The relief stone of Darius the Great in the Behistun Inscription
1900 depiction of the Battle of Marathon
Gobryas, father of Mardonius, on the tomb of Darius I.
The plain of Marathon today, with pine forest and wetlands.
The Achaemenid Empire at its greatest territorial extent under the rule of Darius I (522 BC–486 BC)
Mardonius led the Destruction of Athens. Part of the archaeological remains called Perserschutt, or "Persian rubble".
Lineage of Darius the Great according to the Behistun Inscription.
A map showing the Greek world at the time of the battle
The Achaemenid Empire at its greatest territorial extent under the rule of Darius I (522 BC–486 BC)
Answer of the Athenian Aristides to the ambassadors of Mardonius: "As long as the sun holds to its present course, we shall never come to terms with Xerxes".
Darius the Great, by Eugène Flandin (1840)
Darius I of Persia, as imagined by a Greek painter on the Darius Vase, 4th century BC
Family tree of the Achaemenid rulers.
Camp of Mardonius and disposition of Achaemenid troops at the Battle of Plataea (479 BC), in which Mardonius was killed. From left to right: Greek allies, Sacae, Indians, Bactrians, Medes and Persians.
Eastern border of the Achaemenid Empire
Initial disposition of forces at Marathon
Map of the expansion process of Achaemenid territories
Ethnicities of the Achaemenid Army, on the tomb of Darius I. The nationalities mentioned in the DNa inscription are also depicted on the upper registers of all the tombs at Naqsh-e Rustam, starting with the tomb of Darius I. The ethnicities on the tomb of Darius further have trilingual labels on the lintel directly over them for identification, collectively known as the DNe inscription. One of the best preserved friezes, identical in content, is that of Xerxes I.
Marshlands at Marathon.
Cyrus the Great is said, in the Bible, to have liberated the Hebrew captives in Babylon to resettle and rebuild Jerusalem, earning him an honored place in Judaism.
Map showing key sites during the Persian invasions of Greece
Athenians on the beach of Marathon. Modern reenactment of the battle (2011)
The tomb of Cyrus the Great, founder of the Achaemenid Empire. At Pasargadae, Iran.
Tomb of Darius at Naqsh-e Rostam
The ethnicities of the soldiers of the army of Darius I are illustrated on the tomb of Darius I at Naqsh-e Rostam, with a mention of each ethnicity in individual labels. Identical depictions were made on the tombs of other Achaemenid emperors, the best preserved frieze being that of Xerxes I.
The Achaemenid Empire at its greatest extent, c. 500 BC
Volume of annual tribute per district, in the Achaemenid Empire.
Persian infantry (probably Immortals), shown in a frieze in Darius's palace, Susa in Persia (which is today Iran)
The Persian queen Atossa, daughter of Cyrus the Great, sister-wife of Cambyses II, Darius the Great's wife, and mother of Xerxes the Great
Gold daric, minted at Sardis
First phase
Map showing events of the first phases of the Greco-Persian Wars
Reconstruction drawing of the Palace of Darius in Susa
Greek troops rushing forward at the Battle of Marathon, Georges Rochegrosse, 1859.
Greek hoplite and Persian warrior depicted fighting, on an ancient kylix, 5th century BC
The ruins of Tachara palace in Persepolis
Second phase
Achaemenid king fighting hoplites, seal and seal holder, Cimmerian Bosporus.
thumb|upright|Egyptian statue of Darius I, as Pharaoh of the Twenty-seventh Dynasty of Egypt;<ref>{{cite book |last1=Razmjou |first1=Shahrokh |title=Ars orientalis; the arts of Islam and the East |date=1954 |publisher=Freer Gallery of Art |pages=81–101 |url=https://archive.org/details/arsorient323320022003univ/page/n95/mode/2up}}</ref> 522–486 BC; greywacke; height: 2.46 m;<ref>{{cite book |last1=Manley|first1=Bill|title=Egyptian Art|year=2017|publisher=Thames & Hudson|pages=280|isbn=978-0-500-20428-3}}</ref> National Museum of Iran (Teheran)
Third phase
Achaemenid gold ornaments, Brooklyn Museum
Darius as Pharaoh of Egypt at the Temple of Hibis
"They crashed into the Persian army with tremendous force", illustration by Walter Crane in Mary Macgregor, The Story of Greece Told to Boys and Girls, London: T.C. & E.C. Jack.
Persian Empire timeline including important events and territorial evolution – 550–323 BC
Relief showing Darius I offering lettuces to the Egyptian deity Amun-Ra Kamutef, Temple of Hibis
Fourth phase
Relief showing Darius I offering lettuces to the Egyptian deity Amun-Ra Kamutef, Temple of Hibis
Fifth phase
The 24 countries subject to the Achaemenid Empire at the time of Darius, on the Egyptian statue of Darius I.
Cynaegirus grabbing a Persian ship at the Battle of Marathon (19th century illustration).
The Battle of Issus, between Alexander the Great on horseback to the left, and Darius III in the chariot to the right, represented in a Pompeii mosaic dated 1st century BC – Naples National Archaeological Museum
Relief of the battle of Marathon (Temple of Augustus, Pula).
Alexander's first victory over Darius, the Persian king depicted in medieval European style in the 15th century romance The History of Alexander's Battles
Contemporary depiction of the Battle of Marathon in the Stoa Poikile (reconstitution)
Frataraka dynasty ruler Vadfradad I (Autophradates I). 3rd century BC. Istakhr (Persepolis) mint.
Greek Corinthian-style helmet and the skull reportedly found inside it from the Battle of Marathon, now residing in the Royal Ontario Museum, Toronto.
Dārēv I (Darios I) used for the first time the title of mlk (King). 2nd century BC.
Plan of the Battle of Marathon, 1832
Winged sphinx from the Palace of Darius in Susa, Louvre
Statue of Pan, Capitoline Museum, Rome
Daric of Artaxerxes II
Reconstitution of the Nike of Callimachus, erected in honor of the Battle of Marathon. Destroyed during the Achaemenid destruction of Athens. Acropolis Museum.
Volume of annual tribute per district, in the Achaemenid Empire, according to Herodotus.
Luc-Olivier Merson's painting depicting the runner announcing the victory at the Battle of Marathon to the people of Athens.
Achaemenid tax collector, calculating on an Abax or Abacus, according to the Darius Vase (340–320 BC).
Burton Holmes's photograph entitled "1896: Three athletes in training for the marathon at the Olympic Games in Athens".
Letter from the Satrap of Bactria to the governor of Khulmi, concerning camel keepers, 353 BC
Relief of throne-bearing soldiers in their native clothing at the tomb of Xerxes I, demonstrating the satrapies under his rule.
Achaemenid king killing a Greek hoplite. c. 500 BC–475 BC, at the time of Xerxes I. Metropolitan Museum of Art.
Persian soldiers (left) fighting against Scythians. Cylinder seal impression.
Color reconstruction of Achaemenid infantry on the Alexander Sarcophagus (end of 4th century BC).
Seal of Darius the Great hunting in a chariot, reading "I am Darius, the Great King" in Old Persian (𐎠𐎭𐎶𐏐𐎭𐎠𐎼𐎹𐎺𐎢𐏁𐎴 𐏋, "adam Dārayavaʰuš xšāyaθiya"), as well as in Elamite and Babylonian. The word "great" only appears in Babylonian. British Museum.
Achaemenid calvalryman in the satrapy of Hellespontine Phrygia, Altıkulaç Sarcophagus, early 4th century BC.
Armoured cavalry: Achaemenid Dynast of Hellespontine Phrygia attacking a Greek psiloi, Altıkulaç Sarcophagus, early 4th century BC.
Reconstitution of Persian landing ships at the Battle of Marathon.
Greek ships against Achaemenid ships at the Battle of Salamis.
Iconic relief of lion and bull fighting, Apadana of Persepolis
Achaemenid golden bowl with lioness imagery of Mazandaran
The ruins of Persepolis
A section of the Old Persian part of the trilingual Behistun inscription. Other versions are in Babylonian and Elamite.
A copy of the Behistun inscription in Aramaic on a papyrus. Aramaic was the lingua franca of the empire.
An Achaemenid drinking vessel
Bas-relief of Farvahar at Persepolis
Tomb of Artaxerxes III in Persepolis
The Mausoleum at Halicarnassus, one of the Seven wonders of the ancient world, was built by Greek architects for the local Persian satrap of Caria, Mausolus (Scale model)
Achamenid dynasty timeline
Reconstruction of the Palace of Darius at Susa. The palace served as a model for Persepolis.
Lion on a decorative panel from Darius I the Great's palace, Louvre
Ruins of Throne Hall, Persepolis
Apadana Hall, Persian and Median soldiers at Persepolis
Lateral view of tomb of Cambyses II, Pasargadae, Iran
Plaque with horned lion-griffins. The Metropolitan Museum of Art

Darius I ( ; c. 550 – 486 BCE), commonly known as Darius the Great, was a Persian ruler who served as the third King of Kings of the Achaemenid Empire, reigning from 522 BCE until his death in 486 BCE.

- Darius the Great

Mardonius ( Mr̥duniyaʰ; Mardónios; died 479 BC) was a leading Persian military commander during the Persian Wars with Greece in the early 5th century BC who died at the Battle of Plataea.

- Mardonius (nephew of Darius I)

It was fought between the citizens of Athens, aided by Plataea, and a Persian force commanded by Datis and Artaphernes.

- Battle of Marathon

Mardonius was the son of Gobryas, a Persian nobleman who had assisted the Achaemenid prince Darius when he claimed the throne.

- Mardonius (nephew of Darius I)

The battle was the culmination of the first attempt by Persia, under King Darius I, to subjugate Greece.

- Battle of Marathon

Although his campaign ultimately resulted in failure at the Battle of Marathon, he succeeded in the re-subjugation of Thrace and expanded the Achaemenid Empire through his conquests of Macedon, the Cyclades and the island of Naxos as well as the sacked Greek city of Eretria.

- Darius the Great

He was relieved of his command by Darius, who appointed Datis and Artaphernes junior to lead the invasion of Greece in 490 BC, and though they were subsequently successful in capturing Naxos and destroying Eretria, they were later defeated at the Battle of Marathon.

- Mardonius (nephew of Darius I)

According to the Cyrus Cylinder (the oldest extant genealogy of the Achaemenids) the kings of Anshan were Teispes, Cyrus I, Cambyses I and Cyrus II, also known as Cyrus the Great, who created the empire (the later Behistun Inscription, written by Darius the Great, claims that Teispes was the son of Achaemenes and that Darius is also descended from Teispes through a different line, but no earlier texts mention Achaemenes).

- Achaemenid Empire

In 492 BC, after the Ionian Revolt had finally been crushed, Darius dispatched an expedition to Greece under the command of his son-in-law, Mardonius.

- Battle of Marathon

In 492 BC, the Persian general Mardonius re-subjugated Thrace and made Macedon a fully subordinate part of the empire; it had been a vassal as early as the late 6th century BC but retained a great deal of autonomy.

- Achaemenid Empire

However, in 490 BC the Persian forces were defeated by the Athenians at the Battle of Marathon and Darius would die before having the chance to launch an invasion of Greece.

- Achaemenid Empire

Persian military and naval operations to quell the revolt ended in the Persian reoccupation of Ionian and Greek islands, as well as the re-subjugation of Thrace and the conquering of Macedonia in 492 BC under Mardonius.

- Darius the Great
The relief stone of Darius the Great in the Behistun Inscription

3 related topics with Alpha

Overall

Persian soldier (left) and Greek hoplite (right) depicted fighting, on an ancient kylix, 5th century BC

Greco-Persian Wars

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Persian soldier (left) and Greek hoplite (right) depicted fighting, on an ancient kylix, 5th century BC
Herodotus, the main historical source for this conflict
Thucydides continued Herodotus's narrative
The Achaemenid Empire at its greatest extent under Darius the Great
Persian and Median Immortals in ceremonial dress, bas-relief in Persepolis
According to Herodotus, the Athenians, hoping for protection against Sparta, made the gift of "Earth and Water" to the Persians in 507 BC.
Coinage of Athens at the time of Cleisthenes. Effigy of Athena, with owl and ΑΘΕ, initials of "Athens". Circa 510-500/490 BC.
The burning of Sardis by the Greeks and the Ionians during the Ionian Revolt in 498 BC.
Map showing main events of the Ionian Revolt.
Map showing events of the first phases of the Greco-Persian Wars
The Greek wings envelop the Persians
Achaemenid king fighting hoplites, seal and seal holder, Cimmerian Bosporus.
The soldiers of Xerxes I, of all ethnicities, on the tomb of Xerxes I, at Naqsh-e Rostam.
Probable Spartan hoplite (Vix crater, c. 500 BC).
Major events in the second invasion of Greece
The pass of Thermopylae
Schematic diagram illustrating events during the Battle of Salamis
Spartans fighting against Persian forces at the Battle of Plataea. 19th century illustration.
Athens and her "empire" in 431 BC. The empire was the direct descendant of the Delian League
Map showing the locations of battles fought by the Delian League, 477–449 BC
Dynast of Lycia, Kherei, with Athena on the obverse, and himself wearing the Persian cap on the reverse. Circa 440/30–410 BC.
Coinage of Tiribazos, Satrap of Lydia, with Faravahar on the obverse. 388–380 BC.

The Greco-Persian Wars (also often called the Persian Wars) were a series of conflicts between the Achaemenid Empire and Greek city-states that started in 499 BC and lasted until 449 BC. The collision between the fractious political world of the Greeks and the enormous empire of the Persians began when Cyrus the Great conquered the Greek-inhabited region of Ionia in 547 BC. Struggling to control the independent-minded cities of Ionia, the Persians appointed tyrants to rule each of them.

The Persian king Darius the Great vowed to have revenge on Athens and Eretria for this act.

The first Persian invasion of Greece began in 492 BC, with the Persian general Mardonius successfully re-subjugating Thrace and Macedon before several mishaps forced an early end to the rest of the campaign.

However, while en route to attack Athens, the Persian force was decisively defeated by the Athenians at the Battle of Marathon, ending Persian efforts for the time being.

Location and main events of the Ionian Revolt.

Ionian Revolt

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Location and main events of the Ionian Revolt.
Location and main events of the Ionian Revolt.
Coin of Chios just before the revolt, circa 525–510 BC.
Coin of Lesbos, Ionia. Circa 510–480 BC.
Darius, with a label in Greek (ΔΑΡΕΙΟΣ, top right), on the Darius Vase.
Location of Ionia within Asia Minor.
Ionian Revolt: Sardis campaign (498 BC)
Remains of the acropolis of Sardis.
The burning of Sardis by the Greeks during the Ionian Revolt in 498 BC.
Achaemenid cavalry in Asia Minor. Altıkulaç Sarcophagus.
Map showing the ancient kingdoms of Cyprus
Ionian revolt: Carian campaign (496 BC).
Greek hoplite and Persian warrior depicted fighting. 5th century BC
Ionian revolt, Battle of Lade and fall of Miletus (494 BC).
The ruins of Miletus
Ionian soldier (Old Persian cuneiform 𐎹𐎢𐎴, Yaunā) of the Achaemenid army, circa 480 BCE. Xerxes I tomb relief.
Coin of Chios after the revolt, circa 490–435 BCE. [[:File:ISLANDS off IONIA, Chios. Circa 525-510 BC.jpg|Earlier types known]].

The Ionian Revolt, and associated revolts in Aeolis, Doris, Cyprus and Caria, were military rebellions by several Greek regions of Asia Minor against Persian rule, lasting from 499 BC to 493 BC. At the heart of the rebellion was the dissatisfaction of the Greek cities of Asia Minor with the tyrants appointed by Persia to rule them, along with the individual actions of two Milesian tyrants, Histiaeus and Aristagoras.

The mission was a debacle, and sensing his imminent removal as tyrant, Aristagoras chose to incite the whole of Ionia into rebellion against the Persian king Darius the Great.

The following year, Mardonius, another son-in-law of Darius, would travel to Ionia and abolish the tyrannies, replacing them with democracies.

Landing at the Bay of Marathon, they were met by an Athenian army and defeated in the famous Battle of Marathon, ending the first Persian attempt to subdue Greece.

Rock relief of an Achaemenid king, most likely Xerxes, located in the National Museum of Iran

Xerxes I

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Rock relief of an Achaemenid king, most likely Xerxes, located in the National Museum of Iran
The "Caylus vase", a quadrilingual alabaster jar with cuneiform and hieroglyphic inscriptions in the name of "Xerxes, the Great King". Cabinet des Médailles, Paris
Engraving of Babylon by H. Fletcher, 1690
The soldiers of Xerxes I, of all ethnicities, on the tomb of Xerxes I, at Naqsh-e Rostam
Achaemenid king killing a Greek hoplite. Impression from a cylinder seal, sculpted c. 500 BC – 475 BC, at the time of Xerxes I Metropolitan Museum of Art
Foundations of the Old Temple of Athena, destroyed by the armies of Xerxes I during the Destruction of Athens in 480 BC
The rock-cut tomb at Naqsh-e Rustam north of Persepolis, copying that of Darius, is usually assumed to be that of Xerxes
This cuneiform text mentions the murder of Xerxes I by his son. From Babylon, Iraq. British Museum
Xerxes being designated by Darius I. Tripylon, Persepolis. The ethnicities of the Empire are shown supporting the throne. Ahuramazda crowns the scene.
Trilingual inscription of Xerxes at Van (present-day Turkey)
The Persian king in the Biblical Book of Esther is commonly thought to be Xerxes
Xerxes (Ahasuerus) by Ernest Normand, 1888 (detail)

Xerxes I ( Xšayār̥šā; ; c. 518 – August 465 BC), commonly known as Xerxes the Great, was the fourth King of Kings of the Achaemenid Empire, ruling from 486 to 465 BC. He was the son and successor of Darius the Great ((r.

Darius died while in the process of preparing a second army to invade the Greek mainland, leaving to his son the task of punishing the Athenians, Naxians, and Eretrians for their interference in the Ionian Revolt, the burning of Sardis, and their victory over the Persians at Marathon.

He left behind a contingent in Greece to finish the campaign under Mardonius, who according to Herodotus had suggested the retreat in the first place.