Achaemenid Assyria

AthuraAssyriaAchaemenidAchaemenid conquest of MesopotamiaAssyrianAssyriansAthura (Assyria)Athura Satrapbecame provincesMesopotamia
Athura ( Aθurā), also called Assyria, was a geographical area within the Achaemenid Empire in Upper Mesopotamia from 539 to 330 BC as a military protectorate state.wikipedia
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Iraq

Republic of IraqIraqiIrak
It mostly incorporated the territories of Neo-Assyrian Empire corresponding to what is now northern Iraq in the upper Tigris, the middle and upper Euphrates, modern-day northeastern Syria (Eber-Nari) and part of south-east Anatolia (now Turkey).
It was also part of the Median, Achaemenid, Hellenistic, Parthian, Sassanid, Roman, Rashidun, Umayyad, Abbasid, Ayyubid, Seljuk, Mongol, Timurid, Safavid, Afsharid and Ottoman empires.

Assyriology

AssyriologistAssyriologistsSumerology
Other Assyriologists, however, such as John Curtis and Simo Parpola, have strongly disputed this claim, citing how Assyria would eventually become one of the wealthiest regions among the Achaemenid Empire.
The field covers Sumer, the early Sumero-Akkadian city-states, the Akkadian Empire, Ebla, the Akkadian and Imperial Aramaic speaking states of Assyria, Babylonia and the Sealand Dynasty, the migrant foreign dynasties of southern Mesopotamia, including; the Gutians, Amorites, Kassites, Arameans, Suteans and Chaldeans, and to some degree post-imperial Achaemenid Assyria, Athura, Sassanid Syria, Assyria (Roman province), and Assuristan, together with later Neo-Assyrian states such as Adiabene, Osroene, Hatra, Beth Nuhadra and Beth Garmai, up until the Arab invasion and Islamic conquest of the mid 7th century AD.

Upper Mesopotamia

Jaziraal-JaziraNorthern Mesopotamia
Athura ( Aθurā), also called Assyria, was a geographical area within the Achaemenid Empire in Upper Mesopotamia from 539 to 330 BC as a military protectorate state.
The region fell to the Assyrians' southern brethren, the Babylonians in 605 BC, and from 539 BC it became part of the Achaemenid Empire; Achaemenid Assyria was known as Athura.

Old Aramaic language

Imperial AramaicOld AramaicAramaic
Despite a few rebellions, Aθurā functioned as an important part of the Achaemenid Empire and its inhabitants were given the right to govern themselves throughout Achaemenid rule and Old Aramaic was used diplomatically by the Achaemenids.
After 539 BCE, following the Achaemenid conquest of Mesopotamia under Darius I, the Achaemenids adopted the local use of Aramaic.

Eber-Nari

Eber NariAbar NaharaAbar-Nahara
It mostly incorporated the territories of Neo-Assyrian Empire corresponding to what is now northern Iraq in the upper Tigris, the middle and upper Euphrates, modern-day northeastern Syria (Eber-Nari) and part of south-east Anatolia (now Turkey).
Northern Mesopotamia, the north east of modern Syria and south east Anatolia remaining as Athura (Assyria) (Achaemenid Assyria).

Achaemenid Empire

AchaemenidPersianPersian Empire
Athura ( Aθurā), also called Assyria, was a geographical area within the Achaemenid Empire in Upper Mesopotamia from 539 to 330 BC as a military protectorate state.
The empire's great armies were, like the empire itself, very diverse, having: Persians, Macedonians, European Thracians, Paeonians, Medes, Achaean Greeks, Cissians, Hyrcanians, Assyrians, Chaldeans, Bactrians, Sacae, Arians, Parthians, Caucasian Albanians, Chorasmians, Sogdians, Gandarians, Dadicae, Caspians, Sarangae, Pactyes, Utians, Mycians, Phoenicians, Judeans, Egyptians, Cyprians, Cilicians, Pamphylians, Lycians, Dorians of Asia, Carians, Ionians, Aegean islanders, Aeolians, Greeks from Pontus, Paricanians, Arabians, Ethiopians of Africa, Ethiopians of Baluchistan, Libyans, Paphlagonians, Ligyes, Matieni, Mariandyni, Cappadocians, Phrygians, Armenians, Lydians, Mysians, Asian Thracians, Lasonii, Milyae, Moschi, Tibareni, Macrones, Mossynoeci, Mares, Colchians, Alarodians, Saspirians, Red Sea islanders, Sagartians, Indians, Eordi, Bottiaei, Chalcidians, Brygians, Pierians, Perrhaebi, Enienes, Dolopes, and Magnesians.

Erbil

ArbilIrbilArbela
However, according to more recent Assyriologists such as Georges Roux, cities such as Arrapkha, Guzana and Arbela remained intact, and Ashur was to revive.
Subsequent to this, it was part of the geopolitical province of Assyria under several empires in turn, including the Median Empire, the Achaemenid Empire (Achaemenid Assyria), Macedonian Empire, Seleucid Empire, Parthian Empire, Roman Assyria and Sasanian Empire (Asōristān), as well as being the capital of the tributary state of Adiabene between the mid-second century BC and early second century AD.

Districts of the Achaemenid Empire

XIX Satrapy18th Satrapy of the Achaemenid Empire19th
In Herodotus' account the Ninth Tributary District comprised "Babylonia and the rest of Assyria" and excluded Eber-Nari.

Assyria

Assyrian EmpireAssyriansAssyrian
By the 6th century, the indigenous and originally Akkadian speaking Semites of Assyria and Babylonia, spoke Akkadian infused dialects of Eastern Aramaic, which still survive among the Assyrian people to this day.
Assyria was also sometimes known as Subartu and Azuhinum prior to the rise of the city-state of Ashur, after which it was Aššūrāyu, and after its fall, from 605 BC through to the late seventh century AD variously as Achaemenid Assyria, and also referenced as Atouria, Ator, Athor, and sometimes as Syria which etymologically derives from Assyria according to Strabo, Syria (Greek), Assyria (Latin) and Asōristān (Middle Persian).

Kirkuk

KerkukKarkukKerkük
To the northeast of Kirkuk, the site of Tel ed-Daim shows significant evidence of Achaemenid rule.
After this it remained a part of the geo-political province of Assyria (Achaemenid Assyria, Athura, Seleucid Syria, Assyria (Roman province) and Assuristan) under various foreign empires, and between the 2nd century BC and 3rd century AD became the capital of the Neo-Assyrian state of Beth Garmai before this was conquered into the Sassanid empire and became a part of Assuristan.

Neo-Assyrian Empire

Neo-AssyrianAssyrianAssyrians
It mostly incorporated the territories of Neo-Assyrian Empire corresponding to what is now northern Iraq in the upper Tigris, the middle and upper Euphrates, modern-day northeastern Syria (Eber-Nari) and part of south-east Anatolia (now Turkey). Between the mid 14th centuries and late 11th century BC, and again between the late 10th and late 7th centuries BC, the respective Middle Assyrian Empire and Neo-Assyrian Empire dominated the Middle East militarily, culturally, economically and politically, and the Persians and their neighbours the Medes, Parthians, Elamites and Manneans were vassals of Assyria and paid tribute.
In the mid-6th century BC, Babylonia and Assyria became provinces of the Persian Empire.

Official language

official languagesofficialadministrative language
The use of a single official language, which modern scholarship has dubbed "Official Aramaic" or "Imperial Aramaic", is thought to have greatly contributed to the success of the Achaemenids in holding their far-flung empire together for as long as they did.
Around 500 BC, when Darius the Great annexed Mesopotamia to the Persian Empire, he chose a form of the Aramaic language (the so-called Official Aramaic or Imperial Aramaic) as the vehicle for written communication between the different regions of the vast empire with its different peoples and languages.

Nineveh

NinevahNinivehKouyunjik
The former major Assyrian capitals of Nineveh, Dur Sharrukin and Kalhu were only sparsely populated during Achaemenid rule.
Assyria, including the Nineveh region, continued to exist as a geo-political entity (Achaemenid Assyria, Athura, Assuristan etc.) under the rule of various empires until its dissolution in the mid-7th century AD.

Mesopotamia

MesopotamianMesopotamiansAncient Iraq
The Assyrian Empire resorted to a policy of deporting troublesome conquered peoples (predominantly fellow Semitic Aramean tribes as well as many Jews) into the lands of Mesopotamia.

Elam

ElamitesSusianaElamite Empire
Between the mid 14th centuries and late 11th century BC, and again between the late 10th and late 7th centuries BC, the respective Middle Assyrian Empire and Neo-Assyrian Empire dominated the Middle East militarily, culturally, economically and politically, and the Persians and their neighbours the Medes, Parthians, Elamites and Manneans were vassals of Assyria and paid tribute.
(see Achaemenid Assyria, Athura).

Arrapha

Arrapkha
However, according to more recent Assyriologists such as Georges Roux, cities such as Arrapkha, Guzana and Arbela remained intact, and Ashur was to revive.
The region later became part of the Persian ruled province of Athura (Achaemenid Assyria).

Assur

AššurAshurAshur (Qal'at Sherqat)
Like other Assyrian capitals, Assur was greatly destroyed during the battles of the century before.
After the Medes were overthrown by the Persians as the dominant force in ancient Iran, Assyria was ruled by the Persian Achaemenid Empire (as Athura) from 549 BC to 330 BC (see Achaemenid Assyria).

Mosul

Mosul, IraqMusulMossul
The project was located to the northwest of Mosul, in the upper Tigris valley, and within the Assyrian heartland.
The name of the city is first mentioned by Xenophon in his expeditionary logs in Achaemenid Assyria of 401 BC, during the reign of the Persian Achaemenid Empire.

Asoristan

AssuristanAsōristānAsuristan
From 226, Assyria became a province of the Sasanian Empire and was known as Asōristān ("Asōr-land") in Middle Persian.
The region was also called several other names: Assyria, Athura Bēṯ Aramāyē, Bābēl / Bābil, and Erech / Erāq.

Aramaic

Aramaic languageMiddle AramaicChaldee
Following the Achaemenid conquest of Assyria, under Darius I the Aramaic language was adopted as the "vehicle for written communication between the different regions of the vast empire with its different peoples and languages."
It originated in fifth century BC Achaemenid Assyria, but its golden age was the fourth to sixth centuries.

Ancient Mesopotamian religion

Mesopotamian religionMesopotamianAssyro-Babylonian religion
This might indicate that ancient Mesopotamian religion was still being practiced within the Assyrian population during the Achaemenid rule.
Assyria and Babylonia later became provinces under the Parthian Empire (Athura and province of Babylonia), Rome (province of Assyria) and Sassanid Empire (province of Asuristan).

Assyria (Roman province)

AssyriaRoman AssyriaRoman Province of Assyria
By the second century, the Roman Empire under Trajan began to achieve the upper hand against the Parthians and established the province of Assyria along the Euphrates and Tigris.
The general area coincided with ancient Assyria; however, and the Medes, Achaemenid Persians, Seleucid Greeks, Sassanids and Parthians all had similar names for the area (Ashur, Athura, Assuristan).

Satrap

satrapysatrapssatrapies
Although sometimes regarded as a satrapy, Achaemenid royal inscriptions list it as a dahyu (plural dahyāva), a concept generally interpreted as meaning either a group of people or both a country and its people, without any administrative implication.

Euphrates

Euphrates RiverRiver EuphratesFırat River
It mostly incorporated the territories of Neo-Assyrian Empire corresponding to what is now northern Iraq in the upper Tigris, the middle and upper Euphrates, modern-day northeastern Syria (Eber-Nari) and part of south-east Anatolia (now Turkey).