Relief of Artaxerxes II on his tomb at Persepolis, Iran
Ruins of the Gate of All Nations, Persepolis.
The Achaemenid Empire at its greatest territorial extent under the rule of Darius I (522 BC–486 BC)
Retreat of the Ten Thousand, at the Battle of Cunaxa, Jean Adrien Guignet
As is typical of Achaemenid cities, Persepolis was built on a (partially) artificial platform.
The Achaemenid Empire at its greatest territorial extent under the rule of Darius I (522 BC–486 BC)
Armoured cavalry of Achaemenid Hellespontine Phrygia attacking a Greek psiloi at the time of Artaxerxes II and his Satrap Pharnabazus II, Altıkulaç Sarcophagus, early fourth century BC
Darius the Great, by Eugène Flandin (1840)
Family tree of the Achaemenid rulers.
The King's Peace, promulgated by Artaxerxes II in 387 BC, put an end to the Corinthian War under the guarantee of the Achaemenid Empire.
General view of the ruins of Persepolis
Map of the expansion process of Achaemenid territories
Achaemenid campaign of Pharnabazus II against Egypt in 373 BC.
Aerial architectural plan of Persepolis.
Cyrus the Great is said, in the Bible, to have liberated the Hebrew captives in Babylon to resettle and rebuild Jerusalem, earning him an honored place in Judaism.
Daric of Artaxerxes II
Perspolis in 1920s, photo by Harold Weston
The tomb of Cyrus the Great, founder of the Achaemenid Empire. At Pasargadae, Iran.
Ethnicities of the soldiers of the Empire, on the tomb of Artaxerxes II. On the lintel over each figure appears a trilingual inscription describing each ethnicity. These are known collectively as "Inscription A2Pa".
Hemidrachm from the Kingdom of Perside.Date: c. 100AC. - 100 AD.
The Achaemenid Empire at its greatest extent, c. 500 BC
Tomb of Artaxerxes II in Persepolis.
Bust of Alexander the Great (British Museum of London).
The Persian queen Atossa, daughter of Cyrus the Great, sister-wife of Cambyses II, Darius the Great's wife, and mother of Xerxes the Great
Upper Relief of the tomb of Artaxerxes II.
"The Burning of Persepolis", led by Thaïs, 1890, by Georges-Antoine Rochegrosse
Map showing events of the first phases of the Greco-Persian Wars
Soldiers of many ethnicities on the upper relief
Thaïs setting fire on Persepolise
Greek hoplite and Persian warrior depicted fighting, on an ancient kylix, 5th century BC
A general view of Persepolis.
Achaemenid king fighting hoplites, seal and seal holder, Cimmerian Bosporus.
Ruins of the Western side of the compound at Persepolis.
Achaemenid gold ornaments, Brooklyn Museum
Achaemenid frieze designs at Persepolis.
Persian Empire timeline including important events and territorial evolution – 550–323 BC
Reliefs of lotus flowers are frequently used on the walls and monuments at Persepolis.
Relief showing Darius I offering lettuces to the Egyptian deity Amun-Ra Kamutef, Temple of Hibis
Statue of a Persian Mastiff found at the Apadana, kept at the National Museum, Tehran.
The 24 countries subject to the Achaemenid Empire at the time of Darius, on the Egyptian statue of Darius I.
Tomb of Artaxerxes II, Persepolis.
The Battle of Issus, between Alexander the Great on horseback to the left, and Darius III in the chariot to the right, represented in a Pompeii mosaic dated 1st century BC – Naples National Archaeological Museum
Babylonian version of an inscription of Xerxes I, the "XPc inscription".
Alexander's first victory over Darius, the Persian king depicted in medieval European style in the 15th century romance The History of Alexander's Battles
The lithograph of Shapur II in Bishapour, which is modeled on the maps of the Persepolis donors.
Frataraka dynasty ruler Vadfradad I (Autophradates I). 3rd century BC. Istakhr (Persepolis) mint.
Sketch of Persepolis from 1704 by Cornelis de Bruijn.
Dārēv I (Darios I) used for the first time the title of mlk (King). 2nd century BC.
Drawing of Persepolis in 1713 by Gérard Jean-Baptiste.
Winged sphinx from the Palace of Darius in Susa, Louvre
Drawing of the Tachara by Charles Chipiez.
Daric of Artaxerxes II
The Apadana by Charles Chipiez.
Volume of annual tribute per district, in the Achaemenid Empire, according to Herodotus.
Apadana detail by Charles Chipiez.
Achaemenid tax collector, calculating on an Abax or Abacus, according to the Darius Vase (340–320 BC).
A bas-relief at Persepolis, representing a symbol in Zoroastrianism for Nowruz.{{ref|a}}
Letter from the Satrap of Bactria to the governor of Khulmi, concerning camel keepers, 353 BC
A bas-relief from the Apadana depicting Delegations including Lydians and Armenians{{ref|page 39 image 21 in The Arts of Persia edited by R W Ferrier}} bringing their famous wine to the king.
Relief of throne-bearing soldiers in their native clothing at the tomb of Xerxes I, demonstrating the satrapies under his rule.
Achaemenid plaque from Persepolis, kept at the National Museum, Tehran.
Achaemenid king killing a Greek hoplite. c. 500 BC–475 BC, at the time of Xerxes I. Metropolitan Museum of Art.
Relief of a Median man at Persepolis.
Persian soldiers (left) fighting against Scythians. Cylinder seal impression.
Objects from Persepolis kept at the National Museum, Tehran.
Color reconstruction of Achaemenid infantry on the Alexander Sarcophagus (end of 4th century BC).
A lamassu at the Gate of All Nations.
Seal of Darius the Great hunting in a chariot, reading "I am Darius, the Great King" in Old Persian (𐎠𐎭𐎶𐏐𐎭𐎠𐎼𐎹𐎺𐎢𐏁𐎴 𐏋, "adam Dārayavaʰuš xšāyaθiya"), as well as in Elamite and Babylonian. The word "great" only appears in Babylonian. British Museum.
The Great Double Staircase at Persepolis.
Achaemenid calvalryman in the satrapy of Hellespontine Phrygia, Altıkulaç Sarcophagus, early 4th century BC.
Bas-relief on the staircase of the palace.
Armoured cavalry: Achaemenid Dynast of Hellespontine Phrygia attacking a Greek psiloi, Altıkulaç Sarcophagus, early 4th century BC.
Door-Post Socket
Reconstitution of Persian landing ships at the Battle of Marathon.
Ruins of the Apadana, Persepolis.
Greek ships against Achaemenid ships at the Battle of Salamis.
Depiction of united Medes and Persians at the Apadana, Persepolis.
Iconic relief of lion and bull fighting, Apadana of Persepolis
Ruins of the Apadana's columns.
Achaemenid golden bowl with lioness imagery of Mazandaran
Depiction of trees and lotus flowers at the Apadana, Persepolis.
The ruins of Persepolis
Depiction of figures at the Apadana.
A section of the Old Persian part of the trilingual Behistun inscription. Other versions are in Babylonian and Elamite.
Ruins of the Tachara, Persepolis.
A copy of the Behistun inscription in Aramaic on a papyrus. Aramaic was the lingua franca of the empire.
Huma bird capital at Persepolis.
An Achaemenid drinking vessel
Bull capital at Persepolis.
Bas-relief of Farvahar at Persepolis
Ruins of the Hall of the Hundred Columns, Persepolis.
Tomb of Artaxerxes III in Persepolis
Forgotten Empire Exhibition, the British Museum.
The Mausoleum at Halicarnassus, one of the Seven wonders of the ancient world, was built by Greek architects for the local Persian satrap of Caria, Mausolus (Scale model)
Forgotten Empire Exhibition, the British Museum.
Achamenid dynasty timeline
Persepolitan rosette rock relief, kept at the Oriental Institute.
Reconstruction of the Palace of Darius at Susa. The palace served as a model for Persepolis.
alt=Museum display case showing Achaemenid objects.|Achaemenid objects at the Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York, including a bas relief from Persepolis.
Lion on a decorative panel from Darius I the Great's palace, Louvre
A general view of the ruins at Persepolis.
Ruins of Throne Hall, Persepolis
A general view of the ruins at Persepolis.
Apadana Hall, Persian and Median soldiers at Persepolis
A general view of the ruins at Persepolis.
Lateral view of tomb of Cambyses II, Pasargadae, Iran
A general view of the ruins at Persepolis.
Plaque with horned lion-griffins. The Metropolitan Museum of Art

Arses ( 445 – 359/8 BC), known by his regnal name Artaxerxes II ( Artaxšaçāʰ; ), was King of Kings of the Achaemenid Empire from 405/4 BC to 358 BC. He was the son and successor of Darius II ((r.

- Artaxerxes II

Persepolis (, Pārsa; ) was the ceremonial capital of the Achaemenid Empire (c.

- Persepolis

The tomb of Artaxerxes II is located at Persepolis, and was built on the model of his predecessors at Naqsh-e Rustam.

- Artaxerxes II

Queen Parysatis favoured Cyrus more than her eldest son Artaxerxes II.

- Achaemenid Empire

Artaxerxes moved the capital back to Persepolis, which he greatly extended.

- Achaemenid Empire

The two completed graves behind the compound at Persepolis would then belong to Artaxerxes II and Artaxerxes III.

- Persepolis

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The Parthian Empire in 94 BC at its greatest extent, during the reign of Mithridates II ((r. 124 – 91))

Parthian Empire

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Major Iranian political and cultural power in ancient Iran from 247 BC to 224 AD. Its latter name comes from its founder, Arsaces I, who led the Parni tribe in conquering the region of Parthia in Iran's northeast, then a satrapy under Andragoras, in rebellion against the Seleucid Empire.

Major Iranian political and cultural power in ancient Iran from 247 BC to 224 AD. Its latter name comes from its founder, Arsaces I, who led the Parni tribe in conquering the region of Parthia in Iran's northeast, then a satrapy under Andragoras, in rebellion against the Seleucid Empire.

The Parthian Empire in 94 BC at its greatest extent, during the reign of Mithridates II ((r. 124 – 91))
The silver drachma of Arsaces I (r. c. 247–211 BC) with the Greek language inscription ΑΡΣΑΚΟΥ "of Arsaces"
Parthia, shaded yellow, alongside the Seleucid Empire (blue) and the Roman Republic (purple) around 200 BC
Drachma of Mithridates I, showing him wearing a beard and a royal diadem on his head. Reverse side: Heracles/Verethragna, holding a club in his left hand and a cup in his right hand; Greek inscription reading ΒΑΣΙΛΕΩΣ ΜΕΓΑΛΟΥ ΑΡΣΑΚΟΥ ΦΙΛΕΛΛΗΝΟΣ "of the Great King Arsaces the Philhellene"
Drachma of Mithridates II (r. c. 124–91 BC). Reverse side: seated archer carrying a bow; inscription reading "of the King of Kings Arsaces the Renowned/Manifest Philhellene."
Han dynasty Chinese silk from Mawangdui, 2nd century BC, silk from China was perhaps the most lucrative luxury item the Parthians traded at the western end of the Silk Road.
Bronze statue of a Parthian nobleman from the sanctuary at Shami in Elymais (modern-day Khūzestān Province, Iran, along the Persian Gulf), now located at the National Museum of Iran. Dated 50 BC-150 AD, Parthian School.
A Roman marble head of the triumvir Marcus Licinius Crassus, who was defeated at Carrhae by Surena
Roman aurei bearing the portraits of Mark Antony (left) and Octavian (right), issued in 41 BC to celebrate the establishment of the Second Triumvirate by Octavian, Antony and Marcus Lepidus in 43 BC
Drachma of Phraates IV (r. c. 38–2 BC). Inscription reading ΒΑΣΙΛΕΩΣ ΒΑΣΙΛΕΩΝ ΑΡΣΑΚΟΥ ΕΥΕΡΓΕΤΟΥ ΕΠΙΦΑΝΟΥΣ ΦΙΛΕΛΛΗΝΟΣ "of the King of Kings Arsaces the Renowned/Manifest Benefactor Philhellene"
A close-up view of the breastplate on the statue of Augustus of Prima Porta, showing a Parthian man returning to Augustus the legionary standards lost by Marcus Licinius Crassus at Carrhae
A denarius struck in 19 BC during the reign of Augustus, with the goddess Feronia depicted on the obverse, and on the reverse a Parthian man kneeling in submission while offering the Roman military standards taken at the Battle of Carrhae
Map of the troop movements during the first two years of the Roman–Parthian War of 58–63 AD over the Kingdom of Armenia, detailing the Roman offensive into Armenia and capture of the country by Gnaeus Domitius Corbulo
Parthian king making an offering to god Herakles-Verethragna. Masdjid-e Suleiman, Iran. 2nd–3rd century AD. Louvre Museum Sb 7302.
Rock relief of Parthian king at Behistun, most likely Vologases III (r. c. 110–147 AD)
A Parthian (right) wearing a Phrygian cap, depicted as a prisoner of war in chains held by a Roman (left); Arch of Septimius Severus, Rome, 203 AD
A Sarmatian-Parthian gold necklace and amulet, 2nd century AD. Located in Tamoikin Art Fund
Parthian golden necklace, 2nd century AD, Iran, Reza Abbasi Museum
A Parthian ceramic oil lamp, Khūzestān Province, Iran, National Museum of Iran
Coin of Kamnaskires III, king of Elymais (modern Khūzestān Province), and his wife Queen Anzaze, 1st century BC
A statue of a young Palmyran in fine Parthian trousers, from a funerary stele at Palmyra, early 3rd century AD
Coin of Mithridates II of Parthia. The clothing is Parthian, while the style is Hellenistic (sitting on an omphalos). The Greek inscription reads "King Arsaces, the philhellene"
A ceramic Parthian water spout in the shape of a man's head, dated 1st or 2nd century AD
Parthian votive relief from Khūzestān Province, Iran, 2nd century AD
A barrel vaulted iwan at the entrance at the ancient site of Hatra, modern-day Iraq, built c. 50 AD
The Parthian Temple of Charyios in Uruk.
A wall mural depicting a scene from the Book of Esther at the Dura-Europos synagogue, dated 245 AD, which Curtis and Schlumberger describe as a fine example of 'Parthian frontality'
A sculpted head (broken off from a larger statue) of a Parthian soldier wearing a Hellenistic-style helmet, from the Parthian royal residence and necropolis of Nisa, Turkmenistan, 2nd century BC
Parthian long-necked lute, c. 3 BC – 3 AD
Royal Parthian objects at the Persia exhibition, Getty Museum

The Arsacid rulers were titled the "King of Kings", as a claim to be the heirs to the Achaemenid Empire; indeed, they accepted many local kings as vassals where the Achaemenids would have had centrally appointed, albeit largely autonomous, satraps.

A fictitious claim was later made from the 2nd-century BC onwards by the Parthians, which represented them as descendants of the Achaemenid king of kings, Artaxerxes II of Persia ((r.

This may have derived from an Achaemenid-era satrapal headdress and the pointy hats depicted in the Achaemenid reliefs at Behistun and Persepolis.

Rock relief of Artaxerxes in Persepolis

Artaxerxes III

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Rock relief of Artaxerxes in Persepolis
Coin of Artabazus II
Achaemenid coinage of Idrieus of Caria during the reign of Artaxerxes III, showing the Achaemenid king on the obverse, and his satrap Idrieus on the reverse. Circa 350-341 BC.
Coinage of Tennes, the king of Sidon who revolted against the Achaemenid Empire. Dated 351/0 BC.
Artaxerxes III as Pharaoh of Egypt, satrapal coinage of Mazaeus in Cilicia.
Tomb of Artaxerxes III at Persepolis.
Soldiers of various ethnicities of the Achaemenid Empire, tomb of Atarxerxes III.
Historically, kings of the Achaemenid Empire were followers of Zoroaster or heavily influenced by Zoroastrian ideology.
The Unfinished Gate at Persepolis gave archaeologists an insight into the construction of Persepolis.

Ochus ( Ochos), known by his dynastic name Artaxerxes III ( Artaxšaçāʰ; ), was King of Kings of the Achaemenid Empire from 359/58 to 338 BC. He was the son and successor of Artaxerxes II and his mother was Stateira.

There is evidence for a renewed building policy at Persepolis in his later life, where Artaxerxes erected a new palace and built his own tomb, and began long-term projects such as the Unfinished Gate.

Naqsh-e Rostam

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Map of the archaeological site of Naqsh-e Rostam
Upper register of the Achaemenid Tomb of Xerxes I
A 17th century drawing of Naqsh e Rostam, by Jean Chardin
Cube of Zoroaster, a cube-shaped construction in the foreground, against the backdrop of Naqsh-e Rostam
The investiture of Ardashir I
The triumph of Shapur I over the Roman emperors Valerian and Philip the Arab
The grandee relief of Bahram II
The investiture of Narseh
The equestrian relief of Hormizd II
Ka'ba-ye Zartosht in foreground, with behind the Tomb of Darius II above Sassanid equestrian relief of Bahram II.
First equestrian relief.
The two-panel equestrian relief.
Hormizd I Kushanshah on the lower panel.

Naqsh-e Rostam (lit. mural of Rostam, ) is an ancient archeological site and necropolis located about 12 km northwest of Persepolis, in Fars Province, Iran.

A collection of ancient Iranian rock reliefs are cut into the face of the mountain and the mountain contains the final resting place of four Achaemenid kings notably king Darius the Great and his son, Xerxes.

521–486 BCE) when he moved to Persepolis, by Artaxerxes II (r.

Ctesias was on the Achaemenid side, attending to Artaxerxes II, at the Battle of Cunaxa (401 BC), Jean Adrien Guignet


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Ctesias was on the Achaemenid side, attending to Artaxerxes II, at the Battle of Cunaxa (401 BC), Jean Adrien Guignet
Some absurd claims form part of Indica, such as the stories of a race of people with only one leg, or with feet so big they could be used as an umbrella

Ctesias (fl. fifth century BC), also known as Ctesias the Cnidian or Ctesias of Cnidus, was a Greek physician and historian from the town of Cnidus in Caria, who lived during the time that Caria was part of the Achaemenid Empire.

Ctesias, who lived in the fifth century BC, was physician to the Achaemenid king, Artaxerxes II, whom he accompanied in 401 BC on his expedition against his brother Cyrus the Younger.

According to the Encyclopædia Britannica, Ctesias mentioned that the grave of Darius I at Persepolis was in a cliff face that could be reached with an apparatus of ropes.

Reconstruction drawing of the Apadana of Susa

Palace of Darius in Susa

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Reconstruction drawing of the Apadana of Susa
Reconstruction drawing of the Apadana of Susa
Site of the palace
Ruins of the Apadana of Susa
Reconstruction drawing of the Apadana of the Susa Palace
Remains of a Persian column
Bull capital from the Apadana of the Susa Palace, Louvre
Relief of rosace
The Frieze of Archers, glazed siliceous bricks, Louvre
Decorative panel with sphinxes
Relief of winged lion
Statue of Darius, with a quadrilingual inscription at its base
Lion-shaped weight
Bracelet ornated with a pair of lion heads
Winged Aurochs
Capital remains of the Apadana palace of Susa located in the museum of Susa

The Palace of Darius in Susa was a palace complex that was built at the site of Susa, Iran, during the reign of Darius I over the Achaemenid Empire.

The construction was conducted parallel to that of Persepolis.

Artaxerxes II (404–358 BC) partially restored the palace as it was destroyed by a fire during the reign of Artaxerxes I fifty years earlier.