Arāmāyā in Syriac Esṭrangelā script
The Neo-Babylonian Empire under Nabonidus ((r. undefined – undefined) 556–539 BC)
The Achaemenid Empire at its greatest territorial extent under the rule of Darius I (522 BC–486 BC)
Syriac-Aramaic alphabet
Map of the Old Babylonian Empire under Hammurabi ((r. undefined – undefined)c. undefined 1792–1750 BC).
The Achaemenid Empire at its greatest territorial extent under the rule of Darius I (522 BC–486 BC)
The Carpentras Stele was the first ancient inscription ever identified as "Aramaic". Although it was first published in 1704, it was not identified as Aramaic until 1821, when Ulrich Friedrich Kopp complained that previous scholars had left everything "to the Phoenicians and nothing to the Arameans, as if they could not have written at all".
Locations of some major Mesopotamian cities.
Family tree of the Achaemenid rulers.
Syriac inscription at the Syro-Malabar Catholic Church's Major Archbishop's House in Kerala, India
The so-called "Tower of Babel stele", depicting Nebuchadnezzar II in the top-right and featuring a depiction of Babylon's great ziggurat (the Etemenanki) to his left.
Map of the expansion process of Achaemenid territories
"Jesus" in Jewish Aramaic
Stele of Nabonidus exhibited in the British Museum. The king is shown praying to the Moon, the Sun and Venus and is depicted as being the closest to the Moon.
Cyrus the Great is said, in the Bible, to have liberated the Hebrew captives in Babylon to resettle and rebuild Jerusalem, earning him an honored place in Judaism.
11th century book in Syriac Serto
Map of the path of Cyrus the Great during his 539 BC invasion of Babylonia.
The tomb of Cyrus the Great, founder of the Achaemenid Empire. At Pasargadae, Iran.
One of the Bar-Rakib inscriptions from Sam'al. The inscription is in the Samalian language (also considered a dialect).
Illustration of the inhabitants of Babylon deriding the Achaemenid king Darius I during the revolt of Nebuchadnezzar III in 522 BC. From the History of Darius the Great (1900) by Jacob Abbott.
The Achaemenid Empire at its greatest extent, c. 500 BC
Coin of Alexander the Great bearing an Aramaic language inscription
Major cities of Lower Mesopotamia in the 1st century BC.
The Persian queen Atossa, daughter of Cyrus the Great, sister-wife of Cambyses II, Darius the Great's wife, and mother of Xerxes the Great
The Kandahar Bilingual Rock Inscription (Greek and Aramaic) by the Indian king Ashoka, 3rd century BC at Kandahar, Afghanistan
Partial view of the ruins of Babylon in modern-day Iraq.
Map showing events of the first phases of the Greco-Persian Wars
11th century Hebrew Bible with Targum intercalated between verses of Hebrew text
9th century BC depiction from a cylinder seal of the Statue of Marduk, Babylon's patron deity Marduk's main cult image in the city.
Greek hoplite and Persian warrior depicted fighting, on an ancient kylix, 5th century BC
Mandaic magical "demon trap"
Cylinder by Nabonidus, commemorating restoration work done on a temple dedicated to the god Sîn in Ur. Exhibited at the British Museum.
Achaemenid king fighting hoplites, seal and seal holder, Cimmerian Bosporus.
9th century Syriac Estrangela manuscript of John Chrysostom's Homily on the Gospel of John
Tablet concerning a legal dispute over barley, from Uruk and dated to the reign of Nabonidus (544 BC). Exhibited at the Oriental Institute of the University of Chicago.
Achaemenid gold ornaments, Brooklyn Museum
Hebrew (left) and Aramaic (right) in parallel in a 1299 Hebrew Bible held by the Bodleian Library
Striding lions from the Processional Street of Babylon. Exhibited at the Pergamon Museum in Berlin.
Persian Empire timeline including important events and territorial evolution – 550–323 BC
Territorial distribution of Neo-Aramaic languages in the Near East
Neo-Babylonian terracotta figurine depicting a nude woman. Exhibited at the Walters Art Museum in Baltimore.
Relief showing Darius I offering lettuces to the Egyptian deity Amun-Ra Kamutef, Temple of Hibis
Amen in East Syriac Aramaic
Tablet containing a 6th-century BC Babylonian "map of the world", featuring Babylon at its center. Exhibited at the British Museum.
The 24 countries subject to the Achaemenid Empire at the time of Darius, on the Egyptian statue of Darius I.
The Babylonian marriage market, painting by Edwin Long (1875)
The Battle of Issus, between Alexander the Great on horseback to the left, and Darius III in the chariot to the right, represented in a Pompeii mosaic dated 1st century BC – Naples National Archaeological Museum
Tablet recording a silver payment from the temple dedicated to the god Shamash in Sippar, written during the reign of Nebuchadnezzar II. Exhibited at the Metropolitan Museum of Art
Alexander's first victory over Darius, the Persian king depicted in medieval European style in the 15th century romance The History of Alexander's Battles
Irrigation canal from modern-day Iraq, near Baghdad
Frataraka dynasty ruler Vadfradad I (Autophradates I). 3rd century BC. Istakhr (Persepolis) mint.
Approximate borders of the Neo-Babylonian Empire (red) and neighboring states in the 6th century BC.
Dārēv I (Darios I) used for the first time the title of mlk (King). 2nd century BC.
Babylonian soldier as represented on the tomb of the Achaemenid king Xerxes I, c. 480 BC.
Winged sphinx from the Palace of Darius in Susa, Louvre
The Ishtar Gate, one of Babylon's eight inner city gates, was constructed by King Nebuchadnezzar II c. undefined 575 BC. The reconstructed gate is exhibited at the Pergamon Museum in Berlin.
Daric of Artaxerxes II
City plan of Babylon, showcasing the locations of major points of interest. The outer walls and the northern Summer Palace are not shown.
Volume of annual tribute per district, in the Achaemenid Empire, according to Herodotus.
Reconstruction of the Etemenanki, Babylon's great ziggurat.
Achaemenid tax collector, calculating on an Abax or Abacus, according to the Darius Vase (340–320 BC).
Mud-brick from the Processional Street of Babylon stamped with the name of Nebuchadnezzar II.
Letter from the Satrap of Bactria to the governor of Khulmi, concerning camel keepers, 353 BC
Relief of throne-bearing soldiers in their native clothing at the tomb of Xerxes I, demonstrating the satrapies under his rule.
Achaemenid king killing a Greek hoplite. c. 500 BC–475 BC, at the time of Xerxes I. Metropolitan Museum of Art.
Persian soldiers (left) fighting against Scythians. Cylinder seal impression.
Color reconstruction of Achaemenid infantry on the Alexander Sarcophagus (end of 4th century BC).
Seal of Darius the Great hunting in a chariot, reading "I am Darius, the Great King" in Old Persian (𐎠𐎭𐎶𐏐𐎭𐎠𐎼𐎹𐎺𐎢𐏁𐎴 𐏋, "adam Dārayavaʰuš xšāyaθiya"), as well as in Elamite and Babylonian. The word "great" only appears in Babylonian. British Museum.
Achaemenid calvalryman in the satrapy of Hellespontine Phrygia, Altıkulaç Sarcophagus, early 4th century BC.
Armoured cavalry: Achaemenid Dynast of Hellespontine Phrygia attacking a Greek psiloi, Altıkulaç Sarcophagus, early 4th century BC.
Reconstitution of Persian landing ships at the Battle of Marathon.
Greek ships against Achaemenid ships at the Battle of Salamis.
Iconic relief of lion and bull fighting, Apadana of Persepolis
Achaemenid golden bowl with lioness imagery of Mazandaran
The ruins of Persepolis
A section of the Old Persian part of the trilingual Behistun inscription. Other versions are in Babylonian and Elamite.
A copy of the Behistun inscription in Aramaic on a papyrus. Aramaic was the lingua franca of the empire.
An Achaemenid drinking vessel
Bas-relief of Farvahar at Persepolis
Tomb of Artaxerxes III in Persepolis
The Mausoleum at Halicarnassus, one of the Seven wonders of the ancient world, was built by Greek architects for the local Persian satrap of Caria, Mausolus (Scale model)
Achamenid dynasty timeline
Reconstruction of the Palace of Darius at Susa. The palace served as a model for Persepolis.
Lion on a decorative panel from Darius I the Great's palace, Louvre
Ruins of Throne Hall, Persepolis
Apadana Hall, Persian and Median soldiers at Persepolis
Lateral view of tomb of Cambyses II, Pasargadae, Iran
Plaque with horned lion-griffins. The Metropolitan Museum of Art

Beginning with Nabopolassar's coronation as King of Babylon in 626 BC and being firmly established through the fall of the Neo-Assyrian Empire in 612 BC, the Neo-Babylonian Empire and its ruling Chaldean dynasty were short-lived, conquered after less than a century by the Persian Achaemenid Empire in 539 BC.

- Neo-Babylonian Empire

From this region, Cyrus rose and defeated the Median Empire—of which he had previously been king—as well as Lydia and the Neo-Babylonian Empire, following which he formally established the Achaemenid Empire.

- Achaemenid Empire

The scribes of the Neo-Assyrian bureaucracy had also used Aramaic, and this practice was subsequently inherited by the succeeding Neo-Babylonian Empire (605–539 BC), and later by the Achaemenid Empire (539–330 BC).

- Aramaic

Even though Aramaic had become the everyday tongue, Akkadian was retained as the language of administration and culture.

- Neo-Babylonian Empire

Aramaic is represented by about 1,000 or more original records.

- Achaemenid Empire

5 related topics with Alpha

Overall

Map of the Neo-Assyrian Empire under Shalmaneser III (dark green) and Esarhaddon (light green)

Neo-Assyrian Empire

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The fourth and penultimate stage of ancient Assyrian history and the final and greatest phase of Assyria as an independent state.

The fourth and penultimate stage of ancient Assyrian history and the final and greatest phase of Assyria as an independent state.

Map of the Neo-Assyrian Empire under Shalmaneser III (dark green) and Esarhaddon (light green)
Approximate map of the preceding Middle Assyrian Empire at its height in the 13th century BC
Assyrian borders and campaigns under Ashur-dan II ((r. undefined – undefined)934–912 BC), Adad-nirari II ((r. undefined – undefined)911–891 BC) and Tukulti-Ninurta II ((r. undefined – undefined)890–884 BC)
Annals of Tukulti-Ninurta II ((r. undefined – undefined)890–884 BC), recounting one of his campaigns
Stele of Ashurnasirpal II ((r. undefined – undefined)883–859 BC)
Depiction of Shalmaneser III (right) shaking hands with the Babylonian king Marduk-zakir-shumi I (left)
Stele of Shamshi-Adad V ((r. undefined – undefined)824–811 BC)
Stele of Bel-harran-beli-usur, a palace herald, made in the reign of Shalmaneser IV ((r. undefined – undefined)783–773 BC)
Partial relief depicting Tiglath-Pileser III ((r. undefined – undefined)745–727 BC)
20th-century illustration of Tiglath-Pileser III's capture of Damascus
The Neo-Assyrian Empire at the start (purple) and end (blue) of Tiglath-Pileser's reign
Relief depicting Sargon II, founder of the Sargonid dynasty
20th-century reconstruction of Sargon II's palace at Dur-Sharrukin
Line-drawing of a relief depicting Sennacherib ((r. undefined – undefined)705–681 BC) on campaign in a chariot
19th-century reconstruction of Nineveh, made capital under Sennacherib
20th-century illustration of Sennacherib's destruction of Babylon
Esarhaddon ((r. undefined – undefined)681–669 BC), as depicted in his victory stele
20th-century illustration of the Assyrians capturing Memphis, the Egyptian capital
Relief depicting Ashurbanipal ((r. undefined – undefined)669–631 BC) in a chariot, armed with a bow
The Diversion of an Assyrian King (1876) by Frederick Arthur Bridgman
Impression of a seal possibly belonging to the eunuch usurper Sin-shumu-lishir ((r. undefined – undefined)626 BC)
Fall of Nineveh (1829) by John Martin
20th-century illustration of the Battle of Carchemish
20th-century illustration of the Fall of Nineveh
Line-drawing of a relief from Nimrud depicting a Neo-Assyrian king
Seal of Hama, queen of Shalmaneser IV ((r. 783 – 773) BC)
Provinces and vassal kingdoms of the Neo-Assyrian Empire at its height in the 7th century BC
Glazed tile from Nimrud depicting a Neo-Assyrian king, accompanied by attendants
Neo-Assyrian relief depicting eunuchs carrying booty from a war
Relief from Sennacherib's palace at Nineveh depicting two Assyrian spearmen
Line-drawing of a Neo-Assyrian relief showing soldiers forming a phalanx
Neo-Assyrian relief from Nimrud depicting a tribute-bearer
Line-drawing of a Neo-Assyrian relief depicting a family of deportees leaving a captured Babylonian city in an ox-cart
Relief from the time of Ashurbanipal, depicting Babylonian prisoners under Assyrian guard
Neo-Assyrian cuneiform tablet from the Library of Ashurbanipal listing synonyms
Line-drawing of a relief depicting Neo-Assyrian scribes recording the number of enemies slain by soldiers
Line drawing of an Assyrian lion weight once belonging to the king Shalmaneser V ((r. undefined – undefined)727–722 BC). The inscriptions on the weight are in both Akkadian (on the body) and Aramaic (on the base).
Reconstruction of the Library of Ashurbanipal
Relief depicting the gardens of Ashurbanipal in Nineveh (left) with a color reconstruction (right). As can be seen on the right side of the relief, the garden featured sophisticated irrigation aqueducts.
A giant lamassu from Sargon II's palace at Dur-Sharrukin
Egyptian papyrus from c. undefined 500 BC containing the Story of Ahikar
Great Semiramis, Queen of Assyria by Cesare Saccaggi
The Defeat of Sennacherib by Peter Paul Rubens
1861 illustration by Eugène Flandin of excavations of the ruins of Dur-Sharrukin
1849 illustration of a relief from Dur-Sharrukin by Eugène Flandin
1852 illustration by Austen Henry Layard of excavations at Nineveh
Portrait of the Assyrian archaeologist Hormuzd Rassam c. undefined 1854
Chart depicting the ideological translatio imperii, i.e. supposed transfer of the right to universal rule, from the Neo-Assyrian Empire to (rival) early modern states claiming the same right
Relief of Sennacherib, depicting an Assyrian soldier beheading a prisoner
Relief of Ashurbanipal, depicting Elamite chiefs having their tongues removed and being flayed alive
Relief of Ashurbanipal, depicting the beheading of the Elamite king Teumman

Despite being at the peak of its power, the Neo-Assyrian Empire experienced a swift and violent fall in the late 7th century BC, destroyed by a Babylonian uprising and an invasion by the Medes.

A consequence was the dilution of the cultural diversity of the Near East, forever changing the ethnolinguistic composition of the region and facilitating the rise of Aramaic as the regional lingua franca, a position the language retained until the 14th century AD.

Ancient Greek historians such as Herodotus and Ctesias supported a sequence of three world empires and a successive transfer of world domination from the Assyrians to the Medes to the Achaemenids.

The Tigris river flowing through the region of modern Mosul in Upper Mesopotamia.

Mesopotamia

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Historical region of Western Asia situated within the Tigris–Euphrates river system, in the northern part of the Fertile Crescent.

Historical region of Western Asia situated within the Tigris–Euphrates river system, in the northern part of the Fertile Crescent.

The Tigris river flowing through the region of modern Mosul in Upper Mesopotamia.
Mesopotamian Marshes at night, southern Iraq; reed house (Mudhif) and narrow canoe (Mashoof) in the water. Mudhif structures have been one of the traditional types of structures, built by the Marsh people of southern Mesopotamia for at least 5,000 years. A carved elevation of a typical mudhif, dating to around 3,300 BCE was discovered at Uruk.
One of 18 Statues of Gudea, a ruler around 2090 BC
After early starts in Jarmo (red dot, circa 7500 BC), the civilization of Mesopotamia in the 7th–5th millennium BC was centered around the Hassuna culture in the north, the Halaf culture in the northwest, the Samarra culture in central Mesopotamia and the Ubaid culture in the southeast, which later expanded to encompass the whole region.
Overview map in the 15th century BC showing the core territory of Assyria with its two major cities Assur and Nineveh wedged between Babylonia downstream and the states of Mitanni and Hatti upstream.
The Code of Hammurabi is a Babylonian legal text composed c. 1755–1750 BC. It is the longest, best-organised, and best-preserved legal text from the ancient Near East. It is written in the Old Babylonian dialect of Akkadian, purportedly by Hammurabi, sixth king of the First Dynasty of Babylon.
Epic of Gilgamesh, an epic poem from ancient Mesopotamia, regarded as the earliest surviving notable literature.
Clay tablet, mathematical, geometric-algebraic, similar to the Euclidean geometry. From Shaduppum Iraq. 2003-1595 BC. Iraq Museum.
Medical recipe concerning poisoning. Terracotta tablet, from Nippur, Iraq.
The Burney Relief, First Babylonian dynasty, around 1800 BC
King Meli-shipak I (1186–1172 BC) presents his daughter to the goddess Nannaya. The crescent moon represents the god Sin, the sun the Shamash and the star the goddess Ishtar.
The Queen's gold lyre from the Royal Cemetery at Ur. C. 2500 BCE. Iraq Museum
Royal Game of Ur, Ancient Mesopotamian board Game.
The Babylonian marriage market by the 19th-century painter Edwin Long
Mining areas of the ancient West Asia.
7th-century BC relief depicting Ashurbanipal ((r. undefined – undefined)669–631 BC) and three royal attendants in a chariot.
Campaign in the Mesopotamian Marshes of southern Babylonia during the reign of Ashurbanipal. Showing Assyrian soldiers on boat chasing enemies trying to run away; some are hiding in the reeds
The Standard of Ur; 2600 BC (the Early Dynastic Period III); shell, red limestone and lapis lazuli on wood; height: 21.7 cm, length: 50.4 cm; discovered at the Royal Cemetery at Ur (Dhi Qar Governorate, Iraq)
Bronze head of an Akkadian ruler, discovered in Nineveh in 1931, presumably depicting either Sargon of Akkad or Sargon's grandson Naram-Sin.<ref>M. E. L. Mallowan, "The Bronze Head of the Akkadian Period from Nineveh", Iraq Vol. 3, No. 1 (1936), 104-110.</ref>
Striding lions from the Processional Street of Babylon.
Lamassu, initially depicted as a goddess in Sumerian times, when it was called Lamma, it was later depicted from Assyrian times as a hybrid of a human, bird, and either a bull or lion—specifically having a human head, the body of a bull or a lion, and bird wings, under the name Lamassu.<ref name="GL109">{{cite book |last1=Leick |first1=Dr Gwendolyn |url=https://books.google.com/books?id=_pqEAgAAQBAJ&pg=PA109 |title=A Dictionary of Ancient Near Eastern Mythology |date=2002 |publisher=Routledge |isbn=978-1-134-64102-4 |pages=109–110 |language=en}}</ref><ref name="Livius.org">Livius.org</ref>
Assyrian ornaments and patterns, illustrated in a book from 1920
alt=|Detail of Nebuchadnezzar II's Building Inscription plaque of the Ishtar Gate, from Babylon
alt=|Artist's impression of a hall in an Assyrian palace from The Monuments of Nineveh by Austen Henry Layard, 1853
alt=|A Neo-Assyrian relief of Ashur as a feather robed archer holding a bow instead of a ring (9th-8th century BC)
alt=|The Black Obelisk of Shalmaneser III. The king, surrounded by his royal attendants and a high-ranking official, receives a tribute from Sua, king of Gilzanu (north-west Iran), who bows and prostrates before the king. From Nimrud
alt=|Contemporary artwork depicting Babylon at the height of its stature.
alt=|"Winged genie", Nimrud c. 870 BC, with inscription running across his midriff.
The Ishtar gate was constructed in about 575 BCE by order of King Nebuchadnezzar II. Pergamon Museum, Berlin
The walls of Babylon, in Babylon
Ziggurat of Ur
Ziggurat of Dur-kuriagalzu in 2010
A suggested reconstruction of the appearance of a Sumerian ziggurat
alt=|The alleged Abraham house in Ur
The walls of Babylon, in Babylon

3100 BC) to the fall of Babylon in 539 BC, when it was conquered by the Achaemenid Empire.

The regional toponym Mesopotamia (, '[land] between rivers'; بِلَاد ٱلرَّافِدَيْن Bilād ar-Rāfidayn or بَيْن ٱلنَّهْرَيْن Bayn an-Nahrayn; miyân rudân; Beth Nahrain "(land) between the (two) rivers") comes from the ancient Greek root words μέσος (mesos, 'middle') and ποταμός (potamos, 'river') and translates to '(land) between rivers', likely being a calque of the older Aramaic term, with the Aramaic term itself likely being a calque of the Akkadian birit narim.

Neo-Babylonian Empire (7th to 6th century BC)

Assyria

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Major ancient Mesopotamian civilization which existed as a city-state from the 21st century BC to the 14th century BC and then as a territorial state and eventually an empire from the 14th century BC to the 7th century BC.

Major ancient Mesopotamian civilization which existed as a city-state from the 21st century BC to the 14th century BC and then as a territorial state and eventually an empire from the 14th century BC to the 7th century BC.

Map showing the ancient Assyrian heartland (red) and the extent of the Neo-Assyrian Empire in the 7th century BC (orange)
Map showing the ancient Assyrian heartland (red) and the extent of the Neo-Assyrian Empire in the 7th century BC (orange)
75px
Head of a female figure, dating to the Akkadian period (c. undefined 2334–2154 BC), found at Assur
Ruins of the Old Assyrian trading colony at Kültepe
Partial relief of Tiglath-Pileser III ((r. undefined – undefined)745–727 BC), under whom the Neo-Assyrian Empire was consolidated, centralized and significantly expanded
Detail of a stele in the style of the Neo-Assyrian royal steles erected in Assur in the 2nd century AD (under Parthian rule) by the local ruler Rʻuth-Assor
Line-drawing of a royal seal of the Old Assyrian king Erishum I ((r. undefined – undefined)c. undefined 1974–1934 BC). The seated ruler is thought to represent the god Ashur, with Erishum being the bald figure being led towards him.
Stele of the Neo-Assyrian king Ashurnasirpal II ((r. undefined – undefined)883–859 BC)
Ruins of one of the entrances of the Northwest Palace at Nimrud (Assyrian capital 879–706 BC), destroyed by the Islamic State in 2015
Stele of Bel-harran-beli-usur, a palace herald, made in the reign of the Neo-Assyrian king Shalmaneser IV ((r. undefined – undefined)783–773 BC)
Stele of Ili-ittija, governor of Libbi-ali, Kar-Tukulti-Ninurta, Ekallatum, Itu, and Ruqahu, c. undefined 804 BC
20th-century illustration of a Neo-Assyrian spearman
Neo-Assyrian relief depicting some Assyrian individuals in a procession
Relief depicting Naqi'a, mother of Esarhaddon ((r. undefined – undefined)681–669 BC) and one of the most influential women in Assyrian history
Old Assyrian cuneiform tablet from Kültepe recording the repayment of a loan, impressed with four different cylinder seals
7th-century BC relief depicting Ashurbanipal ((r. undefined – undefined)669–631 BC) and two royal attendants
Old Assyrian cuneiform tablet containing an account of a caravan journey
9th-century AD piece of papyrus with Syriac language writing
19th-century reconstruction of Nineveh (Assyrian capital 705–612 BC)
20th-century illustration of decorative patterns found in ancient Assyrian reliefs and garments
Tablet from the Library of Ashurbanipal containing a portion of the Epic of Gilgamesh
Early 20th-century archbishop of the Assyrian Church of the East with entourage
Statue of a praying woman, 25th century BC
Wall relief probably depicting Ashur, 21st–16th century BC
Cylinder seal and impression, 14th–13th century BC
Temple altar of Tukulti-Ninurta I, 13th century BC
Statue of a nude woman, 11th century BC
Glazed tile depicting a king and attendants, 9th century BC
The Black Obelisk of Shalmaneser III, 9th century BC
Statue of Shalmaneser III, 9th century BC
Furniture ornament, 9th–8th century BC
Crown of Queen Hama, 8th century BC
Giant lamassu, 8th century BC
Portion of the Lion Hunt of Ashurbanipal, 7th century BC

Though the core territory of Assyria was extensively devastated in the Medo-Babylonian conquest of the Assyrian Empire and the succeeding Neo-Babylonian Empire invested little resources in rebuilding it, ancient Assyrian culture and traditions continued to survive for centuries throughout the post-imperial period.

Since the shortened form "Syria" is attested in sources predating the Greek ones as a synonym for Assyria, notably in Luwian and Aramaic texts from the time of the Neo-Assyrian Empire, modern scholars overwhelmingly support the names as being connected.

The Achaemenid Empire referred to Assyria as Aθūrā ("Athura").

Akkadian language

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East Semitic language, now extinct, that was spoken in ancient Mesopotamia (Akkad, Assyria, Isin, Larsa and Babylonia) from the third millennium BC until its gradual replacement by Akkadian-influenced Old Aramaic among Mesopotamians by the 8th century BC.

East Semitic language, now extinct, that was spoken in ancient Mesopotamia (Akkad, Assyria, Isin, Larsa and Babylonia) from the third millennium BC until its gradual replacement by Akkadian-influenced Old Aramaic among Mesopotamians by the 8th century BC.

Cuneiform writing (Neoassyrian script)
(1 = Logogram (LG) "mix"/syllabogram (SG) ,
2 = LG "moat",
3 = SG ,
4 = SG ,,, ,
5 = SG kam,
6 = SG im,
7 = SG bir)
An Akkadian inscription
Georg Friedrich Grotefend
The Deluge tablet of the Gilgamesh epic in Akkadian.
The first known Sumerian-Akkadian bilingual tablet dates from the reign of Rimush. Louvre Museum AO 5477. The top column is in Sumerian, the bottom column is its translation in Akkadian.
Inscription in Babylonian, in the Xerxes I inscription at Van, 5th century BCE
Neo-Babylonian inscription of king Nebuchadnezzar II, 7th century BCE

Other Semitic languages like Arabic, Hebrew and Aramaic have the prepositions bi/bə and li/lə (locative and dative, respectively).

Under the Achaemenids, Aramaic continued to prosper, but Assyrian continued its decline.

From this period on, one speaks of Neo-Babylonian and Neo-Assyrian.

The countries around Chaldea

Chaldea

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Small country that existed between the late 10th or early 9th and mid-6th centuries BC, after which the country and its people were absorbed and assimilated into the indigenous population of Babylonia.

Small country that existed between the late 10th or early 9th and mid-6th centuries BC, after which the country and its people were absorbed and assimilated into the indigenous population of Babylonia.

The countries around Chaldea
Chaldea and neighboring countries

From 626 BC to 539 BC, a ruling family referred to as the Chaldean dynasty, named after their possible Chaldean origin, ruled the kingdom at its height under the Neo-Babylonian Empire, although the final ruler of this empire, Nabonidus (556-539 BC) (and his son and regent Belshazzar) was a usurper of Assyrian ancestry.

The name appears in Hebrew in the Bible as Kaśdim (כשדים) and in Aramaic as Kaldo (𐡂𐡋𐡃𐡅).

When the Babylonian Empire was absorbed into the Persian Achaemenid Empire, the name "Chaldean" lost its meaning in reference to a particular ethnicity or land, but lingered for a while as a term solely and explicitly used to describe a societal class of astrologers and astronomers in southern Mesopotamia.