Coinage of Miletus at the time of Aristagoras. 5th century BC
Electrum coinage of Miletus, around the birth of Histiaeus. Circa 600-550 BC.
Map of Miletus and other cities within the Lydian Empire
Map of the ancient Greek western coast of Anatolia. Ionia is in green. Miletus and Naxos are shown.
Coinage of Miletus at the time of Histiaeus. AR Obol (9mm, 1.07 g). Forepart of lion left, head right. Stellate and floral design within incuse square. Late 6th-early 5th century BC.
The Achaemenid Empire at its greatest territorial extent under the rule of Darius I (522 BC–486 BC)
The Ionic Stoa on the Sacred Way in Miletus
Ruins of Miletus
The Greeks under Histiaeus preserve the bridge of Darius I across the Danube river. 19th century illustration.
The Achaemenid Empire at its greatest territorial extent under the rule of Darius I (522 BC–486 BC)
Apollo statue found in Miletus. Currently in Istanbul Archeology Museum
The burning of Sardis, capital of the Asia Minor Satrapy of Lydia, during the Ionian Revolt in 498 BC.
Family tree of the Achaemenid rulers.
Temple of Apollo in Didyma
Ruins of Sparta
Map of the expansion process of Achaemenid territories
Coinage of Miletus at the time of Aristagoras. Late 6th-early 5th century BC.
Ruins of Ephesus
Cyrus the Great is said, in the Bible, to have liberated the Hebrew captives in Babylon to resettle and rebuild Jerusalem, earning him an honored place in Judaism.
Electrum coinage of Miletus, circa 600–550 BC.
The acropolis at Sardis, now forested and eroded, with a few pinnacles of ruins.
The tomb of Cyrus the Great, founder of the Achaemenid Empire. At Pasargadae, Iran.
The plan of Milet in the Classical period
The Achaemenid Empire at its greatest extent, c. 500 BC
Egyptian artefact found in Miletus
The Persian queen Atossa, daughter of Cyrus the Great, sister-wife of Cambyses II, Darius the Great's wife, and mother of Xerxes the Great
Byzantine Palation Castle
Map showing events of the first phases of the Greco-Persian Wars
An Ottoman mosque from the Turkish period in Miletus site
Greek hoplite and Persian warrior depicted fighting, on an ancient kylix, 5th century BC
The Market Gate of Miletus at the Pergamon Museum in Berlin
Achaemenid king fighting hoplites, seal and seal holder, Cimmerian Bosporus.
Location of Miletus at the Maeander River's mouth
Achaemenid gold ornaments, Brooklyn Museum
Map of the Black Sea, featuring the chronological phasing of major Milesian colonial foundations.
Persian Empire timeline including important events and territorial evolution – 550–323 BC
Thales of Miletus was a Greek mathematician, astronomer and pre-Socratic philosopher from the city. He is otherwise historically recognized as the first individual known to have entertained and engaged in scientific philosophy
Relief showing Darius I offering lettuces to the Egyptian deity Amun-Ra Kamutef, Temple of Hibis
The name Fikellura derives from a site on the island of Rhodes to which this fabric has been attributed. It is now established that the center of production was Miletus.
The 24 countries subject to the Achaemenid Empire at the time of Darius, on the Egyptian statue of Darius I.
The name Fikellura derives from a site on the island of Rhodes to which this fabric has been attributed. It is now established that the center of production was Miletus.
The Battle of Issus, between Alexander the Great on horseback to the left, and Darius III in the chariot to the right, represented in a Pompeii mosaic dated 1st century BC – Naples National Archaeological Museum
Milesian Vase
Alexander's first victory over Darius, the Persian king depicted in medieval European style in the 15th century romance The History of Alexander's Battles
Milesian Vase
Frataraka dynasty ruler Vadfradad I (Autophradates I). 3rd century BC. Istakhr (Persepolis) mint.
Milesian Vase
Dārēv I (Darios I) used for the first time the title of mlk (King). 2nd century BC.
Milesian Vase
Winged sphinx from the Palace of Darius in Susa, Louvre
Sculpture from Baths of Faustina
Daric of Artaxerxes II
Faustina Baths in Miletus
Volume of annual tribute per district, in the Achaemenid Empire, according to Herodotus.
The Sacred Way from Miletus with the remains of the stoa
Achaemenid tax collector, calculating on an Abax or Abacus, according to the Darius Vase (340–320 BC).
The Ionic Stoa on the Sacred Way
Letter from the Satrap of Bactria to the governor of Khulmi, concerning camel keepers, 353 BC
Remains of the stoa connecting the main Bath of Faustina to the Palaestra
Relief of throne-bearing soldiers in their native clothing at the tomb of Xerxes I, demonstrating the satrapies under his rule.
Illustration of Miletus
Achaemenid king killing a Greek hoplite. c. 500 BC–475 BC, at the time of Xerxes I. Metropolitan Museum of Art.
Right entrance of the ancient Greek theatre
Persian soldiers (left) fighting against Scythians. Cylinder seal impression.
Ancient Greek theatre
Color reconstruction of Achaemenid infantry on the Alexander Sarcophagus (end of 4th century BC).
Seal of Darius the Great hunting in a chariot, reading "I am Darius, the Great King" in Old Persian (𐎠𐎭𐎶𐏐𐎭𐎠𐎼𐎹𐎺𐎢𐏁𐎴 𐏋, "adam Dārayavaʰuš xšāyaθiya"), as well as in Elamite and Babylonian. The word "great" only appears in Babylonian. British Museum.
Achaemenid calvalryman in the satrapy of Hellespontine Phrygia, Altıkulaç Sarcophagus, early 4th century BC.
Armoured cavalry: Achaemenid Dynast of Hellespontine Phrygia attacking a Greek psiloi, Altıkulaç Sarcophagus, early 4th century BC.
Reconstitution of Persian landing ships at the Battle of Marathon.
Greek ships against Achaemenid ships at the Battle of Salamis.
Iconic relief of lion and bull fighting, Apadana of Persepolis
Achaemenid golden bowl with lioness imagery of Mazandaran
The ruins of Persepolis
A section of the Old Persian part of the trilingual Behistun inscription. Other versions are in Babylonian and Elamite.
A copy of the Behistun inscription in Aramaic on a papyrus. Aramaic was the lingua franca of the empire.
An Achaemenid drinking vessel
Bas-relief of Farvahar at Persepolis
Tomb of Artaxerxes III in Persepolis
The Mausoleum at Halicarnassus, one of the Seven wonders of the ancient world, was built by Greek architects for the local Persian satrap of Caria, Mausolus (Scale model)
Achamenid dynasty timeline
Reconstruction of the Palace of Darius at Susa. The palace served as a model for Persepolis.
Lion on a decorative panel from Darius I the Great's palace, Louvre
Ruins of Throne Hall, Persepolis
Apadana Hall, Persian and Median soldiers at Persepolis
Lateral view of tomb of Cambyses II, Pasargadae, Iran
Plaque with horned lion-griffins. The Metropolitan Museum of Art

Aristagoras, d. 497/496 BC, was the leader of the Ionian city of Miletus in the late 6th century BC and early 5th century BC and a key player during the early years of the Ionian Revolt against the Persian Achaemenid Empire.

- Aristagoras

Histiaeus (, died 493 BC), the son of Lysagoras, was a Greek ruler of Miletus in the late 6th century BC. Histiaeus was tyrant of Miletus under Darius I, king of Persia, who had subjugated Miletus and the other Ionian states in Asia Minor, and who generally appointed Greeks as tyrants to rule the Greek cities of Ionia in his territory.

- Histiaeus

He was the son-in-law of Histiaeus, and inherited the tyranny of Miletus from him.

- Aristagoras

Before the Persian rule that started in the 6th century BC, Miletus was considered among the greatest and wealthiest of Greek cities.

- Miletus

Histiaeus' nephew and son-in-law Aristagoras was left in control of Miletus.

- Histiaeus

In 499 BC, Miletus's tyrant Aristagoras became the leader of the Ionian Revolt against the Persians, who, under Darius the Great, quashed this rebellion and punished Miletus by selling all of the women and children into slavery, killing the men, and expelling all of the young men as eunuchs, thereby assuring that no Miletus citizen would ever be born again.

- Miletus

The Ionian Revolt in 499 BC, and associated revolts in Aeolis, Doris, Cyprus, and Caria, were military rebellions by several regions of Asia Minor against Persian rule, lasting from 499 to 493 BC. At the heart of the rebellion was the dissatisfaction of the Greek cities of Asia Minor with the tyrants appointed by Persia to rule them, along with the individual actions of two Milesian tyrants, Histiaeus and Aristagoras.

- Achaemenid Empire

In 499 BC, the then-tyrant of Miletus, Aristagoras, launched a joint expedition with the Persian satrap Artaphernes to conquer Naxos, in an attempt to bolster his position in Miletus (both financially and in terms of prestige).

- Achaemenid Empire

Histiaeus (died 493 BC), ruler of Miletus

- Miletus

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Location and main events of the Ionian Revolt.

Ionian Revolt

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Location and main events of the Ionian Revolt.
Location and main events of the Ionian Revolt.
Coin of Chios just before the revolt, circa 525–510 BC.
Coin of Lesbos, Ionia. Circa 510–480 BC.
Darius, with a label in Greek (ΔΑΡΕΙΟΣ, top right), on the Darius Vase.
Location of Ionia within Asia Minor.
Ionian Revolt: Sardis campaign (498 BC)
Remains of the acropolis of Sardis.
The burning of Sardis by the Greeks during the Ionian Revolt in 498 BC.
Achaemenid cavalry in Asia Minor. Altıkulaç Sarcophagus.
Map showing the ancient kingdoms of Cyprus
Ionian revolt: Carian campaign (496 BC).
Greek hoplite and Persian warrior depicted fighting. 5th century BC
Ionian revolt, Battle of Lade and fall of Miletus (494 BC).
The ruins of Miletus
Ionian soldier (Old Persian cuneiform 𐎹𐎢𐎴, Yaunā) of the Achaemenid army, circa 480 BCE. Xerxes I tomb relief.
Coin of Chios after the revolt, circa 490–435 BCE. [[:File:ISLANDS off IONIA, Chios. Circa 525-510 BC.jpg|Earlier types known]].

The Ionian Revolt, and associated revolts in Aeolis, Doris, Cyprus and Caria, were military rebellions by several Greek regions of Asia Minor against Persian rule, lasting from 499 BC to 493 BC. At the heart of the rebellion was the dissatisfaction of the Greek cities of Asia Minor with the tyrants appointed by Persia to rule them, along with the individual actions of two Milesian tyrants, Histiaeus and Aristagoras.