The pyramids of Giza are among the most recognizable symbols of ancient Egypt civilization.
The Achaemenid Empire at its greatest territorial extent under the rule of Darius I (522 BC–486 BC)
Map of ancient Egypt, showing major cities and sites of the Dynastic period (c. 3150 BC to 30 BC)
A copper mine in Cyprus. In antiquity, Cyprus was a major source of copper.
The Achaemenid Empire at its greatest territorial extent under the rule of Darius I (522 BC–486 BC)
A typical Naqada II jar decorated with gazelles (Predynastic Period)
Family tree of the Achaemenid rulers.
Early tomb painting from Nekhen, c. 3500 BC, Naqada, possibly Gerzeh, culture
Archeologic site of Khirokitia with early remains of human habitation during Aceramic Neolithic period (reconstruction)
Map of the expansion process of Achaemenid territories
The Narmer Palette depicts the unification of the Two Lands.
Zeus Keraunios, 500–480 BC, Nicosia museum
Cyrus the Great is said, in the Bible, to have liberated the Hebrew captives in Babylon to resettle and rebuild Jerusalem, earning him an honored place in Judaism.
Khafre enthroned
The Walls of Nicosia were built by the Venetians to defend the city in case of an Ottoman attack
The tomb of Cyrus the Great, founder of the Achaemenid Empire. At Pasargadae, Iran.
Amenemhat III, the last great ruler of the Middle Kingdom
Kyrenia Castle was originally built by the Byzantines and enlarged by the Venetians
The Achaemenid Empire at its greatest extent, c. 500 BC
The Egyptian Empire c. 1450 BC
Büyük Han, a caravanserai in Nicosia, is an example of the surviving Ottoman architecture in Cyprus.
The Persian queen Atossa, daughter of Cyrus the Great, sister-wife of Cambyses II, Darius the Great's wife, and mother of Xerxes the Great
Four colossal statues of Ramesses II flank the entrance of his temple Abu Simbel
Hoisting the British flag at Nicosia
Map showing events of the first phases of the Greco-Persian Wars
Statues of two pharaohs of Egypt's Twenty-Fifth Dynasty and several other Kushite kings. From left to right: Tantamani, Taharqa (rear), Senkamanisken, again Tantamani (rear), Aspelta, Anlamani, again Senkamanisken. Kerma Museum.
Greek Cypriot demonstrations for Enosis (union with Greece) in 1930
Greek hoplite and Persian warrior depicted fighting, on an ancient kylix, 5th century BC
Assyrian siege of an Egyptian fortified city, a scene from the Assyrian conquest of Egypt, probably referring to the capture of Memphis in 667 BC. Sculpted in 645–635 BC, under Ashurbanipal. British Museum.
A British soldier facing a crowd of Greek Cypriot demonstrators in Nicosia (1956)
Achaemenid king fighting hoplites, seal and seal holder, Cimmerian Bosporus.
Portrait of Ptolemy VI Philometor wearing the double crown of Egypt
Ethnic map of Cyprus according to the 1960 census.
Achaemenid gold ornaments, Brooklyn Museum
The Fayum mummy portraits epitomize the meeting of Egyptian and Roman cultures.
Varosha (Maraş), a suburb of Famagusta, was abandoned when its inhabitants fled in 1974 and remains under Turkish military control
Persian Empire timeline including important events and territorial evolution – 550–323 BC
The pharaoh was usually depicted wearing symbols of royalty and power.
A map showing the division of Cyprus
Relief showing Darius I offering lettuces to the Egyptian deity Amun-Ra Kamutef, Temple of Hibis
Painted limestone relief of a noble member of Ancient Egyptian society during the New Kingdom
Foreign Ministers of the European Union countries in Limassol during Cyprus Presidency of the EU in 2012
The 24 countries subject to the Achaemenid Empire at the time of Darius, on the Egyptian statue of Darius I.
Punishment in ancient Egypt
Cyprus taken from space by the International Space Station in 2021
The Battle of Issus, between Alexander the Great on horseback to the left, and Darius III in the chariot to the right, represented in a Pompeii mosaic dated 1st century BC – Naples National Archaeological Museum
The Seated Scribe from Saqqara, Fifth dynasty of Egypt; scribes were elite and well educated. They assessed taxes, kept records, and were responsible for administration.
Sea caves at Cape Greco.
Alexander's first victory over Darius, the Persian king depicted in medieval European style in the 15th century romance The History of Alexander's Battles
A tomb relief depicts workers plowing the fields, harvesting the crops, and threshing the grain under the direction of an overseer, painting in the tomb of Nakht.
The Troodos Mountains experience heavy snowfall in winter
Frataraka dynasty ruler Vadfradad I (Autophradates I). 3rd century BC. Istakhr (Persepolis) mint.
Measuring and recording the harvest is shown in a wall painting in the tomb of Menna, at Thebes (Eighteenth Dynasty).
Kouris Dam overflow in April 2012
Dārēv I (Darios I) used for the first time the title of mlk (King). 2nd century BC.
Sennedjem plows his fields with a pair of oxen, used as beasts of burden and a source of food.
Presidential Palace, Nicosia
Winged sphinx from the Palace of Darius in Susa, Louvre
Hatshepsut's trading expedition to the Land of Punt
Nicos Anastasiades, President of Cyprus since 2013.
Daric of Artaxerxes II
Hieroglyphs on stela in Louvre, c. 1321 BC
Dhekelia Power Station
Volume of annual tribute per district, in the Achaemenid Empire, according to Herodotus.
The Rosetta Stone (c. 196 BC) enabled linguists to begin the process of deciphering ancient Egyptian scripts.
Welcoming ceremony of the former Russian president Dmitry Medvedev by the soldiers of the Cypriot National Guard.
Achaemenid tax collector, calculating on an Abax or Abacus, according to the Darius Vase (340–320 BC).
Ostrakon: hunting a lion with spear and dog
Supreme Court of Justice
Letter from the Satrap of Bactria to the governor of Khulmi, concerning camel keepers, 353 BC
Lower-class occupations
A proportional representation of Cyprus's exports, 2019
Relief of throne-bearing soldiers in their native clothing at the tomb of Xerxes I, demonstrating the satrapies under his rule.
Egyptians celebrated feasts and festivals accompanied by music and dance.
Central Bank of Cyprus
Achaemenid king killing a Greek hoplite. c. 500 BC–475 BC, at the time of Xerxes I. Metropolitan Museum of Art.
Ruins of Deir el-Medina. A UNESCO World Heritage Site
Cyprus is part of a monetary union, the eurozone (dark blue) and of the EU single market.
Persian soldiers (left) fighting against Scythians. Cylinder seal impression.
The Bust of Nefertiti, by the sculptor Thutmose, is one of the most famous masterpieces of ancient Egyptian art
Limassol General Hospital
Color reconstruction of Achaemenid infantry on the Alexander Sarcophagus (end of 4th century BC).
The Book of the Dead was a guide to the deceased's journey in the afterlife.
A1 Motorway between Agios Athanasios junction and Mesa Ghetonia junction in Limassol
Seal of Darius the Great hunting in a chariot, reading "I am Darius, the Great King" in Old Persian (𐎠𐎭𐎶𐏐𐎭𐎠𐎼𐎹𐎺𐎢𐏁𐎴 𐏋, "adam Dārayavaʰuš xšāyaθiya"), as well as in Elamite and Babylonian. The word "great" only appears in Babylonian. British Museum.
The Ka statue provided a physical place for the Ka to manifest.
Population growth, 1961–2003 (numbers for the entire island, excluding Turkish settlers residing in Northern Cyprus).
Achaemenid calvalryman in the satrapy of Hellespontine Phrygia, Altıkulaç Sarcophagus, early 4th century BC.
Anubis was the ancient Egyptian god associated with mummification and burial rituals; here, he attends to a mummy.
2010 population by age and gender
Armoured cavalry: Achaemenid Dynast of Hellespontine Phrygia attacking a Greek psiloi, Altıkulaç Sarcophagus, early 4th century BC.
Pharaohs' tombs were provided with vast quantities of wealth, such as the golden mask from the mummy of Tutankhamun.
The Armenian Alphabet at the Melkonian Educational Institute. Armenian is recognised as a minority language in Cyprus.
Reconstitution of Persian landing ships at the Battle of Marathon.
A chariot
Faneromeni School is the oldest all-girl primary school in Cyprus.
Greek ships against Achaemenid ships at the Battle of Salamis.
Glassmaking was a highly developed art.
The entrance of the historic Pancyprian Gymnasium
Iconic relief of lion and bull fighting, Apadana of Persepolis
Ancient Egyptian medical instruments depicted in a Ptolemaic period inscription on the temple at Kom Ombo
Typical Cypriot architecture in old part of Nicosia, Cyprus
Achaemenid golden bowl with lioness imagery of Mazandaran
Edwin Smith surgical papyrus (c. 16th century BC), written in hieratic, describes anatomy and medical treatments.
Laouto, dominant instrument of the Cypriot traditional music.
The ruins of Persepolis
Seagoing ship from Hateshepsut's Deir el-Bahari temple relief of a Punt Expedition
Zeno of Citium, founder of the Stoic school of philosophy.
A section of the Old Persian part of the trilingual Behistun inscription. Other versions are in Babylonian and Elamite.
Astronomical chart in Senemut's tomb, 18th dynasty
Ioannis Kigalas (c. 1622–1687) was a Nicosia born Greek Cypriot scholar and professor of Philosophy who was largely active in the 17th century.
A copy of the Behistun inscription in Aramaic on a papyrus. Aramaic was the lingua franca of the empire.
Model of a household porch and garden, c. 1981–1975 BC
Cypriot meze
An Achaemenid drinking vessel
The Temple of Dendur, completed by 10 BC, made of aeolian sandstone, temple proper: height: 6.4 m, width: 6.4 m; length: 12.5 m, in the Metropolitan Museum of Art (New York City)
Cypriot Halloumi
Bas-relief of Farvahar at Persepolis
The well preserved Temple of Isis from Philae is an example of Egyptian architecture and architectural sculpture
Cypriot style café in an arcade in Nicosia
Tomb of Artaxerxes III in Persepolis
Illustration of various types of capitals, drawn by the Egyptologist Karl Richard Lepsius
Spyros Kyprianou Athletic Centre in Limassol
The Mausoleum at Halicarnassus, one of the Seven wonders of the ancient world, was built by Greek architects for the local Persian satrap of Caria, Mausolus (Scale model)
Egyptian tomb models as funerary goods. Egyptian Museum in Cairo
Cypri insvla nova descript 1573, Ioannes á Deutecum f[ecit]. Map of Cyprus newly drawn by Johannes van Deutecom, 1573.
Achamenid dynasty timeline
Kneeling portrait statue of Amenemhat holding a stele with an inscription; c. 1500 BC; limestone; Egyptian Museum of Berlin (Germany)
Reconstruction of the Palace of Darius at Susa. The palace served as a model for Persepolis.
Fresco which depicts Nebamun hunting birds; 1350 BC; paint on plaster; 98 × 83 cm; British Museum (London)
Lion on a decorative panel from Darius I the Great's palace, Louvre
Portrait head of pharaoh Hatshepsut or Thutmose III; 1480–1425 BC; most probably granite; height: 16.5 cm; Egyptian Museum of Berlin
Ruins of Throne Hall, Persepolis
Falcon box with wrapped contents; 332–30 BC; painted and gilded wood, linen, resin and feathers; 58.5 × 24.9 cm; Metropolitan Museum of Art (New York City)
Apadana Hall, Persian and Median soldiers at Persepolis
Frontispiece of Description de l'Égypte, published in 38 volumes between 1809 and 1829.
Lateral view of tomb of Cambyses II, Pasargadae, Iran
Tourists at the pyramid complex of Khafre near the Great Sphinx of Giza
Plaque with horned lion-griffins. The Metropolitan Museum of Art

Cyprus was settled by Mycenaean Greeks in two waves in the 2nd millennium BC. As a strategic location in the Eastern Mediterranean, it was subsequently occupied by several major powers, including the empires of the Assyrians, Egyptians and Persians, from whom the island was seized in 333 BC by Alexander the Great.

- Cyprus

By 525 BC, Cambyses had successfully subjugated Phoenicia and Cyprus and was making preparations to invade Egypt with the newly created Persian navy.

- Achaemenid Empire

Following its annexation by Persia, Egypt was joined with Cyprus and Phoenicia in the sixth satrapy of the Achaemenid Persian Empire.

- Ancient Egypt

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