A report on Athens and Achaemenid Empire

The Achaemenid Empire at its greatest territorial extent under the rule of Darius I (522 BC–486 BC)
Athena, patron goddess of Athens; (Varvakeion Athena, National Archaeological Museum)
The Achaemenid Empire at its greatest territorial extent under the rule of Darius I (522 BC–486 BC)
Delian League, under the leadership of Athens before the Peloponnesian War in 431 BC
Family tree of the Achaemenid rulers.
The Lycabettus Hill from the Pedion tou Areos park.
Map of the expansion process of Achaemenid territories
Snowfall in Athens on 16 February 2021
Cyrus the Great is said, in the Bible, to have liberated the Hebrew captives in Babylon to resettle and rebuild Jerusalem, earning him an honored place in Judaism.
Changing of the Greek Presidential Guard in front of the Tomb of the Unknown Soldier at Syntagma Square.
The tomb of Cyrus the Great, founder of the Achaemenid Empire. At Pasargadae, Iran.
The entrance of the National Gardens, commissioned by Queen Amalia in 1838 and completed by 1840
The Achaemenid Empire at its greatest extent, c. 500 BC
View of Vila Atlantis, in Kifissia, designed by Ernst Ziller.
The Persian queen Atossa, daughter of Cyrus the Great, sister-wife of Cambyses II, Darius the Great's wife, and mother of Xerxes the Great
Beach in the southern suburb of Alimos, one of the many beaches in the southern coast of Athens
Map showing events of the first phases of the Greco-Persian Wars
The former mayor of Athens Giorgos Kaminis (right) with the ex–Prime Minister of Greece, George Papandreou Jr. (left).
Greek hoplite and Persian warrior depicted fighting, on an ancient kylix, 5th century BC
View of the Athens Urban Area and the Saronic Gulf.
Achaemenid king fighting hoplites, seal and seal holder, Cimmerian Bosporus.
View of Neapoli, Athens
Achaemenid gold ornaments, Brooklyn Museum
View of Athens and the Saronic Gulf from the Philopappou Hill.
Persian Empire timeline including important events and territorial evolution – 550–323 BC
The Athens Urban Area within the Attica Basin from space
Relief showing Darius I offering lettuces to the Egyptian deity Amun-Ra Kamutef, Temple of Hibis
Athens population distribution
The 24 countries subject to the Achaemenid Empire at the time of Darius, on the Egyptian statue of Darius I.
The seven districts of the Athens Municipality
The Battle of Issus, between Alexander the Great on horseback to the left, and Darius III in the chariot to the right, represented in a Pompeii mosaic dated 1st century BC – Naples National Archaeological Museum
Ermou street, the main commercial street of Athens, near Syntagma Square.
Alexander's first victory over Darius, the Persian king depicted in medieval European style in the 15th century romance The History of Alexander's Battles
The 28-storey Athens Tower was completed in 1971, and in a city often bound by low-rise regulations to ensure good views of the Acropolis, is Greece's tallest.
Frataraka dynasty ruler Vadfradad I (Autophradates I). 3rd century BC. Istakhr (Persepolis) mint.
Athens railways network (metro, proastiakós and tram)
Dārēv I (Darios I) used for the first time the title of mlk (King). 2nd century BC.
Athens Metro train (3rd generation stock)
Winged sphinx from the Palace of Darius in Susa, Louvre
Suburban rail
Daric of Artaxerxes II
Vehicle of the Athens Tram.
Volume of annual tribute per district, in the Achaemenid Empire, according to Herodotus.
The new Athens International Airport, that replaced the old Hellinikon International Airport, opened in 2001.
Achaemenid tax collector, calculating on an Abax or Abacus, according to the Darius Vase (340–320 BC).
Interchange at the Attiki Odos airport entrance
Letter from the Satrap of Bactria to the governor of Khulmi, concerning camel keepers, 353 BC
View of Hymettus tangent (Periferiaki Imittou) from Kalogeros Hill
Relief of throne-bearing soldiers in their native clothing at the tomb of Xerxes I, demonstrating the satrapies under his rule.
Facade of the Academy of Athens
Achaemenid king killing a Greek hoplite. c. 500 BC–475 BC, at the time of Xerxes I. Metropolitan Museum of Art.
The National Library of Greece.
Persian soldiers (left) fighting against Scythians. Cylinder seal impression.
The Artemision Bronze or God of the Sea, that represents either Zeus or Poseidon, is exhibited in the National Archaeological Museum.
Color reconstruction of Achaemenid infantry on the Alexander Sarcophagus (end of 4th century BC).
The Cathedral of Athens (Athens Metropolis).
Seal of Darius the Great hunting in a chariot, reading "I am Darius, the Great King" in Old Persian (𐎠𐎭𐎶𐏐𐎭𐎠𐎼𐎹𐎺𐎢𐏁𐎴 𐏋, "adam Dārayavaʰuš xšāyaθiya"), as well as in Elamite and Babylonian. The word "great" only appears in Babylonian. British Museum.
The Caryatides (Καρυάτιδες), or Maidens of Karyai, as displayed in the new Acropolis Museum. One of the female sculptures was taken away from the Erechteion by Lord Elgin and is kept in the British Museum.
Achaemenid calvalryman in the satrapy of Hellespontine Phrygia, Altıkulaç Sarcophagus, early 4th century BC.
Interior of the Academy of Athens, designed by Theophil Hansen.
Armoured cavalry: Achaemenid Dynast of Hellespontine Phrygia attacking a Greek psiloi, Altıkulaç Sarcophagus, early 4th century BC.
The Zappeion Hall
Reconstitution of Persian landing ships at the Battle of Marathon.
Two apartment buildings in central Athens. The left one is a modernist building of the 1930s, while the right one was built in the 1950s.
Greek ships against Achaemenid ships at the Battle of Salamis.
The inner yard, still a feature of thousands of Athenian residences, may reflect a tradition evident since Antiquity.
Iconic relief of lion and bull fighting, Apadana of Persepolis
The Old Parliament House, now home to the National History Museum. View from Stadiou Street.
Achaemenid golden bowl with lioness imagery of Mazandaran
The National Archaeological Museum in central Athens
The ruins of Persepolis
The Acropolis Museum
A section of the Old Persian part of the trilingual Behistun inscription. Other versions are in Babylonian and Elamite.
The National Theatre of Greece, near Omonoia Square
A copy of the Behistun inscription in Aramaic on a papyrus. Aramaic was the lingua franca of the empire.
The Stavros Niarchos Foundation Cultural Centre, home of the Greek National Opera and the new National Library.
An Achaemenid drinking vessel
10,000-meter final during the 2004 Olympic Games
Bas-relief of Farvahar at Persepolis
Tondo of the Aison Cup, showing the victory of Theseus over the Minotaur in the presence of Athena. Theseus was responsible, according to the myth, for the synoikismos ("dwelling together")—the political unification of Attica under Athens.
Tomb of Artaxerxes III in Persepolis
The earliest coinage of Athens, {{circa}} 545–525/15 BC
The Mausoleum at Halicarnassus, one of the Seven wonders of the ancient world, was built by Greek architects for the local Persian satrap of Caria, Mausolus (Scale model)
Coat of Arms of the Duchy of Athens during the rule of the de la Roche family (13th century)
Achamenid dynasty timeline
The Roman Agora and the Gate of Athena in Plaka district.
Reconstruction of the Palace of Darius at Susa. The palace served as a model for Persepolis.
The Temple of Olympian Zeus with river Ilisos by Edward Dodwell, 1821
Lion on a decorative panel from Darius I the Great's palace, Louvre
The Entry of King Otto in Athens, Peter von Hess, 1839.
Ruins of Throne Hall, Persepolis
The Stadiou Street in Central Athens in 1908.
Apadana Hall, Persian and Median soldiers at Persepolis
thumb|Temporary accommodation for the Greek refugees from Asia Minor in tents in Thiseio. After the Asia Minor Catastrophe in 1922 thousands of families settled in Athens and the population of the city doubled.
Lateral view of tomb of Cambyses II, Pasargadae, Iran
The Hellenic Parliament
Plaque with horned lion-griffins. The Metropolitan Museum of Art
The Presidential Mansion, formerly the Crown Prince Palace, in Herodou Attikou Street.
The Maximos Mansion, official office of the Prime Minister of the Hellenic Republic, in Herodou Attikou Street.
The Athens City Hall in Kotzia Square was designed by Panagiotis Kolkas and completed in 1874.<ref>{{Cite web|url=http://www.eie.gr/archaeologia/gr/arxeio_more.aspx?id=39|title=ΑΡΧΕΙΟ ΝΕΟΤΕΡΩΝ ΜΝΗΜΕΙΩΝ - Δημαρχείο Αθηνών|website=www.eie.gr|access-date=26 February 2019|archive-date=26 February 2019|archive-url=https://web.archive.org/web/20190226172829/http://www.eie.gr/archaeologia/gr/arxeio_more.aspx?id=39|url-status=live}}</ref>
The Embassy of France in Vasilissis Sofias Avenue.
The Italian Embassy in Vasilissis Sofias Avenue.
Fencing before the king of Greece at the 1896 Summer Olympics.
The Panathenaic Stadium of Athens (Kallimarmaron) dates back to the 4th century BC and has hosted the first modern Olympic Games in 1896.

These would pave the way for the eventual introduction of democracy by Cleisthenes in 508 BC. Athens had by this time become a significant naval power with a large fleet, and helped the rebellion of the Ionian cities against Persian rule.

- Athens

Following his victory at the Battle of Thermopylae, Xerxes sacked the evacuated city of Athens and prepared to meet the Greeks at the strategic Isthmus of Corinth and the Saronic Gulf.

- Achaemenid Empire

14 related topics with Alpha


The Parthenon, a temple dedicated to Athena, located on the Acropolis in Athens, is one of the most representative symbols of the culture and sophistication of the ancient Greeks.

Ancient Greece

8 links

Northeastern Mediterranean civilization, existing from the Greek Dark Ages of the 12th–9th centuries BC to the end of classical antiquity (c.

Northeastern Mediterranean civilization, existing from the Greek Dark Ages of the 12th–9th centuries BC to the end of classical antiquity (c.

The Parthenon, a temple dedicated to Athena, located on the Acropolis in Athens, is one of the most representative symbols of the culture and sophistication of the ancient Greeks.
The Victorious Youth (c. 310 BC), is a rare, water-preserved bronze sculpture from ancient Greece.
Dipylon Vase of the late Geometric period, or the beginning of the Archaic period, c. 750 BC.
Early Athenian coin, depicting the head of Athena on the obverse and her owl on the reverse – 5th century BC
Map showing events of the first phases of the Greco-Persian Wars.
Delian League ("Athenian Empire"), immediately before the Peloponnesian War in 431 BC
Alexander Mosaic, National Archaeological Museum, Naples.
Map showing the major regions of mainland ancient Greece and adjacent "barbarian" lands.
Greek cities & colonies c. undefined 550 BC (in red color)
Marble bust of Pericles with a Corinthian helmet, Roman copy of a Greek original, Museo Chiaramonti, Vatican Museums; Pericles was a key populist political figure in the development of the radical Athenian democracy.
Inheritance law, part of the Law Code of Gortyn, Crete, fragment of the 11th column. Limestone, 5th century BC
Fresco of dancing Peucetian women in the Tomb of the Dancers in Ruvo di Puglia, 4th–5th century BC
Gravestone of a woman with her slave child-attendant, c. undefined 100 BC
Mosaic from Pompeii depicting Plato's academy
Greek hoplite and Persian warrior depicted fighting, on an ancient kylix, 5th century BC
The carved busts of four ancient Greek philosophers, on display in the British Museum. From left to right: Socrates, Antisthenes, Chrysippus, and Epicurus.
The ancient Theatre of Epidaurus, 4th century BC
A scene from the Iliad: Hypnos and Thanatos carrying the body of Sarpedon from the battlefield of Troy; detail from an Attic white-ground lekythos, c. 440 BC.
The Antikythera mechanism was an analog computer from 150 to 100 BC designed to calculate the positions of astronomical objects.
The Temple of Hera at Selinunte, Sicily
Mount Olympus, home of the Twelve Olympians

The Aegean islands were added to this territory in 133 BC. Athens and other Greek cities revolted in 88 BC, and the peninsula was crushed by the Roman general Sulla.

To fight the enormous armies of the Achaemenid Empire was effectively beyond the capabilities of a single city-state.

The Kingdom of Macedonia in 336 BC (orange)

Macedonia (ancient kingdom)

7 links

Ancient kingdom on the periphery of Archaic and Classical Greece, and later the dominant state of Hellenistic Greece.

Ancient kingdom on the periphery of Archaic and Classical Greece, and later the dominant state of Hellenistic Greece.

The Kingdom of Macedonia in 336 BC (orange)
The entrance to one of the royal tombs at Vergina, a UNESCO World Heritage Site
The Kingdom of Macedonia in 336 BC (orange)
A silver octadrachm of Alexander I of Macedon ((r. 498 – 454)), minted c. 465–460 BC, showing an equestrian figure wearing a chlamys (short cloak) and petasos (head cap) while holding two spears and leading a horse
Macedon (orange) during the Peloponnesian War around 431BC, with Athens and the Delian League (yellow), Sparta and Peloponnesian League (red), independent states (blue), and the Persian Achaemenid Empire (purple)
A Macedonian didrachm minted during the reign of Archelaus I of Macedon ((r. 413 – 399))
A silver stater of Amyntas III of Macedon ((r. 393 – 370))
Map of the Kingdom of Macedon at the death of PhilipII in 336BC (light blue), with the original territory that existed in 431BC (red outline), and dependent states (yellow)
Alexander's empire and his route
The Stag Hunt Mosaic, c.300BC, from Pella; the figure on the right is possibly Alexander the Great due to the date of the mosaic along with the depicted upsweep of his centrally-parted hair (anastole); the figure on the left wielding a double-edged axe (associated with Hephaistos) is perhaps Hephaestion, one of Alexander's loyal companions.
A golden stater of Philip III Arrhidaeus ((r. 323 – 317)) bearing images of Athena (left) and Nike (right)
Paintings of Hellenistic-era military arms and armor from a tomb in ancient Mieza (modern-day Lefkadia), Imathia, Central Macedonia, Greece, 2nd centuryBC
The Temple of Apollo at Corinth, built c.540BC, with the Acrocorinth (i.e. the acropolis of Corinth that once held a Macedonian garrison) seen in the background
A tetradrachm minted during the reign of Antigonus III Doson ((r. 229 – 221)), possibly at Amphipolis, bearing the portrait image of Poseidon on the obverse and on the reverse a scene depicting Apollo sitting on the prow of a ship
The Kingdom of Macedonia (orange) under PhilipV ((r. 221 – 179)), with Macedonian dependent states (dark yellow), the Seleucid Empire (bright yellow), Roman protectorates (dark green), the Kingdom of Pergamon (light green), independent states (light purple), and possessions of the Ptolemaic Empire (violet purple)
A tetradrachm of Philip V of Macedon ((r. 221 – 179)), with the king's portrait on the obverse and Athena Alkidemos brandishing a thunderbolt on the reverse
Bronze bust of Eumenes II of Pergamon, a Roman copy of a Hellenistic Greek original, from the Villa of the Papyri in Herculaneum
The Vergina Sun, the 16-ray star covering the royal burial larnax of Philip II of Macedon ((r. 359 – 336)), discovered in the tomb of Vergina, formerly ancient Aigai
Hades abducting Persephone, fresco in the small Macedonian royal tomb at Vergina, Macedonia, Greece, c.340BC
Fresco of an ancient Macedonian soldier (thorakites) wearing chainmail armor and bearing a thureos shield, 3rd centuryBC, İstanbul Archaeology Museums
A mosaic of the Kasta Tomb in Amphipolis depicting the abduction of Persephone by Pluto, 4thcenturyBC
The Lion of Amphipolis in Amphipolis, northern Greece, a 4th-centuryBC marble tomb sculpture erected in honor of Laomedon of Mytilene, a general who served under Alexander the Great
Alexander (left), wearing a kausia and fighting an Asiatic lion with his friend Craterus (detail); late 4th-centuryBC mosaic, Pella Museum.
Portrait bust of Aristotle, an Imperial Roman (1st or 2nd centuryAD) copy of a lost bronze sculpture made by Lysippos
A fresco showing Hades and Persephone riding in a chariot, from the tomb of Queen Eurydice I of Macedon at Vergina, Greece, 4thcenturyBC
A banquet scene from a Macedonian tomb of Agios Athanasios, Thessaloniki, 4thcenturyBC; shown are six men reclining on couches, with food arranged on nearby tables, a male servant in attendance, and female musicians providing entertainment.
Ruins of the ancient theatre in Maroneia, Rhodope, East Macedonia and Thrace, Greece
Tetradrachms (above) and drachms (below) issued during the reign of Alexander the Great, now in the Numismatic Museum of Athens
The Alexander Mosaic, a Roman mosaic from Pompeii, Italy, c. 100 BC
Kingdoms of the diadochi c.301BC, after the Battle of Ipsus
Kingdom of Ptolemy I Soter
Kingdom of Cassander
Kingdom of Lysimachus
Kingdom of Seleucus I Nicator
Roman Republic
Greek States

Before the 4th century BC, Macedonia was a small kingdom outside of the area dominated by the great city-states of Athens, Sparta and Thebes, and briefly subordinate to Achaemenid Persia.

Leonidas at Thermopylae, by Jacques-Louis David, 1814.

Battle of Thermopylae

5 links

Leonidas at Thermopylae, by Jacques-Louis David, 1814.
A map of almost all the parts of the Greek world that partook in the Persian Wars
The Spartans throw Persian envoys into a well
The site of the battle today. Mount Kallidromon on the left, and the wide coastal plain formed by accretion of fluvial deposits over the centuries; the road to the right approximates the 480 BC shoreline.
Map showing Greek and Persian advances to Thermopylae and Artemisium
5th century hoplite.
A flow map of the battle
Map of Thermopylae area with a reconstructed shoreline of 480 BC.
Contemporary depictions: probable Spartan hoplite (Vix crater, c.500 BC), and Scythian warrior of the Achaemenid army (tomb of Xerxes I, c.480 BC), at the time of the Second Persian invasion of Greece (480–479 BC).
Spartans surrounded by Persians, Battle of Thermopylae. 19th century illustration.
Crown-wearing Achaemenid king killing a Greek hoplite. Impression from a cylinder seal, sculpted circa 500 BC–475 BC, at the time of Xerxes I. Metropolitan Museum of Art.
A Persian soldier at the time of the Second Achaemenid invasion of Greece.
The Capture of the Acropolis and the destruction of Athens by the Achaemenids, following the battle of Thermopylae.
Hidush (Indian soldier of the Achaemenid army), circa 480 BC. Xerxes I tomb. Herodotus explained that Indians participated on the Second Persian invasion of Greece.
Epitaph with Simonides' epigram
The Battle of Thermopylae, 19th century engraving
The Persian Gates narrow pass
Scene of the Battle of the Thermopylae (19th century illustration).
Leonidas Monument
Thespian monument

The Battle of Thermopylae was fought in 480 BC between the Achaemenid Persian Empire under Xerxes I and an alliance of Greek city-states led by Sparta under Leonidas I.

The Persians overran Boeotia and then captured the evacuated city of Athens.

Battle of Salamis

4 links

Map showing the Greek world at the time of the battle
Battle of Salamis, 1785 engraving
Greek trireme.
Fleet of triremes based on the full-sized replica Olympias
The Lycian dynast Kybernis (520-480 BCE) led 50 Lycian ships in the Achaemenid fleet.
The Ionian fleet, here seen joining with Persian forces at the Bosphorus in preparation of the European Scythian campaign of Darius I in 513 BC, was part of the Achaemenid fleet at Salamis. 19th century illustration.
The battle of Salamis, 19th century illustration.
Greek triremes at Salamis.
Battle of Salamis, by Wilhelm von Kaulbach (detail).
Death of the Persian admiral Ariabignes (a brother of Xerxes) early in the battle; illustration from Plutarch's Lives for Boys and Girls c. 1910
Artemisia, Queen of Halicarnassus, and commander of the Carian contingent of the Achaemenid fleet, at the Battle of Salamis, shooting arrows at the Greeks. Wilhelm von Kaulbach (detail).
The triumph of Themistocles after Salamis. 19th century illustration.
The wrath of Xerxes looking at the Battle of Salamis from his promontory, by Wilhelm von Kaulbach (detail).
Serpent Column, a monument to their alliance, dedicated by the victorious Allies in the aftermath of Plataea; now at the Hippodrome of Constantinople

The Battle of Salamis was a naval battle fought between an alliance of Greek city-states under Themistocles and the Persian Empire under King Xerxes in 480 BC. It resulted in a decisive victory for the outnumbered Greeks.

The battle was fought in the straits between the mainland and Salamis, an island in the Saronic Gulf near Athens, and marked the high point of the second Persian invasion of Greece.

Bust of Philip II of Macedon from the Hellenistic period; Ny Carlsberg Glyptotek

Philip II of Macedon

4 links

The king (basileus) of the ancient kingdom of Macedonia from 359 BC until his death in 336 BC. He was a member of the Argead dynasty, founders of the ancient kingdom, and the father of Alexander the Great.

The king (basileus) of the ancient kingdom of Macedonia from 359 BC until his death in 336 BC. He was a member of the Argead dynasty, founders of the ancient kingdom, and the father of Alexander the Great.

Bust of Philip II of Macedon from the Hellenistic period; Ny Carlsberg Glyptotek
The wounding of Philip.
Map of the territory of Philip II of Macedon
Statue of Philip II, 350-400 AD. Rheinisches Landesmuseum Trier.
Roman medallion of Olympias, the fourth wife of Philip II and mother of Alexander the Great. From the Museum of Thessaloniki.
Pausanius assassinates King Philip during his procession into the theatre, 336 BC
Assassination of Philip of Macedon. 19th century illustration.
Philip II gold stater, with head of Apollo
Niketerion (victory medallion) bearing the effigy of king Philip II of Macedon, 3rd century AD, probably minted during the reign of Roman Emperor Alexander Severus
Great Tumulus of Aigai
The tomb of Philip II of Macedon at the Museum of the Royal Tombs in Vergina
The golden larnax and the golden grave crown of Philip
alt=The gilded silver diadem of Philip II, found in his tomb at Vergina. |The gilded silver diadem of Philip II, found in his tomb at Vergina.

After defeating the Greek city-states of Athens and Thebes at the Battle of Chaeronea in 338 BC, Philip II led the effort to establish a federation of Greek states known as the League of Corinth, with him as the elected hegemon and commander-in-chief of Greece for a planned invasion of the Achaemenid Empire of Persia.

The Paeonians and the Thracians had sacked and invaded the eastern regions of Macedonia, while the Athenians had landed at Methoni on the coast with a contingent under the Macedonian pretender Argaeus II.

The location of the Aegean Sea

Aegean Sea

5 links

Elongated embayment of the Mediterranean Sea between Europe and Asia.

Elongated embayment of the Mediterranean Sea between Europe and Asia.

The location of the Aegean Sea
The extent of the Aegean Sea on a map of the Mediterranean Sea
A panoramic view of the Santorini caldera, taken from Oia.
A traditional street in Lefkes, Paros-Greece.
Climate map of Greece. Most of the landmass surrounding the Aegean sea is classified as Csa, with the northern region being BSk.
Female figure from Naxos (2800-2300 BC)
A fleet of Athenian trireme
Library of Celsus, a Roman structure in important sea port Ephesus
Emirate of Crete, after early conquest of Arabs
A 1528 map of the Aegean Sea by Turkish geographer Piri Reis
German Tanks in Rhodes during the WW2
House of Cleopatra on Delos
Walls of Troy
The town of Mykonos, part of the Cyclades
Tourists in the town of Mykonos, part of the Cyclades

Notable cities on the Aegean coastline include Athens, Thessaloniki, Volos, Kavala and Heraklion in Greece, and İzmir and Bodrum in Turkey.

Thus ending any further attempt of western expansion by the Achaemenid Empire.

Statue representing Europa at Palazzo Ferreria, in Valletta, Malta


5 links

Landmass, which is either considered a continent in its own right or a subcontinent of Eurasia, located entirely in the Northern Hemisphere and mostly in the Eastern Hemisphere.

Landmass, which is either considered a continent in its own right or a subcontinent of Eurasia, located entirely in the Northern Hemisphere and mostly in the Eastern Hemisphere.

Statue representing Europa at Palazzo Ferreria, in Valletta, Malta
First map of the world according to Anaximander (6th century BC)
A medieval T and O map printed by Günther Zainer in 1472, showing the three continents as domains of the sons of Noah — Asia to Sem (Shem), Europe to Iafeth (Japheth) and Africa to Cham (Ham)
A New Map of Europe According to the Newest Observations (1721) by Hermann Moll draws the eastern boundary of Europe along the Don River flowing south-west and the Tobol, Irtysh and Ob rivers flowing north
1916 political map of Europe showing most of Moll's waterways replaced by von Strahlenberg's Ural Mountains and Freshfield's Caucasus Crest, land features of a type that normally defines a subcontinent
Paleolithic cave paintings from Lascaux in France ( 15,000 BCE)
Stonehenge in the United Kingdom (Late Neolithic from 3000 to 2000 BCE).
The Parthenon in Athens (432 BCE)
Animation showing the growth and division of the Roman Empire (years CE)
Viking raids and division of the Frankish Empire at the Treaty of Verdun in 843
The maritime republics of medieval Italy reestablished contacts between Europe, Asia and Africa with extensive trade networks and colonies across the Mediterranean, and had an essential role in the Crusades.
Tancred of Sicily and Philip II of France, during the Third Crusade (1189–1192)
The sacking of Suzdal by Batu Khan in 1238, during the Mongol invasion of Europe.
The School of Athens by Raphael (1511): Contemporaries, such as Michelangelo and Leonardo da Vinci (centre), are portrayed as classical scholars of the Renaissance.
Habsburg dominions in the centuries following their partition by Charles V, Holy Roman Emperor. The principal military base of Philip II in Europe was the Spanish road stretching from the Netherlands to the Duchy of Milan.
The national boundaries within Europe set by the Congress of Vienna
Marshall's Temple Works (1840), the Industrial Revolution started in Great Britain
Map of European colonial empires throughout the world in 1914.
Map depicting the military alliances of World War I in 1914–1918
Serbian war efforts (1914–1918) cost the country one quarter of its population.
Nazi Germany began a devastating World War II in Europe by its leader, Adolf Hitler. Here Hitler, on the right, with his closest ally, the Italian dictator Benito Mussolini, in 1940
Bombed and burned-out buildings in Hamburg, 1944/45
The "Big Three" at the Yalta Conference in 1945; seated (from the left): Winston Churchill, Franklin D. Roosevelt and Joseph Stalin
The Schuman Declaration led to the creation of the European Coal and Steel Community. It began the integration process of the European Union (9 May 1950, at the French Foreign Ministry).
Flag of Europe, adopted by the Council of Europe in 1955 as the flag for the whole of Europe
Map of populous Europe and surrounding regions showing physical, political and population characteristics, as per 2018
Köppen-Geiger climate classification map for Europe.
The Volga, as seen in Yaroslavl. It flows from Central Russia and into the Caspian Sea and is the longest river in Europe.
Mount Elbrus in Southern Russia, is the highest mountain in Europe.
Europa Point as seen from the Strait of Gibraltar, which separates the continents of Europe and Africa, also being between the Atlantic Ocean and the Mediterranean Sea.
The Danube, as seen in Đerdap National Park. It flows from the Black Forest and into the Black Sea and is the second-longest river in Europe, which also passes through the largest number of countries in the world at 10.
Sutjeska National Park contains Perućica, which is one of the last remaining primeval forests in Europe.
Land use map of Europe with arable farmland (yellow), forest (dark green), pasture (light green) and tundra, or bogs, in the north (dark yellow)
Floristic regions of Europe and neighbouring areas, according to Wolfgang Frey and Rainer Lösch
Biogeographic regions of Europe and bordering regions
A brown bear near the Russian border in the forests of Kainuu, Finland
Once roaming the great temperate forests of Eurasia, European bison now live in nature preserves in Białowieża Forest, on the border between Poland and Belarus.
Fall of the Berlin Wall in 1989.
Eurozone (blue colour)
One of Kosovo's main economical sources is mining, because it has large reserves of lead, zinc, silver, nickel, cobalt, copper, iron and bauxite. Miners at the Trepča Mines in Mitrovica, Kosovo in 2011.
Population growth in and around Europe in 2021
Map purportedly displaying the European continent split along cultural and state borders as proposed by the German organization Ständiger Ausschuss für geographische Namen (StAGN).
Tallinn, the medieval capital of Estonia in the Baltic States, is a mixture of Western and Eastern architectural cultures.
Surficial geology of Europe

In 508 BCE, Cleisthenes instituted the world's first democratic system of government in Athens.

In the course of the 5th century BCE, several of the Greek city states would ultimately check the Achaemenid Persian advance in Europe through the Greco-Persian Wars, considered a pivotal moment in world history, as the 50 years of peace that followed are known as Golden Age of Athens, the seminal period of ancient Greece that laid many of the foundations of Western civilisation.

1900 depiction of the Battle of Marathon

Battle of Marathon

4 links

The Battle of Marathon took place in 490 BC during the first Persian invasion of Greece.

The Battle of Marathon took place in 490 BC during the first Persian invasion of Greece.

1900 depiction of the Battle of Marathon
The plain of Marathon today, with pine forest and wetlands.
A map showing the Greek world at the time of the battle
Darius I of Persia, as imagined by a Greek painter on the Darius Vase, 4th century BC
Initial disposition of forces at Marathon
Marshlands at Marathon.
Athenians on the beach of Marathon. Modern reenactment of the battle (2011)
The ethnicities of the soldiers of the army of Darius I are illustrated on the tomb of Darius I at Naqsh-e Rostam, with a mention of each ethnicity in individual labels. Identical depictions were made on the tombs of other Achaemenid emperors, the best preserved frieze being that of Xerxes I.
Persian infantry (probably Immortals), shown in a frieze in Darius's palace, Susa in Persia (which is today Iran)
First phase
Greek troops rushing forward at the Battle of Marathon, Georges Rochegrosse, 1859.
Second phase
Third phase
"They crashed into the Persian army with tremendous force", illustration by Walter Crane in Mary Macgregor, The Story of Greece Told to Boys and Girls, London: T.C. & E.C. Jack.
Fourth phase
Fifth phase
Cynaegirus grabbing a Persian ship at the Battle of Marathon (19th century illustration).
Relief of the battle of Marathon (Temple of Augustus, Pula).
Contemporary depiction of the Battle of Marathon in the Stoa Poikile (reconstitution)
Greek Corinthian-style helmet and the skull reportedly found inside it from the Battle of Marathon, now residing in the Royal Ontario Museum, Toronto.
Plan of the Battle of Marathon, 1832
Statue of Pan, Capitoline Museum, Rome
Reconstitution of the Nike of Callimachus, erected in honor of the Battle of Marathon. Destroyed during the Achaemenid destruction of Athens. Acropolis Museum.
Luc-Olivier Merson's painting depicting the runner announcing the victory at the Battle of Marathon to the people of Athens.
Burton Holmes's photograph entitled "1896: Three athletes in training for the marathon at the Olympic Games in Athens".

It was fought between the citizens of Athens, aided by Plataea, and a Persian force commanded by Datis and Artaphernes.

Similarly, after the victory the festival of the Agroteras Thysia ("sacrifice to the Agrotéra") was held at Agrae near Athens, in honor of Artemis Agrotera ("Artemis the Huntress").


3 links

Country in Southeast Europe.

Country in Southeast Europe.

The entrance of the Treasury of Atreus (13th BC) in Mycenae
Herodotus (c. 484 BC—c. 425 BC), often considered the "father of history"
Fresco displaying the Minoan ritual of "bull leaping", found in Knossos
Greek territories and colonies during the Archaic period (750–550 BC)
The Parthenon on the Acropolis of Athens, icon of classical Greece.
Alexander the Great, whose conquests led to the Hellenistic Age.
Map of Alexander's short-lived empire (334–323 BC). After his death the lands were divided between the Diadochi
The Antikythera mechanism (c. 100 BC) is considered to be the first known mechanical analog computer (National Archaeological Museum, Athens).
A view from the ancient royal Macedonian tombs in Vergina
The Odeon of Herodes Atticus in Athens, built in 161 AD
Dome of Hagia Sophia, Thessaloniki (8th century), one of the 15 UNESCO's Paleochristian and Byzantine monuments of the city
The Palace of the Grand Master of the Knights of Rhodes, originally built in the late 7th century as a Byzantine citadel and beginning from 1309 used by the Knights Hospitaller as an administrative centre
The Byzantine (Eastern Roman) Empire after the death of Basil II in 1025
The Byzantine castle of Angelokastro successfully repulsed the Ottomans during the First Great Siege of Corfu in 1537, the siege of 1571, and the Second Great Siege of Corfu in 1716, causing them to abandon their plans to conquer Corfu.
The White Tower of Thessaloniki, one of the best-known Ottoman structures remaining in Greece.
The sortie (exodus) of Messolonghi, depicting the Third Siege of Missolonghi, painted by Theodoros Vryzakis.
The Battle of Navarino in 1827 secured Greek independence.
The Entry of King Otto in Athens, painted by Peter von Hess in 1839.
The territorial evolution of the Kingdom of Greece from 1832 to 1947.
Hellenic Army formation in the World War I Victory Parade in Arc de Triomphe, Paris, July 1919.
Map of Greater Greece after the Treaty of Sèvres, when the Megali Idea seemed close to fulfillment, featuring Eleftherios Venizelos as its supervising genius.
The Axis occupation of Greece.
People in Athens celebrate the liberation from the Axis powers, October 1944. Postwar Greece would soon experience a civil war and political polarization.
Signing at Zappeion by Constantine Karamanlis of the documents for the accession of Greece to the European Communities in 1979.
Navagio (shipwreck) bay, Zakynthos island
The Greek mainland and several small islands seen from Nydri, Lefkada
Mount Olympus is the highest mountain in Greece and mythical abode of the Gods of Olympus
The building of the Hellenic Parliament (Old Royal Palace) in central Athens.
Count Ioannis Kapodistrias, first governor, founder of the modern Greek State, and distinguished European diplomat
Kyriakos Mitsotakis, Prime Minister since 2019
Representation through: 
 embassy in another country
 general consulate
 no representation
GDP per capita development
A proportional representation of Greece exports, 2019
Greece's debt percentage since 1977, compared to the average of the Eurozone
Sun-drying of Zante currant on Zakynthos
Solar-power generation potential in Greece
Greek companies control 16.2% of the world's total merchant fleet making it the largest in the world. They are ranked in the top 5 for all kinds of ships, including first for tankers and bulk carriers.
Santorini, a popular tourist destination, is ranked as the world's top island in many travel magazines and sites.
The Rio–Antirrio bridge connects mainland Greece to the Peloponnese.
Thessaloniki Science Center and Technology Museum
Georgios Papanikolaou, a pioneer in cytopathology and early cancer detection
Hermoupolis, on the island of Syros, is the capital of the Cyclades.
Population pyramid of Greece in 2017
Our Lady of Tinos
Regions with a traditional presence of languages other than Greek. Today, Greek is the dominant language throughout the country.
A map of the fifty countries with the largest Greek diaspora communities.
The Academy of Athens is Greece's national academy and the highest research establishment in the country.
The Ionian Academy in Corfu, the first academic institution of modern Greece.
The Ancient Theatre of Epidaurus, still used for theatrical plays.
Close-up of the Charioteer of Delphi, a celebrated statue from the 5th century BC.
Towerhouses of Vatheia in Mani peninsula
Nobile Teatro di San Giacomo di Corfù, the first theatre and opera house of modern Greece
Parnassos Literary Society, painted by Georgios Roilos (Kostis Palamas is at the center)
A statue of Plato in Athens.
Cretan dancers of traditional folk music
Rebetes in Karaiskaki, Piraeus (1933). Left Markos Vamvakaris with bouzouki.
Mikis Theodorakis was one of the most popular and significant Greek composers
A Greek salad, with feta and olives.
Theodoros Angelopoulos, winner of the Palme d'Or in 1998, notable director in the history of the European cinema
Spyridon Louis entering the Panathenaic Stadium at the end of the marathon; 1896 Summer Olympics.
Angelos Charisteas scoring Greece's winning goal in the UEFA Euro 2004 Final
The Greek national basketball team in 2008. Twice European champions (1987 and 2005) and second in the world in 2006
Procession in honor of the Assumption of Virgin Mary (15 August)

Athens is the nation's capital and largest city, followed by Thessaloniki and Patras.

By 500 BC, the Persian Empire controlled the Greek city states in Asia Minor and Macedonia.

Persian soldier (left) and Greek hoplite (right) depicted fighting, on an ancient kylix, 5th century BC

Greco-Persian Wars

4 links

Persian soldier (left) and Greek hoplite (right) depicted fighting, on an ancient kylix, 5th century BC
Herodotus, the main historical source for this conflict
Thucydides continued Herodotus's narrative
The Achaemenid Empire at its greatest extent under Darius the Great
Persian and Median Immortals in ceremonial dress, bas-relief in Persepolis
According to Herodotus, the Athenians, hoping for protection against Sparta, made the gift of "Earth and Water" to the Persians in 507 BC.
Coinage of Athens at the time of Cleisthenes. Effigy of Athena, with owl and ΑΘΕ, initials of "Athens". Circa 510-500/490 BC.
The burning of Sardis by the Greeks and the Ionians during the Ionian Revolt in 498 BC.
Map showing main events of the Ionian Revolt.
Map showing events of the first phases of the Greco-Persian Wars
The Greek wings envelop the Persians
Achaemenid king fighting hoplites, seal and seal holder, Cimmerian Bosporus.
The soldiers of Xerxes I, of all ethnicities, on the tomb of Xerxes I, at Naqsh-e Rostam.
Probable Spartan hoplite (Vix crater, c. 500 BC).
Major events in the second invasion of Greece
The pass of Thermopylae
Schematic diagram illustrating events during the Battle of Salamis
Spartans fighting against Persian forces at the Battle of Plataea. 19th century illustration.
Athens and her "empire" in 431 BC. The empire was the direct descendant of the Delian League
Map showing the locations of battles fought by the Delian League, 477–449 BC
Dynast of Lycia, Kherei, with Athena on the obverse, and himself wearing the Persian cap on the reverse. Circa 440/30–410 BC.
Coinage of Tiribazos, Satrap of Lydia, with Faravahar on the obverse. 388–380 BC.

The Greco-Persian Wars (also often called the Persian Wars) were a series of conflicts between the Achaemenid Empire and Greek city-states that started in 499 BC and lasted until 449 BC. The collision between the fractious political world of the Greeks and the enormous empire of the Persians began when Cyrus the Great conquered the Greek-inhabited region of Ionia in 547 BC. Struggling to control the independent-minded cities of Ionia, the Persians appointed tyrants to rule each of them.

In 507 BC, Artaphernes, as brother of Darius I and Satrap of Asia Minor in his capital Sardis, received an embassy from newly democratic Athens, probably sent by Cleisthenes, which was looking for Persian assistance in order to resist the threats from Sparta.