The map of Achaemenid Empire and the section of the Royal Road noted by Herodotus
Ruins of the Gate of All Nations, Persepolis.
The Achaemenid Empire at its greatest territorial extent under the rule of Darius I (522 BC–486 BC)
As is typical of Achaemenid cities, Persepolis was built on a (partially) artificial platform.
The Achaemenid Empire at its greatest territorial extent under the rule of Darius I (522 BC–486 BC)
Darius the Great, by Eugène Flandin (1840)
Family tree of the Achaemenid rulers.
General view of the ruins of Persepolis
Map of the expansion process of Achaemenid territories
Aerial architectural plan of Persepolis.
Cyrus the Great is said, in the Bible, to have liberated the Hebrew captives in Babylon to resettle and rebuild Jerusalem, earning him an honored place in Judaism.
Perspolis in 1920s, photo by Harold Weston
The tomb of Cyrus the Great, founder of the Achaemenid Empire. At Pasargadae, Iran.
Hemidrachm from the Kingdom of Perside.Date: c. 100AC. - 100 AD.
The Achaemenid Empire at its greatest extent, c. 500 BC
Bust of Alexander the Great (British Museum of London).
The Persian queen Atossa, daughter of Cyrus the Great, sister-wife of Cambyses II, Darius the Great's wife, and mother of Xerxes the Great
"The Burning of Persepolis", led by Thaïs, 1890, by Georges-Antoine Rochegrosse
Map showing events of the first phases of the Greco-Persian Wars
Thaïs setting fire on Persepolise
Greek hoplite and Persian warrior depicted fighting, on an ancient kylix, 5th century BC
A general view of Persepolis.
Achaemenid king fighting hoplites, seal and seal holder, Cimmerian Bosporus.
Ruins of the Western side of the compound at Persepolis.
Achaemenid gold ornaments, Brooklyn Museum
Achaemenid frieze designs at Persepolis.
Persian Empire timeline including important events and territorial evolution – 550–323 BC
Reliefs of lotus flowers are frequently used on the walls and monuments at Persepolis.
Relief showing Darius I offering lettuces to the Egyptian deity Amun-Ra Kamutef, Temple of Hibis
Statue of a Persian Mastiff found at the Apadana, kept at the National Museum, Tehran.
The 24 countries subject to the Achaemenid Empire at the time of Darius, on the Egyptian statue of Darius I.
Tomb of Artaxerxes II, Persepolis.
The Battle of Issus, between Alexander the Great on horseback to the left, and Darius III in the chariot to the right, represented in a Pompeii mosaic dated 1st century BC – Naples National Archaeological Museum
Babylonian version of an inscription of Xerxes I, the "XPc inscription".
Alexander's first victory over Darius, the Persian king depicted in medieval European style in the 15th century romance The History of Alexander's Battles
The lithograph of Shapur II in Bishapour, which is modeled on the maps of the Persepolis donors.
Frataraka dynasty ruler Vadfradad I (Autophradates I). 3rd century BC. Istakhr (Persepolis) mint.
Sketch of Persepolis from 1704 by Cornelis de Bruijn.
Dārēv I (Darios I) used for the first time the title of mlk (King). 2nd century BC.
Drawing of Persepolis in 1713 by Gérard Jean-Baptiste.
Winged sphinx from the Palace of Darius in Susa, Louvre
Drawing of the Tachara by Charles Chipiez.
Daric of Artaxerxes II
The Apadana by Charles Chipiez.
Volume of annual tribute per district, in the Achaemenid Empire, according to Herodotus.
Apadana detail by Charles Chipiez.
Achaemenid tax collector, calculating on an Abax or Abacus, according to the Darius Vase (340–320 BC).
A bas-relief at Persepolis, representing a symbol in Zoroastrianism for Nowruz.{{ref|a}}
Letter from the Satrap of Bactria to the governor of Khulmi, concerning camel keepers, 353 BC
A bas-relief from the Apadana depicting Delegations including Lydians and Armenians{{ref|page 39 image 21 in The Arts of Persia edited by R W Ferrier}} bringing their famous wine to the king.
Relief of throne-bearing soldiers in their native clothing at the tomb of Xerxes I, demonstrating the satrapies under his rule.
Achaemenid plaque from Persepolis, kept at the National Museum, Tehran.
Achaemenid king killing a Greek hoplite. c. 500 BC–475 BC, at the time of Xerxes I. Metropolitan Museum of Art.
Relief of a Median man at Persepolis.
Persian soldiers (left) fighting against Scythians. Cylinder seal impression.
Objects from Persepolis kept at the National Museum, Tehran.
Color reconstruction of Achaemenid infantry on the Alexander Sarcophagus (end of 4th century BC).
A lamassu at the Gate of All Nations.
Seal of Darius the Great hunting in a chariot, reading "I am Darius, the Great King" in Old Persian (𐎠𐎭𐎶𐏐𐎭𐎠𐎼𐎹𐎺𐎢𐏁𐎴 𐏋, "adam Dārayavaʰuš xšāyaθiya"), as well as in Elamite and Babylonian. The word "great" only appears in Babylonian. British Museum.
The Great Double Staircase at Persepolis.
Achaemenid calvalryman in the satrapy of Hellespontine Phrygia, Altıkulaç Sarcophagus, early 4th century BC.
Bas-relief on the staircase of the palace.
Armoured cavalry: Achaemenid Dynast of Hellespontine Phrygia attacking a Greek psiloi, Altıkulaç Sarcophagus, early 4th century BC.
Door-Post Socket
Reconstitution of Persian landing ships at the Battle of Marathon.
Ruins of the Apadana, Persepolis.
Greek ships against Achaemenid ships at the Battle of Salamis.
Depiction of united Medes and Persians at the Apadana, Persepolis.
Iconic relief of lion and bull fighting, Apadana of Persepolis
Ruins of the Apadana's columns.
Achaemenid golden bowl with lioness imagery of Mazandaran
Depiction of trees and lotus flowers at the Apadana, Persepolis.
The ruins of Persepolis
Depiction of figures at the Apadana.
A section of the Old Persian part of the trilingual Behistun inscription. Other versions are in Babylonian and Elamite.
Ruins of the Tachara, Persepolis.
A copy of the Behistun inscription in Aramaic on a papyrus. Aramaic was the lingua franca of the empire.
Huma bird capital at Persepolis.
An Achaemenid drinking vessel
Bull capital at Persepolis.
Bas-relief of Farvahar at Persepolis
Ruins of the Hall of the Hundred Columns, Persepolis.
Tomb of Artaxerxes III in Persepolis
Forgotten Empire Exhibition, the British Museum.
The Mausoleum at Halicarnassus, one of the Seven wonders of the ancient world, was built by Greek architects for the local Persian satrap of Caria, Mausolus (Scale model)
Forgotten Empire Exhibition, the British Museum.
Achamenid dynasty timeline
Persepolitan rosette rock relief, kept at the Oriental Institute.
Reconstruction of the Palace of Darius at Susa. The palace served as a model for Persepolis.
alt=Museum display case showing Achaemenid objects.|Achaemenid objects at the Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York, including a bas relief from Persepolis.
Lion on a decorative panel from Darius I the Great's palace, Louvre
A general view of the ruins at Persepolis.
Ruins of Throne Hall, Persepolis
A general view of the ruins at Persepolis.
Apadana Hall, Persian and Median soldiers at Persepolis
A general view of the ruins at Persepolis.
Lateral view of tomb of Cambyses II, Pasargadae, Iran
A general view of the ruins at Persepolis.
Plaque with horned lion-griffins. The Metropolitan Museum of Art

The Royal Road was an ancient highway reorganized and rebuilt by the Persian king Darius the Great (Darius I) of the first (Achaemenid) Persian Empire in the 5th century BC. Darius built the road to facilitate rapid communication on the western part of his large empire from Susa to Sardis.

- Royal Road

Persepolis (, Pārsa; ) was the ceremonial capital of the Achaemenid Empire (c.

- Persepolis

From near Babylon, it is believed to have split into two routes, one traveling northeast then east through Ecbatana and then along the Silk Road (via the Great Khurasan Road), the other continuing east through the future Persian capital Susa and then southeast to Persepolis in the Zagros Mountains.

- Royal Road

The Achaemenid Empire is known for imposing a successful model of centralized, bureaucratic administration via the use of satraps; its multicultural policy; building infrastructure, such as road systems and a postal system; the use of an official language across its territories; and the development of civil services, including its possession of a large, professional army.

- Achaemenid Empire

After invading Achaemenid Persia in 330 BC, Alexander the Great sent the main force of his army to Persepolis by the Royal Road.

- Persepolis

Artaxerxes moved the capital back to Persepolis, which he greatly extended.

- Achaemenid Empire
The map of Achaemenid Empire and the section of the Royal Road noted by Herodotus

2 related topics with Alpha


The relief stone of Darius the Great in the Behistun Inscription

Darius the Great

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The relief stone of Darius the Great in the Behistun Inscription
Lineage of Darius the Great according to the Behistun Inscription.
Darius the Great, by Eugène Flandin (1840)
Eastern border of the Achaemenid Empire
Ethnicities of the Achaemenid Army, on the tomb of Darius I. The nationalities mentioned in the DNa inscription are also depicted on the upper registers of all the tombs at Naqsh-e Rustam, starting with the tomb of Darius I. The ethnicities on the tomb of Darius further have trilingual labels on the lintel directly over them for identification, collectively known as the DNe inscription. One of the best preserved friezes, identical in content, is that of Xerxes I.
Map showing key sites during the Persian invasions of Greece
Tomb of Darius at Naqsh-e Rostam
Volume of annual tribute per district, in the Achaemenid Empire.
Gold daric, minted at Sardis
Reconstruction drawing of the Palace of Darius in Susa
The ruins of Tachara palace in Persepolis
thumb|upright|Egyptian statue of Darius I, as Pharaoh of the Twenty-seventh Dynasty of Egypt;<ref>{{cite book |last1=Razmjou |first1=Shahrokh |title=Ars orientalis; the arts of Islam and the East |date=1954 |publisher=Freer Gallery of Art |pages=81–101 |url=}}</ref> 522–486 BC; greywacke; height: 2.46 m;<ref>{{cite book |last1=Manley|first1=Bill|title=Egyptian Art|year=2017|publisher=Thames & Hudson|pages=280|isbn=978-0-500-20428-3}}</ref> National Museum of Iran (Teheran)
Darius as Pharaoh of Egypt at the Temple of Hibis
Relief showing Darius I offering lettuces to the Egyptian deity Amun-Ra Kamutef, Temple of Hibis

Darius I ( ; c. 550 – 486 BCE), commonly known as Darius the Great, was a Persian ruler who served as the third King of Kings of the Achaemenid Empire, reigning from 522 BCE until his death in 486 BCE.

He also put the empire in better standing by building roads and introducing standard weighing and measuring systems.

Darius worked on other construction projects throughout the empire, primarily focusing on Susa, Pasargadae, Persepolis, Babylon and Egypt.

Alexander riding Bucephalus on a Roman mosaic

Alexander the Great

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King of the ancient Greek kingdom of Macedon.

King of the ancient Greek kingdom of Macedon.

Alexander riding Bucephalus on a Roman mosaic
Alexander III riding Bucephalus on a Roman mosaic
Map of The Kingdom of Macedon in 336 BC, birthplace of Alexander
Roman medallion depicting Olympias, Alexander's mother
Archaeological Site of Pella, Greece, Alexander's birthplace
Philip II of Macedon, Alexander's father
Battle plan from the Battle of Chaeronea
Pausanius assassinates Philip II, Alexander's father, during his procession into the theatre
The emblema of the Stag Hunt Mosaic, c. 300 BC, from Pella; the figure on the right is possibly Alexander the Great due to the date of the mosaic along with the depicted upsweep of his centrally-parted hair (anastole); the figure on the left wielding a double-edged axe (associated with Hephaistos) is perhaps Hephaestion, one of Alexander's loyal companions.
The Macedonian phalanx at the "Battle of the Carts" against the Thracians in 335 BC
Map of Alexander's empire and his route
Gérard Audran after Charles LeBrun, 'Alexander Entering Babylon,' original print first published 1675, engraving, Department of Image Collections, National Gallery of Art Library, Washington, DC.
Alexander Cuts the Gordian Knot (1767) by Jean-Simon Berthélemy
Name of Alexander the Great in Egyptian hieroglyphs (written from right to left), c. 332 BC, Egypt. Louvre Museum.
Site of the Persian Gate in modern-day Iran; the road was built in the 1990s.
Administrative document from Bactria dated to the seventh year of Alexander's reign (324 BC), bearing the first known use of the "Alexandros" form of his name, Khalili Collection of Aramaic Documents
The Killing of Cleitus, by André Castaigne (1898–1899)
Silver tetradrachm of Alexander the Great found in Byblos (ca 330-300 bc.) (BnF 1998–859; 17,33g; Byblos, Price 3426b)
The Phalanx Attacking the Centre in the Battle of the Hydaspes by André Castaigne (1898–1899)
Alexander's invasion of the Indian subcontinent
Porus surrenders to Alexander
Asia in 323 BC, the Nanda Empire and the Gangaridai of the Indian subcontinent, in relation to Alexander's Empire and neighbours
Alexander (left) and Hephaestion (right): Both were connected by a tight friendship
Alexander at the Tomb of Cyrus the Great, by Pierre-Henri de Valenciennes (1796)
A Babylonian astronomical diary (c. 323–322 BC) recording the death of Alexander (British Museum, London)
19th-century depiction of Alexander's funeral procession, based on the description by Diodorus Siculus
Detail of Alexander on the Alexander Sarcophagus
Kingdoms of the Diadochi in 301 BC: the Ptolemaic Kingdom (dark blue), the Seleucid Empire (yellow), Kingdom of Pergamon (orange), and Kingdom of Macedon (green). Also shown are the Roman Republic (light blue), the Carthaginian Republic (purple), and the Kingdom of Epirus (red).
A coin of Alexander the Great struck by Balakros or his successor Menes, both former somatophylakes (bodyguards) of Alexander, when they held the position of satrap of Cilicia in the lifetime of Alexander, circa 333-327 BC. The obverse shows Heracles, ancestor of the Macedonian royal line and the reverse shows a seated Zeus Aëtophoros.
The Battle of the Granicus, 334 BC
The Battle of Issus, 333 BC
Alexander Cameo by Pyrgoteles
Alexander portrayal by Lysippos
Alexander (left), wearing a kausia and fighting an Asiatic lion with his friend Craterus (detail); late 4th century BC mosaic, Pella Museum
A Roman copy of an original 3rd century BC Greek bust depicting Alexander the Great, Ny Carlsberg Glyptotek, Copenhagen
A mural in Pompeii, depicting the marriage of Alexander to Barsine (Stateira) in 324 BC; the couple are apparently dressed as Ares and Aphrodite.
The Hellenistic world view: world map of Eratosthenes (276–194 BC), using information from the campaigns of Alexander and his successors
Plan of Alexandria c. 30 BC
Dedication of Alexander the Great to Athena Polias at Priene, now housed in the British Museum
Alexander's empire was the largest state of its time, covering approximately 5.2 million square km.
The Buddha, in Greco-Buddhist style, 1st to 2nd century AD, Gandhara, northern Pakistan. Tokyo National Museum.
This medallion was produced in Imperial Rome, demonstrating the influence of Alexander's memory. Walters Art Museum, Baltimore.
Alexander in a 14th-century Armenian manuscript
Alexander in a 14th-century Byzantine manuscript
Alexander conquering the air. Jean Wauquelin, Les faits et conquêtes d'Alexandre le Grand, 1448–1449
Folio from the Shahnameh showing Alexander praying at the Kaaba, mid-16th century
Detail of a 16th-century Islamic painting depicting Alexander being lowered in a glass submersible
A Hellenistic bust of a young Alexander the Great, possibly from Ptolemaic Egypt, 2nd-1st century BC, now in the British Museum
A fresco depicting a hunt scene at the tomb of Philip II, Alexander's father, at the Archaeological Site of Aigai, the only known depiction of Alexander made during his lifetime, 330s BC

In 334 BC, he invaded the Achaemenid Persian Empire and began a series of campaigns that lasted for 10 years.

He sent the bulk of his army to the Persian ceremonial capital of Persepolis via the Persian Royal Road.