A report on CyprusPhoenicia and Achaemenid Empire

Map of the Phoenicia region in green.
Two bronze fragments from an Assyrian palace gate depicting the collection of tribute from the Phoenician cities of Tyre and Sidon (859–824 BC). British Museum.
The Achaemenid Empire at its greatest territorial extent under the rule of Darius I (522 BC–486 BC)
A copper mine in Cyprus. In antiquity, Cyprus was a major source of copper.
Phoenicians build pontoon bridges for Xerxes I of Persia during the second Persian invasion of Greece in 480 BC. (1915 drawing by A. C. Weatherstone)
The Achaemenid Empire at its greatest territorial extent under the rule of Darius I (522 BC–486 BC)
Achaemenid-era coin of Abdashtart I of Sidon, who is seen at the back of the chariot, behind the Persian King.
Family tree of the Achaemenid rulers.
Archeologic site of Khirokitia with early remains of human habitation during Aceramic Neolithic period (reconstruction)
A naval action during Alexander the Great's Siege of Tyre (332 BC). Drawing by André Castaigne, 1888–89.
Map of the expansion process of Achaemenid territories
Zeus Keraunios, 500–480 BC, Nicosia museum
Major Phoenician trade networks (c. 1200–800 BC)
Cyrus the Great is said, in the Bible, to have liberated the Hebrew captives in Babylon to resettle and rebuild Jerusalem, earning him an honored place in Judaism.
The Walls of Nicosia were built by the Venetians to defend the city in case of an Ottoman attack
Phoenician sarcophagi found in Cádiz, Spain, thought to have been imported from the Phoenician homeland around Sidon. Archaeological Museum of Cádiz.
The tomb of Cyrus the Great, founder of the Achaemenid Empire. At Pasargadae, Iran.
Kyrenia Castle was originally built by the Byzantines and enlarged by the Venetians
Phoenician metal bowl with hunting scene (eighth century BC). The clothing and hairstyle of the figures are Egyptian. At the same time, the subject matter of the central scene conforms with the Mesopotamian theme of combat between man and beast. Phoenician artisans frequently adapted the styles of neighboring cultures.
The Achaemenid Empire at its greatest extent, c. 500 BC
Büyük Han, a caravanserai in Nicosia, is an example of the surviving Ottoman architecture in Cyprus.
An Etruscan tomb (c. 350 BC) depicting a man wearing an all-purple toga picta.
The Persian queen Atossa, daughter of Cyrus the Great, sister-wife of Cambyses II, Darius the Great's wife, and mother of Xerxes the Great
Hoisting the British flag at Nicosia
Map of Phoenician (in yellow) and Greek colonies around 8th to 6th century BC (with German legend)
Map showing events of the first phases of the Greco-Persian Wars
Greek Cypriot demonstrations for Enosis (union with Greece) in 1930
Tomb of King Hiram I of Tyre, located in the village of Hanaouay in southern Lebanon.
Greek hoplite and Persian warrior depicted fighting, on an ancient kylix, 5th century BC
A British soldier facing a crowd of Greek Cypriot demonstrators in Nicosia (1956)
Nineteenth-century depiction of Phoenician sailors and merchants. The importance of trade to the Phoenician economy led to a gradual sharing of power between the King and assemblies of merchant families.
Achaemenid king fighting hoplites, seal and seal holder, Cimmerian Bosporus.
Ethnic map of Cyprus according to the 1960 census.
Stela from Tyre with Phoenician inscriptions (c. fourth century BC). National Museum of Beirut.
Achaemenid gold ornaments, Brooklyn Museum
Varosha (Maraş), a suburb of Famagusta, was abandoned when its inhabitants fled in 1974 and remains under Turkish military control
Sarcophagus of Ahiram, which bears the oldest inscription of the Phoenician alphabet. National Museum of Beirut
Persian Empire timeline including important events and territorial evolution – 550–323 BC
A map showing the division of Cyprus
Female figurines from Tyre (c.1000–550 BC). National Museum of Beirut.
Relief showing Darius I offering lettuces to the Egyptian deity Amun-Ra Kamutef, Temple of Hibis
Foreign Ministers of the European Union countries in Limassol during Cyprus Presidency of the EU in 2012
Figure of Ba'al with raised arm, 14th–12th century BC, found at ancient Ugarit (Ras Shamra site), a city at the far north of the Phoenician coast. Musée du Louvre
The 24 countries subject to the Achaemenid Empire at the time of Darius, on the Egyptian statue of Darius I.
Cyprus taken from space by the International Space Station in 2021
Decorative plaque which depicts a fighting of man and griffin; 900–800 BC; Nimrud ivories; Cleveland Museum of Art (Ohio, US)
The Battle of Issus, between Alexander the Great on horseback to the left, and Darius III in the chariot to the right, represented in a Pompeii mosaic dated 1st century BC – Naples National Archaeological Museum
Sea caves at Cape Greco.
Oinochoe; 800–700 BC; terracotta; height: 24.1 cm; Metropolitan Museum of Art (New York City)
Alexander's first victory over Darius, the Persian king depicted in medieval European style in the 15th century romance The History of Alexander's Battles
The Troodos Mountains experience heavy snowfall in winter
Face bead; mid-4th–3rd century BC; glass; height: 2.7 cm; Metropolitan Museum of Art
Frataraka dynasty ruler Vadfradad I (Autophradates I). 3rd century BC. Istakhr (Persepolis) mint.
Kouris Dam overflow in April 2012
Earring from a pair, each with four relief faces; late fourth–3rd century BC; gold; overall: 3.5 x 0.6 cm; Metropolitan Museum of Art
Dārēv I (Darios I) used for the first time the title of mlk (King). 2nd century BC.
Presidential Palace, Nicosia
Winged sphinx from the Palace of Darius in Susa, Louvre
Nicos Anastasiades, President of Cyprus since 2013.
Daric of Artaxerxes II
Dhekelia Power Station
Volume of annual tribute per district, in the Achaemenid Empire, according to Herodotus.
Welcoming ceremony of the former Russian president Dmitry Medvedev by the soldiers of the Cypriot National Guard.
Achaemenid tax collector, calculating on an Abax or Abacus, according to the Darius Vase (340–320 BC).
Supreme Court of Justice
Letter from the Satrap of Bactria to the governor of Khulmi, concerning camel keepers, 353 BC
A proportional representation of Cyprus's exports, 2019
Relief of throne-bearing soldiers in their native clothing at the tomb of Xerxes I, demonstrating the satrapies under his rule.
Central Bank of Cyprus
Achaemenid king killing a Greek hoplite. c. 500 BC–475 BC, at the time of Xerxes I. Metropolitan Museum of Art.
Cyprus is part of a monetary union, the eurozone (dark blue) and of the EU single market.
Persian soldiers (left) fighting against Scythians. Cylinder seal impression.
Limassol General Hospital
Color reconstruction of Achaemenid infantry on the Alexander Sarcophagus (end of 4th century BC).
A1 Motorway between Agios Athanasios junction and Mesa Ghetonia junction in Limassol
Seal of Darius the Great hunting in a chariot, reading "I am Darius, the Great King" in Old Persian (𐎠𐎭𐎶𐏐𐎭𐎠𐎼𐎹𐎺𐎢𐏁𐎴 𐏋, "adam Dārayavaʰuš xšāyaθiya"), as well as in Elamite and Babylonian. The word "great" only appears in Babylonian. British Museum.
Population growth, 1961–2003 (numbers for the entire island, excluding Turkish settlers residing in Northern Cyprus).
Achaemenid calvalryman in the satrapy of Hellespontine Phrygia, Altıkulaç Sarcophagus, early 4th century BC.
2010 population by age and gender
Armoured cavalry: Achaemenid Dynast of Hellespontine Phrygia attacking a Greek psiloi, Altıkulaç Sarcophagus, early 4th century BC.
The Armenian Alphabet at the Melkonian Educational Institute. Armenian is recognised as a minority language in Cyprus.
Reconstitution of Persian landing ships at the Battle of Marathon.
Faneromeni School is the oldest all-girl primary school in Cyprus.
Greek ships against Achaemenid ships at the Battle of Salamis.
The entrance of the historic Pancyprian Gymnasium
Iconic relief of lion and bull fighting, Apadana of Persepolis
Typical Cypriot architecture in old part of Nicosia, Cyprus
Achaemenid golden bowl with lioness imagery of Mazandaran
Laouto, dominant instrument of the Cypriot traditional music.
The ruins of Persepolis
Zeno of Citium, founder of the Stoic school of philosophy.
A section of the Old Persian part of the trilingual Behistun inscription. Other versions are in Babylonian and Elamite.
Ioannis Kigalas (c. 1622–1687) was a Nicosia born Greek Cypriot scholar and professor of Philosophy who was largely active in the 17th century.
A copy of the Behistun inscription in Aramaic on a papyrus. Aramaic was the lingua franca of the empire.
Cypriot meze
An Achaemenid drinking vessel
Cypriot Halloumi
Bas-relief of Farvahar at Persepolis
Cypriot style café in an arcade in Nicosia
Tomb of Artaxerxes III in Persepolis
Spyros Kyprianou Athletic Centre in Limassol
The Mausoleum at Halicarnassus, one of the Seven wonders of the ancient world, was built by Greek architects for the local Persian satrap of Caria, Mausolus (Scale model)
Cypri insvla nova descript 1573, Ioannes á Deutecum f[ecit]. Map of Cyprus newly drawn by Johannes van Deutecom, 1573.
Achamenid dynasty timeline
Reconstruction of the Palace of Darius at Susa. The palace served as a model for Persepolis.
Lion on a decorative panel from Darius I the Great's palace, Louvre
Ruins of Throne Hall, Persepolis
Apadana Hall, Persian and Median soldiers at Persepolis
Lateral view of tomb of Cambyses II, Pasargadae, Iran
Plaque with horned lion-griffins. The Metropolitan Museum of Art

Beyond its homeland, the Phoenician civilization extended to the Mediterranean from Cyprus to the Iberian Peninsula.

- Phoenicia

Cyprus was settled by Mycenaean Greeks in two waves in the 2nd millennium BC. As a strategic location in the Eastern Mediterranean, it was subsequently occupied by several major powers, including the empires of the Assyrians, Egyptians and Persians, from whom the island was seized in 333 BC by Alexander the Great.

- Cyprus

By 525 BC, Cambyses had successfully subjugated Phoenicia and Cyprus and was making preparations to invade Egypt with the newly created Persian navy.

- Achaemenid Empire

Literary evidence suggests an early Phoenician presence at Kition which was under Tyrian rule at the beginning of the 10th century BC. Some Phoenician merchants who were believed to come from Tyre colonised the area and expanded the political influence of Kition.

- Cyprus

In 539 BC, Cyrus the Great, king and founder of the Persian Achaemenid Empire, took Babylon.

- Phoenicia

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Ptolemaic Egypt circa 235 BC. The green areas were lost to the Seleucid Empire thirty five years later.

Ptolemaic Kingdom

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Ancient Greek state based in Egypt during the Hellenistic Period.

Ancient Greek state based in Egypt during the Hellenistic Period.

Ptolemaic Egypt circa 235 BC. The green areas were lost to the Seleucid Empire thirty five years later.
Ptolemy as Pharaoh of Egypt, British Museum, London
Ptolemaic Egypt circa 235 BC. The green areas were lost to the Seleucid Empire thirty five years later.
A bust depicting Pharaoh Ptolemy II Philadelphus 309–246 BC
Hellenistic bust of Ptolemy I Soter, 3rd century BC, now in the Louvre
Coin depicting Pharaoh Ptolemy III Euergetes. Ptolemaic Kingdom.
Ptolemaic Empire in 200 BC, alongside neighboring powers.
Ring of Ptolemy VI Philometor as Egyptian pharaoh. Louvre Museum.
A mosaic from Thmuis (Mendes), Egypt, created by the Hellenistic artist Sophilos (signature) in about 200 BC, now in the Greco-Roman Museum in Alexandria, Egypt; the woman depicted is Queen Berenice II (who ruled jointly with her husband Ptolemy III Euergetes) as the personification of Alexandria, with her crown showing a ship's prow, while she sports an anchor-shaped brooch for her robes, symbols of the Ptolemaic Kingdom's naval prowess and successes in the Mediterranean Sea.
Coin of Cleopatra VII, with her image
Ptolemy XII, father of Cleopatra VII, making offerings to Egyptian Gods, in the Temple of Hathor, Dendera, Egypt
Relief of Ptolemaic Queen Cleopatra VII and Caesarion, Dendera Temple, Egypt.
Bust of Roman Nobleman, c. 30 BC – 50 AD, 54.51, Brooklyn Museum
Ptolemaic mosaic of a dog and askos wine vessel from Hellenistic Egypt, dated 200–150 BC, Greco-Roman Museum of Alexandria, Egypt
Faience sistrum with head of Hathor with bovine ears from the reign of Ptolemy I. Color is intermediate between traditional Egyptian color to colors more characteristic of Ptolemaic-era faience.
Relief from the temple of Kom Ombo depicting Ptolemy VIII receiving the sed symbol from Horus.
Temple of Kom Ombo constructed in Upper Egypt in 180–47 BC by the Ptolemies and modified by the Romans. It is a double temple with two sets of structures dedicated to two separate deities.
Gold coin with visage of Arsinoe II wearing divine diadem
Bronze allegorical group of a Ptolemy (identifiable by his diadem) overcoming an adversary, in Hellenistic style, ca early 2nd century BC (Walters Art Museum)
Characteristic Indian etched carnelian bead, found in Ptolemaic Period excavations at Saft el Henna. This is a marker of trade relations with India. Petrie Museum.
Example of a large Ptolemaic bronze coin minted during the reign of Ptolemy V.
Detailed map of the Ptolemaic Egypt.
Egyptian faience torso of a king, for an applique on wood
Alexander the Great, 356–323 BC Brooklyn Museum
A detail of the Nile mosaic of Palestrina, showing Ptolemaic Egypt c. 100 BC
A stele of Dioskourides, dated 2nd century BC, showing a Ptolemaic thureophoros soldier. It is a characteristic example of the "Romanization" of the Ptolemaic army.
Ptolemaic Era bust of a man, circa 300–250 BC, Altes Museum

Alexander the Great conquered Persian-controlled Egypt in 332 BC during his campaigns against the Achaemenid Empire.

Early in 331 BC he was ready to depart, and led his forces away to Phoenicia.

Within a few years he had gained control of Libya, Coele-Syria (including Judea), and Cyprus.