Acetic acid

aceticglacial acetic acidacetateCH 3 COOHAcetous AcidAcOHCH 3 CO 2 Hmethanol carbonylationA'''ceticabove
Acetic acid, systematically named ethanoic acid, is a colourless liquid organic compound with the chemical formula CH 3 COOH (also written as CH 3 CO 2 H or C 2 H 4 O 2 ).wikipedia
1,085 Related Articles

Vinegar

malt vinegarwhite vinegarcoconut vinegar
Vinegar is no less than 4% acetic acid by volume, making acetic acid the main component of vinegar apart from water. The name acetic acid derives from acetum, the Latin word for vinegar, and is related to the word acid itself.
Vinegar is an aqueous solution of acetic acid and trace chemicals that may include flavorings.

Formic acid

formicformateHCO 2 H
Acetic acid is the second simplest carboxylic acid (after formic acid).
Formic acid is a colorless liquid having a pungent, penetrating odor at room temperature, not unlike the related acetic acid.

Polyvinyl acetate

PVAPVA glueglue
In addition to household vinegar, it is mainly produced as a precursor to polyvinyl acetate and cellulose acetate.
The degree of polymerization of poly(vinyl acetate) is typically 100 to 5000, while its ester groups are sensitive to base hydrolysis and slowly convert PVAc into polyvinyl alcohol and acetic acid.

Acid strength

weak acidstrong acidstrong acids
It is classified as a weak acid since it only partially dissociates in solution, but concentrated acetic acid is corrosive and can attack the skin.
Acetic acid (CH 3 COOH) is an example of a weak acid.

Acetate

diacetateacetatesacetate ion
A common symbol for acetic acid is AcOH, where Ac is the pseudoelement symbol representing the acetyl group −C(=O)−; the conjugate base, acetate, is thus represented as AcO − .
An acetate is a salt formed by the combination of acetic acid with an alkaline, earthy, metallic or nonmetallic and other base.

Carboxylic acid

carboxylcarboxyl groupcarboxylic acids
Acetic acid is the second simplest carboxylic acid (after formic acid).
Important examples include the amino acids and acetic acid.

Methanol

methyl alcoholwood alcoholCH 3 OH
The global demand for acetic acid is about 6.5 million metric tons per year (Mt/a), of which approximately 1.5 Mt/a is met by recycling; the remainder is manufactured from methanol.
With more than 20 million tons produced annually, it is used as a precursor to other commodity chemicals, including formaldehyde, acetic acid, methyl tert-butyl ether, as well as a host of more specialized chemicals.

E number

E-numberEE numbers
In the food industry, acetic acid is controlled by the food additive code E260 as an acidity regulator and as a condiment.

Ester

estersesterificationmonoester
The name acetate can also refer to a salt containing this anion, or an ester of acetic acid.
For example, butyl acetate (systematically butyl ethanoate), derived from butanol and acetic acid (systematically ethanoic acid) would be written CH 3 CO 2 C 4 H 9.

Carbohydrate

carbohydratessaccharidecomplex carbohydrates
When bound to coenzyme A, it is central to the metabolism of carbohydrates and fats.
This includes chemical compounds such as acetic or lactic acid, which are not normally considered carbohydrates.

Acid

acidicacidityacids
The name acetic acid derives from acetum, the Latin word for vinegar, and is related to the word acid itself.
Common aqueous acids include hydrochloric acid (a solution of hydrogen chloride which is found in gastric acid in the stomach and activates digestive enzymes), acetic acid (vinegar is a dilute aqueous solution of this liquid), sulfuric acid (used in car batteries), and citric acid (found in citrus fruits).

Chemical formula

molecular formulaformulageneral formula
Acetic acid, systematically named ethanoic acid, is a colourless liquid organic compound with the chemical formula CH 3 COOH (also written as CH 3 CO 2 H or C 2 H 4 O 2 ).
Formaldehyde and acetic acid have the same empirical formula,.

Cellulose acetate

acetateCellonacetate microfilm
In addition to household vinegar, it is mainly produced as a precursor to polyvinyl acetate and cellulose acetate.
Acetate differs from rayon in the employment of acetic acid in production.

Acetobacter

Acetobacter xylinum
Acetic acid is produced and excreted by acetic acid bacteria, notably the genus Acetobacter and Clostridium acetobutylicum.
Acetic acid bacteria are characterized by the ability to convert ethanol to acetic acid in the presence of oxygen.

Acid dissociation constant

p''K'' a pKapK a
In aqueous solution, it has a pK a value of 4.76.
Note, however, that all published dissociation constant values refer to the specific ionic medium used in their determination and that different values are obtained with different conditions, as shown for acetic acid in the illustration above.

Triacetin

Glyceryl triacetateE1518triacetalglycerol
However, the artificial triglyceride triacetin (glycerine triacetate) is a common food additive and is found in cosmetics and topical medicines.
It is the triester of glycerol and acetylating agents, such as acetic acid and acetic anhydride.

Dissociation (chemistry)

dissociationdissociatedissociates
It is classified as a weak acid since it only partially dissociates in solution, but concentrated acetic acid is corrosive and can attack the skin.
Acetic acid (CH 3 COOH) and ammonium (NH 4 + ) are good examples.

Monsanto process

MonsantoMonsanto acetic acid processMonsanto acetic acid synthesis
Two related processes for the carbonylation of methanol: the rhodium-catalyzed Monsanto process, and the iridium-catalyzed Cativa process.
The Monsanto process is an industrial method for the manufacture of acetic acid by catalytic carbonylation of methanol.

Ethanol

alcoholbioethanolethyl alcohol
Vinegar is mostly dilute acetic acid, often produced by fermentation and subsequent oxidation of ethanol.
Ethanol is a versatile solvent, miscible with water and with many organic solvents, including acetic acid, acetone, benzene, carbon tetrachloride, chloroform, diethyl ether, ethylene glycol, glycerol, nitromethane, pyridine, and toluene.

Cativa process

Cativa
Two related processes for the carbonylation of methanol: the rhodium-catalyzed Monsanto process, and the iridium-catalyzed Cativa process.
The Cativa process is a method for the production of acetic acid by the carbonylation of methanol.

Functional group

groupfunctional groupsmoiety
A common symbol for acetic acid is AcOH, where Ac is the pseudoelement symbol representing the acetyl group −C(=O)−; the conjugate base, acetate, is thus represented as AcO − .

Eastman Chemical Company

Eastman ChemicalTennessee EastmanEastman
Other major producers include Millennium Chemicals, Sterling Chemicals, Samsung, Eastman, and Svensk Etanolkemi.
An effect of World War I was a scarcity in raw materials such as photographic paper, optical glass, gelatin and many chemicals, including methanol, acetic acid and acetone.

Celanese

Celanese CorporationTiconaCelanese Corporation of America
The two biggest producers of virgin acetic acid are Celanese and BP Chemicals.
Its largest plant is in the Clear Lake area of Pasadena, Texas, United States the home to the world's largest acetic acid plant.

Metal carbonyl

carbonylInfrared spectroscopy of metal carbonylsBridging carbonyl
Metal carbonyls are soluble in nonpolar and polar organic solvents such as benzene, diethyl ether, acetone, glacial acetic acid, and carbon tetrachloride.

Descaling agent

descaledescalerDescaling agents
In households, diluted acetic acid is often used in descaling agents.
Notable descaling agents include acetic acid, citric acid, glycolic acid, formic acid, phosphoric acid, sulfamic acid and hydrochloric acid.