Aceh War

Aceh30-year war in AcehAceh problemat war with the Dutchcolonial invasionDutch war against Acehits conflict with the Dutchwars with the Dutch
The Aceh War (Indonesian: Perang Aceh), also known as the Dutch War or the Infidel War (1873–1904), was an armed military conflict between the Sultanate of Aceh and the Kingdom of the Netherlands which was triggered by discussions between representatives of Aceh and the United States in Singapore during early 1873.wikipedia
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Indonesia

Republic of IndonesiaIndonesianIndonesian Republic
The war was part of a series of conflicts in the late 19th century that consolidated Dutch rule over modern-day Indonesia.
The influence of local leaders such as Prince Diponegoro in central Java, Imam Bonjol in central Sumatra, Pattimura in Maluku, and bloody 30-year war in Aceh weakened the Dutch and tied up the colonial military forces.

Banda Aceh

KutarajaAcehBanda Aceh, Indonesia
An expedition under Major General Johan Harmen Rudolf Köhler was sent out on 26 March 1873, which bombarded the capital Banda Aceh and was able to occupy most of the coastal areas by April.
Banda Aceh had long been at the centre of protracted conflicts between the Acehnese and foreign domination, including war with Portuguese, wars with the Dutch, the Japanese and the Indonesian government.

Alauddin Mahmud Syah II

Sultan Mahmud SyahMahmudMahmud Syah
By January 1874, deteriorating conditions forced Sultan Mahmud Syah and his followers to abandon Banda Aceh and retreat to the interior.
He reigned from 1870 to 1874 and was the last sultan to rule Aceh before the colonial invasion.

Sumatra

SumateraSumatra IslandSumatran
However, this southward trend clashed with the northwards expansion of Dutch colonialism in Sumatra.
Aceh, in the north, was the major obstacle, as the Dutch were involved in the long and costly Aceh War (1873–1903).

Alauddin Muhammad Da'ud Syah II

Alauddin Muhammad Da'ud Syah II Johan BerdaulatSultan Alauddin Muhammad Da'ud Syah II
Following Mahmud's death from cholera, the Acehnese proclaimed a young grandson of Alauddin Ibrahim Mansur Syah, named Tuanku Muhammad Daud, as Alauddin Muhammad Da'ud Syah II (r.
Dutch fear of involvement by some other foreign power in northern Sumatra led them to pursue an aggressive policy vis-à-vis the hitherto independent Aceh, which resulted in the outbreak of the Aceh War on 26 March 1873.

Teuku Umar

After a failed Dutch attempt to rescue the hostages, where the local leader Teuku Umar was asked for help but he refused, the Dutch together with the British invaded the territory.
Teuku Umar (Meulaboh, West Aceh, 1854 – February 11, 1899) was a leader of a guerrilla campaign against the Dutch in Aceh during the Aceh War.

Aceh Sultanate

AcehSultanate of Acehsultan of Aceh
The Aceh War (Indonesian: Perang Aceh), also known as the Dutch War or the Infidel War (1873–1904), was an armed military conflict between the Sultanate of Aceh and the Kingdom of the Netherlands which was triggered by discussions between representatives of Aceh and the United States in Singapore during early 1873. Muslim Acehnese from the Aceh Sultanate performed "holy war" known as Parang-sabil against invaders such as Americans in the attack on Joseph Peabody's ship Friendship, the First Sumatran expedition and the Second Sumatran expedition, and against the Dutch in the Dutch expedition on the west coast of Sumatra and most notably during the Aceh War, where they performed suicide attacks as part of "parang sabil".
The treaty was tantamount to a declaration of war on Aceh, and the Aceh War followed soon after in 1873, with the Dutch making the unfounded excuses that Aceh was sponsoring piracy and preparing to conclude a treaty with the United States.

Hendrikus Colijn

Hendrik ColijnColijnH. Colijn
In 1898 Van Heutsz was proclaimed governor of Aceh, and with his lieutenant, later Dutch Prime Minister Hendrikus Colijn, would finally conquer most of Aceh.
During his 16 years in the Dutch East Indies, he spent ten years in the Colonial Army, serving in the Aceh War as the lieutenant of J. B. van Heutsz, and six further years in the Colonial administration, having the same role towards van Heutsz when the latter became Governor General in 1904.

Christiaan Snouck Hurgronje

Snouck HurgronjeChristian Snouck HurgronjeC. Snouck Hourgronje
He was supported by Dr. Christiaan Snouck Hurgronje of the University of Leiden, then the leading Dutch expert on Islam.
As the adviser of J. B. van Heutsz, he took an active role in the final part (1898–1905) of the Aceh War (1873–1914).

Gotfried Coenraad Ernst van Daalen

G.C.E. van DaalenGajo en Alaslanden 1904Van Daalen
Van Heutsz charged Colonel Gotfried Coenraad Ernst van Daalen with breaking remaining resistance.
Although notorious due to his controversial approach during the final phases of the protracted Aceh War and his consequent conflicts with both Van Heutsz and Snouck Hurgronje, he was appointed Governor of Aceh between 1905 and 1908.

Anglo-Dutch Treaties of 1870–71

Anglo-Dutch Treaties of 1870–1871Gold Coast treaty of 1871a treaty with the United Kingdom on the recruitment of contract workers
Following the 1869 opening of the Suez Canal and changing shipping routes, the British and Dutch signed the 1871 Anglo-Dutch Treaty of Sumatra which ended British territorial claims to Sumatra, allowing the Dutch a free hand within their sphere of influence in Maritime Southeast Asia while handing them the responsibility to check piracy.

Teungku Chik di Tiro

Tengku Cik di TiroTeungku Chik di Tiro Muhammad Saman
From the mid-1880s, the Acehnese military leadership was dominated by religious ulema, including Teungku Chik di Tiro (Muhamma Saman), who propagated the concept of a "holy war" through sermons and texts known as hikayat or poetic tales.
In May 1881, di Tiro and his troops captured the Dutch fortress in Indrapuri, sparking the Aceh War.

Counter-insurgency

counterinsurgencycounter insurgencyCOIN
The Dutch formulated a new strategy of counter-insurgency warfare by deploying light-armed Marechaussee units and using scorched earth tactics.
The Dutch formulated a new strategy of counter-insurgency warfare, during the Aceh War by deploying light-armed Marechaussee units and using scorched earth tactics.

Jihad

holy warjihādoffensive jihad
One intellectual Sayyid Ahmad Khan advocated discontinuing the "jihad" against the Dutch.

Suicide attack

suicide bombingsuicide bombersuicide bombers
Muslim Acehnese from the Aceh Sultanate performed "holy war" known as Parang-sabil against invaders such as Americans in the attack on Joseph Peabody's ship Friendship, the First Sumatran expedition and the Second Sumatran expedition, and against the Dutch in the Dutch expedition on the west coast of Sumatra and most notably during the Aceh War, where they performed suicide attacks as part of "parang sabil".
Muslim Acehnese from the Aceh Sultanate performed suicide attacks known as Parang-sabil against Dutch invaders during the Aceh War.

Usman bin Yahya

Habib Usman bin YahyaHabib Uthman bin YahyaHabib ʻUthman ibn ʻAbdullah ibn Yaḥya
Hurgronje was a friend of the Arab Grand Mufti of Batavia, Habib Usman bin Yahya, who issued fatwa to support the Dutch war against Aceh.
In a letter dated March 26, 1891, Snouck wrote about Sayyid Uthman's opinions in regards to jihad which was interpreted incorrectly by some Indonesian Muslims:'' "Many people were 'misled' by some law doctrines of jihad, and they thought that a Muslim person is justified in the presence of God to do acts such as to take possessions of the unbelievers, Chinese or dutch people for himself ... "'' Uthman also assisted Hurgronje by issuing fatwa to support the Dutch war against Aceh.

Royal Netherlands East Indies Army

KNILRoyal Dutch East Indies ArmyDutch East Indies Army
The KNIL was involved in many campaigns against indigenous groups in the area including the Padri War (1821–1845), the Java War (1825–1830), crushing the final resistance of Bali inhabitants to colonial rule in 1849, and the prolonged Aceh War (1873–1904).

Free Aceh Movement

GAMFree Aceh Movement (GAM)Gerakan Aceh Merdeka
The resulting rebellion led by Free Aceh Movement raged in the province until a peace treaty was signed between the Acehnese movement and Indonesian government following the Great Aceh tsunami.
They were one of the last Indonesian people to succumb to colonial rule and only after a brutal 30-year campaign, the Aceh War of 1873–1903.

Dutch East Indies

Netherlands East IndiesDutch IndiesDutch
In the Netherlands at the time, Van Heutsz was considered a hero, named the 'Pacifier of Aceh' and was promoted to become governor-general of the entire Dutch Indies in 1904.
The most prolonged military expedition was the Aceh War in which a Dutch invasion in 1873 was met with indigenous guerrilla resistance and ended with an Acehnese surrender in 1912.

J. B. van Heutsz

Van HeutszJoannes Benedictus van HeutszJ.B. van Heutsz
Major J. B. van Heutsz, a colonial military leader, then wrote a series of articles on Aceh.
He had become famous years before by bringing to an end to the long Aceh War.

Cut Nyak Dhien

Cut Nyak Dienthe Acehnese warriorTjut Njak Dhien
Cut Nyak Dhien or Tjoet Nja' Dhien (1848, Lampadang – November 6, 1908, Sumedang) was a leader of the Acehnese guerrilla forces during the Aceh War.

George Frederik Willem Borel

George Frederik Willem Borel (Maastricht, Netherlands 22 August 1837 to Bad Nauheim, Germany, 4 August 1907) was a major general in the Netherlands, notable for his involvement in the Banjarmasin and Aceh Wars.

Johan Cornelis van der Wijck

J.C. van der WijckVan Der Wijck
He became a Knight of the Order of the Dutch Lion and received the Aceh Medal for his military achievements in the Kraton during the Aceh War.

Indonesian language

IndonesianBahasa IndonesiaIndonesia
The Aceh War (Indonesian: Perang Aceh), also known as the Dutch War or the Infidel War (1873–1904), was an armed military conflict between the Sultanate of Aceh and the Kingdom of the Netherlands which was triggered by discussions between representatives of Aceh and the United States in Singapore during early 1873.

Kingdom of the Netherlands

Netherlandsconstituent countryDutch
The Aceh War (Indonesian: Perang Aceh), also known as the Dutch War or the Infidel War (1873–1904), was an armed military conflict between the Sultanate of Aceh and the Kingdom of the Netherlands which was triggered by discussions between representatives of Aceh and the United States in Singapore during early 1873.