 years." This is known as the accusative of time. Compare the ablative of time, which was used for most points in time except—in classical Latin—for dates of the form ante diem N. Kal./Non./Id., which followed Greek in taking the accusative.
In Ancient Greek, nouns (including proper nouns) have five cases (nominative, genitive, dative, accusative, and vocative), three genders (masculine, feminine, and neuter), and three numbers (singular, dual, and plural).

Declension

declinedcasecases
Modern English, which almost entirely lacks declension in its nouns, does not have an explicitly marked accusative case even in the pronouns.
hominem (accusative singular) "[the] man" [as a direct object] (e.g., ad hominem, toward the man, in the sense of argument directed personally; hominem vidi, I saw the man)

Finnic languages

FinnicFinnic languageProto-Finnic
Finnic languages, such as Finnish and Estonian, have two cases to mark objects, the accusative and the partitive case.
This resulted in the rise of the telicity contrast of the object, which must be in the accusative case or partitive case.

Estonian language

EstonianestEstonia
Finnic languages, such as Finnish and Estonian, have two cases to mark objects, the accusative and the partitive case.
The direct object of the verb appears either in the accusative (for total objects) or in the partitive (for partial objects).

Esperanto grammar

grammarComparative ''theEsperanto grammar: Pronouns
Esperanto grammar involves only two cases, a nominative and an accusative.
Nouns and adjectives have two cases, nominative/oblique and accusative/allative, and two numbers, singular and plural; the adjectival form of personal pronouns behaves like a genitive case.