Ptolemaic Egypt circa 235 BC. The green areas were lost to the Seleucid Empire thirty five years later.
The Achaemenid Empire at its greatest territorial extent under the rule of Darius I (522 BC–486 BC)
Ptolemy as Pharaoh of Egypt, British Museum, London
Family tree of the Achaemenid rulers.
Ptolemaic Egypt circa 235 BC. The green areas were lost to the Seleucid Empire thirty five years later.
Map of the expansion process of Achaemenid territories
A bust depicting Pharaoh Ptolemy II Philadelphus 309–246 BC
Cyrus the Great is said, in the Bible, to have liberated the Hebrew captives in Babylon to resettle and rebuild Jerusalem, earning him an honored place in Judaism.
Hellenistic bust of Ptolemy I Soter, 3rd century BC, now in the Louvre
The tomb of Cyrus the Great, founder of the Achaemenid Empire. At Pasargadae, Iran.
Coin depicting Pharaoh Ptolemy III Euergetes. Ptolemaic Kingdom.
The Achaemenid Empire at its greatest extent, c. 500 BC
Ptolemaic Empire in 200 BC, alongside neighboring powers.
The Persian queen Atossa, daughter of Cyrus the Great, sister-wife of Cambyses II, Darius the Great's wife, and mother of Xerxes the Great
Ring of Ptolemy VI Philometor as Egyptian pharaoh. Louvre Museum.
Map showing events of the first phases of the Greco-Persian Wars
A mosaic from Thmuis (Mendes), Egypt, created by the Hellenistic artist Sophilos (signature) in about 200 BC, now in the Greco-Roman Museum in Alexandria, Egypt; the woman depicted is Queen Berenice II (who ruled jointly with her husband Ptolemy III Euergetes) as the personification of Alexandria, with her crown showing a ship's prow, while she sports an anchor-shaped brooch for her robes, symbols of the Ptolemaic Kingdom's naval prowess and successes in the Mediterranean Sea.
Greek hoplite and Persian warrior depicted fighting, on an ancient kylix, 5th century BC
Coin of Cleopatra VII, with her image
Achaemenid king fighting hoplites, seal and seal holder, Cimmerian Bosporus.
Ptolemy XII, father of Cleopatra VII, making offerings to Egyptian Gods, in the Temple of Hathor, Dendera, Egypt
Achaemenid gold ornaments, Brooklyn Museum
Relief of Ptolemaic Queen Cleopatra VII and Caesarion, Dendera Temple, Egypt.
Persian Empire timeline including important events and territorial evolution – 550–323 BC
Bust of Roman Nobleman, c. 30 BC – 50 AD, 54.51, Brooklyn Museum
Relief showing Darius I offering lettuces to the Egyptian deity Amun-Ra Kamutef, Temple of Hibis
Ptolemaic mosaic of a dog and askos wine vessel from Hellenistic Egypt, dated 200–150 BC, Greco-Roman Museum of Alexandria, Egypt
The 24 countries subject to the Achaemenid Empire at the time of Darius, on the Egyptian statue of Darius I.
Faience sistrum with head of Hathor with bovine ears from the reign of Ptolemy I. Color is intermediate between traditional Egyptian color to colors more characteristic of Ptolemaic-era faience.
The Battle of Issus, between Alexander the Great on horseback to the left, and Darius III in the chariot to the right, represented in a Pompeii mosaic dated 1st century BC – Naples National Archaeological Museum
Relief from the temple of Kom Ombo depicting Ptolemy VIII receiving the sed symbol from Horus.
Alexander's first victory over Darius, the Persian king depicted in medieval European style in the 15th century romance The History of Alexander's Battles
Temple of Kom Ombo constructed in Upper Egypt in 180–47 BC by the Ptolemies and modified by the Romans. It is a double temple with two sets of structures dedicated to two separate deities.
Frataraka dynasty ruler Vadfradad I (Autophradates I). 3rd century BC. Istakhr (Persepolis) mint.
Gold coin with visage of Arsinoe II wearing divine diadem
Dārēv I (Darios I) used for the first time the title of mlk (King). 2nd century BC.
Bronze allegorical group of a Ptolemy (identifiable by his diadem) overcoming an adversary, in Hellenistic style, ca early 2nd century BC (Walters Art Museum)
Winged sphinx from the Palace of Darius in Susa, Louvre
Characteristic Indian etched carnelian bead, found in Ptolemaic Period excavations at Saft el Henna. This is a marker of trade relations with India. Petrie Museum.
Daric of Artaxerxes II
Example of a large Ptolemaic bronze coin minted during the reign of Ptolemy V.
Volume of annual tribute per district, in the Achaemenid Empire, according to Herodotus.
248x248px
Achaemenid tax collector, calculating on an Abax or Abacus, according to the Darius Vase (340–320 BC).
Detailed map of the Ptolemaic Egypt.
Letter from the Satrap of Bactria to the governor of Khulmi, concerning camel keepers, 353 BC
Egyptian faience torso of a king, for an applique on wood
Relief of throne-bearing soldiers in their native clothing at the tomb of Xerxes I, demonstrating the satrapies under his rule.
Alexander the Great, 356–323 BC Brooklyn Museum
Achaemenid king killing a Greek hoplite. c. 500 BC–475 BC, at the time of Xerxes I. Metropolitan Museum of Art.
A detail of the Nile mosaic of Palestrina, showing Ptolemaic Egypt c. 100 BC
Persian soldiers (left) fighting against Scythians. Cylinder seal impression.
A stele of Dioskourides, dated 2nd century BC, showing a Ptolemaic thureophoros soldier. It is a characteristic example of the "Romanization" of the Ptolemaic army.
Color reconstruction of Achaemenid infantry on the Alexander Sarcophagus (end of 4th century BC).
Ptolemaic Era bust of a man, circa 300–250 BC, Altes Museum
Seal of Darius the Great hunting in a chariot, reading "I am Darius, the Great King" in Old Persian (𐎠𐎭𐎶𐏐𐎭𐎠𐎼𐎹𐎺𐎢𐏁𐎴 𐏋, "adam Dārayavaʰuš xšāyaθiya"), as well as in Elamite and Babylonian. The word "great" only appears in Babylonian. British Museum.
Achaemenid calvalryman in the satrapy of Hellespontine Phrygia, Altıkulaç Sarcophagus, early 4th century BC.
Armoured cavalry: Achaemenid Dynast of Hellespontine Phrygia attacking a Greek psiloi, Altıkulaç Sarcophagus, early 4th century BC.
Reconstitution of Persian landing ships at the Battle of Marathon.
Greek ships against Achaemenid ships at the Battle of Salamis.
Iconic relief of lion and bull fighting, Apadana of Persepolis
Achaemenid golden bowl with lioness imagery of Mazandaran
The ruins of Persepolis
A section of the Old Persian part of the trilingual Behistun inscription. Other versions are in Babylonian and Elamite.
A copy of the Behistun inscription in Aramaic on a papyrus. Aramaic was the lingua franca of the empire.
An Achaemenid drinking vessel
Bas-relief of Farvahar at Persepolis
Tomb of Artaxerxes III in Persepolis
The Mausoleum at Halicarnassus, one of the Seven wonders of the ancient world, was built by Greek architects for the local Persian satrap of Caria, Mausolus (Scale model)
Achamenid dynasty timeline
Reconstruction of the Palace of Darius at Susa. The palace served as a model for Persepolis.
Lion on a decorative panel from Darius I the Great's palace, Louvre
Ruins of Throne Hall, Persepolis
Apadana Hall, Persian and Median soldiers at Persepolis
Lateral view of tomb of Cambyses II, Pasargadae, Iran
Plaque with horned lion-griffins. The Metropolitan Museum of Art

Alexander the Great conquered Persian-controlled Egypt in 332 BC during his campaigns against the Achaemenid Empire.

- Ptolemaic Kingdom

Alexander the Great, an ardent admirer of Cyrus the Great, conquered most of the Achaemenid Empire by 330 BC. Upon Alexander's death, most of the former territory of the empire fell to the rule of the Ptolemaic Kingdom and the Seleucid Empire.

- Achaemenid Empire

13 related topics

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Alexander riding Bucephalus on a Roman mosaic

Alexander the Great

King of the ancient Greek kingdom of Macedon.

King of the ancient Greek kingdom of Macedon.

Alexander riding Bucephalus on a Roman mosaic
Alexander III riding Bucephalus on a Roman mosaic
Map of The Kingdom of Macedon in 336 BC, birthplace of Alexander
Roman medallion depicting Olympias, Alexander's mother
Archaeological Site of Pella, Greece, Alexander's birthplace
Philip II of Macedon, Alexander's father
Battle plan from the Battle of Chaeronea
Pausanius assassinates Philip II, Alexander's father, during his procession into the theatre
The emblema of the Stag Hunt Mosaic, c. 300 BC, from Pella; the figure on the right is possibly Alexander the Great due to the date of the mosaic along with the depicted upsweep of his centrally-parted hair (anastole); the figure on the left wielding a double-edged axe (associated with Hephaistos) is perhaps Hephaestion, one of Alexander's loyal companions.
The Macedonian phalanx at the "Battle of the Carts" against the Thracians in 335 BC
Map of Alexander's empire and his route
Gérard Audran after Charles LeBrun, 'Alexander Entering Babylon,' original print first published 1675, engraving, Department of Image Collections, National Gallery of Art Library, Washington, DC.
Alexander Cuts the Gordian Knot (1767) by Jean-Simon Berthélemy
Name of Alexander the Great in Egyptian hieroglyphs (written from right to left), c. 332 BC, Egypt. Louvre Museum.
Site of the Persian Gate in modern-day Iran; the road was built in the 1990s.
Administrative document from Bactria dated to the seventh year of Alexander's reign (324 BC), bearing the first known use of the "Alexandros" form of his name, Khalili Collection of Aramaic Documents
The Killing of Cleitus, by André Castaigne (1898–1899)
Silver tetradrachm of Alexander the Great found in Byblos (ca 330-300 bc.) (BnF 1998–859; 17,33g; Byblos, Price 3426b)
The Phalanx Attacking the Centre in the Battle of the Hydaspes by André Castaigne (1898–1899)
Alexander's invasion of the Indian subcontinent
Porus surrenders to Alexander
Asia in 323 BC, the Nanda Empire and the Gangaridai of the Indian subcontinent, in relation to Alexander's Empire and neighbours
Alexander (left) and Hephaestion (right): Both were connected by a tight friendship
Alexander at the Tomb of Cyrus the Great, by Pierre-Henri de Valenciennes (1796)
A Babylonian astronomical diary (c. 323–322 BC) recording the death of Alexander (British Museum, London)
19th-century depiction of Alexander's funeral procession, based on the description by Diodorus Siculus
Detail of Alexander on the Alexander Sarcophagus
Kingdoms of the Diadochi in 301 BC: the Ptolemaic Kingdom (dark blue), the Seleucid Empire (yellow), Kingdom of Pergamon (orange), and Kingdom of Macedon (green). Also shown are the Roman Republic (light blue), the Carthaginian Republic (purple), and the Kingdom of Epirus (red).
A coin of Alexander the Great struck by Balakros or his successor Menes, both former somatophylakes (bodyguards) of Alexander, when they held the position of satrap of Cilicia in the lifetime of Alexander, circa 333-327 BC. The obverse shows Heracles, ancestor of the Macedonian royal line and the reverse shows a seated Zeus Aëtophoros.
The Battle of the Granicus, 334 BC
The Battle of Issus, 333 BC
Alexander Cameo by Pyrgoteles
Alexander portrayal by Lysippos
Alexander (left), wearing a kausia and fighting an Asiatic lion with his friend Craterus (detail); late 4th century BC mosaic, Pella Museum
A Roman copy of an original 3rd century BC Greek bust depicting Alexander the Great, Ny Carlsberg Glyptotek, Copenhagen
A mural in Pompeii, depicting the marriage of Alexander to Barsine (Stateira) in 324 BC; the couple are apparently dressed as Ares and Aphrodite.
The Hellenistic world view: world map of Eratosthenes (276–194 BC), using information from the campaigns of Alexander and his successors
Plan of Alexandria c. 30 BC
Dedication of Alexander the Great to Athena Polias at Priene, now housed in the British Museum
Alexander's empire was the largest state of its time, covering approximately 5.2 million square km.
The Buddha, in Greco-Buddhist style, 1st to 2nd century AD, Gandhara, northern Pakistan. Tokyo National Museum.
This medallion was produced in Imperial Rome, demonstrating the influence of Alexander's memory. Walters Art Museum, Baltimore.
Alexander in a 14th-century Armenian manuscript
Alexander in a 14th-century Byzantine manuscript
Alexander conquering the air. Jean Wauquelin, Les faits et conquêtes d'Alexandre le Grand, 1448–1449
Folio from the Shahnameh showing Alexander praying at the Kaaba, mid-16th century
Detail of a 16th-century Islamic painting depicting Alexander being lowered in a glass submersible

In 334 BC, he invaded the Achaemenid Persian Empire and began a series of campaigns that lasted for 10 years.

During his stay in Egypt, he founded Alexandria, which would become the prosperous capital of the Ptolemaic Kingdom after his death.

The Seleucid Empire (light blue) in 281 BC on the eve of the murder of Seleucus I Nicator

Seleucid Empire

Greek state in Western Asia that existed during the Hellenistic Period from 312 BC to 63 BC. The Seleucid Empire was founded by the Macedonian general Seleucus I Nicator, following the division of the Macedonian Empire (which had originally been founded by Alexander the Great).

Greek state in Western Asia that existed during the Hellenistic Period from 312 BC to 63 BC. The Seleucid Empire was founded by the Macedonian general Seleucus I Nicator, following the division of the Macedonian Empire (which had originally been founded by Alexander the Great).

The Seleucid Empire (light blue) in 281 BC on the eve of the murder of Seleucus I Nicator
"Chandra Gupta Maurya entertains his bride from Babylon": a conjectural interpretation of the "marriage agreement" between the Seleucids and Chandragupta Maurya, related by Appian
The Seleucid Empire (light blue) in 281 BC on the eve of the murder of Seleucus I Nicator
Coin of Seleucus I Nicator
In Bactria, the satrap Diodotus asserted independence to form the Greco-Bactrian kingdom c. 245 BC.
Drachm of the Frataraka ruler Vahbarz (Oborzos), thought to have initiated the independence of Persis from the Seleucid Empire. The coin shows on the reverse an Achaemenid king slaying an armoured, possibly Greek or Macedonian, soldier. This possibly refers to the events related by Polyainos (Strat. 7.40), in which Vahbarz (Oborzos) is said to have killed 3000 Seleucid settlers.
Silver coin of Antiochus III the Great.
The Seleucid Empire in 200 BC (before expansion into Anatolia and Greece).
The reduced empire (titled: Syria, Kingdom of the Seleucids) and the expanded states of Pergamum and Rhodes, after the defeat of Antiochus III by Rome. Circa 188 BC.
The Hellenistic Prince, a bronze statue originally thought to be a Seleucid, or Attalus II of Pergamon, now considered a portrait of a Roman general, made by a Greek artist working in Rome in the 2nd century BC.
Coin of Antiochus IV Epiphanes.
Seleucid Syria in early 124 BC under Alexander II Zabinas, who ruled the country with the exception of the city of Ptolemais
Seleucid Kingdom in 87 BC
Bagadates I (Minted 290–280 BC) was the first native Seleucid satrap to be appointed.
Seleucid Bronze Coin depicting Antiochus III with Laureate head of Apollo Circa. 200 BCE
Price of barley and dates per tonne
Episodes of Seleucid dispoliation from Michael J. Taylor's Sacred Plunder

The empire's western territories were repeatedly contested with Ptolemaic Egypt—a rival Hellenistic state.

Alexander, who quickly conquered the Persian Empire under its last Achaemenid dynast, Darius III, died young in 323 BC, leaving an expansive empire of partly Hellenised culture without an adult heir.

The Kingdom of Macedonia in 336 BC (orange)

Macedonia (ancient kingdom)

Ancient kingdom on the periphery of Archaic and Classical Greece, and later the dominant state of Hellenistic Greece.

Ancient kingdom on the periphery of Archaic and Classical Greece, and later the dominant state of Hellenistic Greece.

The Kingdom of Macedonia in 336 BC (orange)
The entrance to one of the royal tombs at Vergina, a UNESCO World Heritage Site
The Kingdom of Macedonia in 336 BC (orange)
A silver octadrachm of Alexander I of Macedon ((r. 498 – 454)), minted c. 465–460 BC, showing an equestrian figure wearing a chlamys (short cloak) and petasos (head cap) while holding two spears and leading a horse
Macedon (orange) during the Peloponnesian War around 431BC, with Athens and the Delian League (yellow), Sparta and Peloponnesian League (red), independent states (blue), and the Persian Achaemenid Empire (purple)
A Macedonian didrachm minted during the reign of Archelaus I of Macedon ((r. 413 – 399))
A silver stater of Amyntas III of Macedon ((r. 393 – 370))
Map of the Kingdom of Macedon at the death of PhilipII in 336BC (light blue), with the original territory that existed in 431BC (red outline), and dependent states (yellow)
Alexander's empire and his route
The Stag Hunt Mosaic, c.300BC, from Pella; the figure on the right is possibly Alexander the Great due to the date of the mosaic along with the depicted upsweep of his centrally-parted hair (anastole); the figure on the left wielding a double-edged axe (associated with Hephaistos) is perhaps Hephaestion, one of Alexander's loyal companions.
A golden stater of Philip III Arrhidaeus ((r. 323 – 317)) bearing images of Athena (left) and Nike (right)
Paintings of Hellenistic-era military arms and armor from a tomb in ancient Mieza (modern-day Lefkadia), Imathia, Central Macedonia, Greece, 2nd centuryBC
The Temple of Apollo at Corinth, built c.540BC, with the Acrocorinth (i.e. the acropolis of Corinth that once held a Macedonian garrison) seen in the background
A tetradrachm minted during the reign of Antigonus III Doson ((r. 229 – 221)), possibly at Amphipolis, bearing the portrait image of Poseidon on the obverse and on the reverse a scene depicting Apollo sitting on the prow of a ship
The Kingdom of Macedonia (orange) under PhilipV ((r. 221 – 179)), with Macedonian dependent states (dark yellow), the Seleucid Empire (bright yellow), Roman protectorates (dark green), the Kingdom of Pergamon (light green), independent states (light purple), and possessions of the Ptolemaic Empire (violet purple)
A tetradrachm of Philip V of Macedon ((r. 221 – 179)), with the king's portrait on the obverse and Athena Alkidemos brandishing a thunderbolt on the reverse
Bronze bust of Eumenes II of Pergamon, a Roman copy of a Hellenistic Greek original, from the Villa of the Papyri in Herculaneum
The Vergina Sun, the 16-ray star covering the royal burial larnax of Philip II of Macedon ((r. 359 – 336)), discovered in the tomb of Vergina, formerly ancient Aigai
Hades abducting Persephone, fresco in the small Macedonian royal tomb at Vergina, Macedonia, Greece, c.340BC
Fresco of an ancient Macedonian soldier (thorakites) wearing chainmail armor and bearing a thureos shield, 3rd centuryBC, İstanbul Archaeology Museums
A mosaic of the Kasta Tomb in Amphipolis depicting the abduction of Persephone by Pluto, 4thcenturyBC
The Lion of Amphipolis in Amphipolis, northern Greece, a 4th-centuryBC marble tomb sculpture erected in honor of Laomedon of Mytilene, a general who served under Alexander the Great
Alexander (left), wearing a kausia and fighting an Asiatic lion with his friend Craterus (detail); late 4th-centuryBC mosaic, Pella Museum.
Portrait bust of Aristotle, an Imperial Roman (1st or 2nd centuryAD) copy of a lost bronze sculpture made by Lysippos
A fresco showing Hades and Persephone riding in a chariot, from the tomb of Queen Eurydice I of Macedon at Vergina, Greece, 4thcenturyBC
A banquet scene from a Macedonian tomb of Agios Athanasios, Thessaloniki, 4thcenturyBC; shown are six men reclining on couches, with food arranged on nearby tables, a male servant in attendance, and female musicians providing entertainment.
Ruins of the ancient theatre in Maroneia, Rhodope, East Macedonia and Thrace, Greece
Tetradrachms (above) and drachms (below) issued during the reign of Alexander the Great, now in the Numismatic Museum of Athens
The Alexander Mosaic, a Roman mosaic from Pompeii, Italy, c. 100 BC

Before the 4th century BC, Macedonia was a small kingdom outside of the area dominated by the great city-states of Athens, Sparta and Thebes, and briefly subordinate to Achaemenid Persia.

After Alexander's death in 323BC, the ensuing wars of the Diadochi, and the partitioning of Alexander's short-lived empire, Macedonia remained a Greek cultural and political center in the Mediterranean region along with Ptolemaic Egypt, the Seleucid Empire, and the Kingdom of Pergamon.

Egypt

Transcontinental country spanning the northeast corner of Africa and southwest corner of Asia via a land bridge formed by the Sinai Peninsula.

Transcontinental country spanning the northeast corner of Africa and southwest corner of Asia via a land bridge formed by the Sinai Peninsula.

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Temple of Derr ruins in 1960
The Giza Necropolis is the oldest of the ancient Wonders and the only one still in existence.
Egyptian soldier of the Achaemenid army, c. 480 BCE. Xerxes I tomb relief.
The Ptolemaic Queen Cleopatra VII and her son by Julius Caesar, Caesarion, at the Temple of Dendera
The Amr ibn al-As mosque in Cairo, recognized as the oldest in Africa
The Ibn Tulun Mosque in Cairo, of Ahmad Ibn Tulun
The Al-Hakim Mosque in Cairo, of Al-Hakim bi-Amr Allah, the sixth caliph, as renovated by Dawoodi Bohra
Napoleon defeated the Mamluk troops in the Battle of the Pyramids, 21 July 1798, painted by Lejeune.
Egypt under Muhammad Ali dynasty
Muhammad Ali was the founder of the Muhammad Ali dynasty and the first Khedive of Egypt and Sudan.
The battle of Tel el-Kebir in 1882 during the Anglo-Egyptian War
Female nationalists demonstrating in Cairo, 1919
Fuad I of Egypt with Edward, Prince of Wales, 1932
British infantry near El Alamein, 17 July 1942
Egyptian President Gamal Abdel Nasser in Mansoura, 1960
Smoke rises from oil tanks beside the Suez Canal hit during the initial Anglo-French assault on Egypt, 5 November 1956.
Egyptian tanks advancing in the Sinai desert during the Yom Kippur War, 1973
Celebrating the signing of the 1978 Camp David Accords: Menachem Begin, Jimmy Carter, Anwar Sadat
Cairo grew into a metropolitan area with a population of over 20 million.
Women in Cairo wear face masks during the COVID-19 pandemic in Egypt in March 2020.
Egypt's topography
The Qattara Depression in Egypt's north west
The Eastern Imperial Eagle is the national animal of Egypt.
Abdel Fattah el-Sisi is the current President of Egypt.
Egyptian honor guard soldiers during a visit of U.S. Navy Adm. Mike Mullen
President el-Sisi with US President Donald Trump, 21 May 2017
The High Court of Justice in Downtown Cairo
Protesters from the Third Square movement, which supported neither the former Morsi government nor the Armed Forces, 31 July 2013
Prominent Egyptian dissident Alaa Abd El-Fattah was sentenced to five years of imprisonment in December 2021.
1. Matrouh
2. Alexandria
3. Beheira
4. Kafr El Sheikh
5. Dakahlia
6. Damietta
7. Port Said
8. North Sinai
9. Gharbia
10. Monufia
11. Qalyubia
12. Sharqia
13. Ismailia
14. Giza
15. Faiyum
16. Cairo
17. Suez
18. South Sinai
19. Beni Suef
20. Minya
21. New Valley
22. Asyut
23. Red Sea
24. Sohag
25. Qena
26. Luxor
27. Aswan
Change in per capita GDP of Egypt, 1820–2018. Figures are inflation-adjusted to 2011 International dollars.
Smart Village, a business district established in 2001 to facilitate the growth of high-tech businesses
The Suez Canal
Tourists riding an Arabian camel in front of Pyramid of Khafre. The Giza Necropolis is one of Egypt's main tourist attractions.
An offshore platform in the Darfeel Gas Field
The Cairo Metro (line 2)
The Suez Canal Bridge
Green irrigated land along the Nile amidst the desert and in the delta
Egypt's population density (people per km2)
St. Mark Coptic Cathedral in Alexandria
Cairo University
Egyptian literacy rate among the population aged 15 years and older by UNESCO Institute of Statistics
Children's Cancer Hospital Egypt
Al-Azhar Park is listed as one of the world's sixty great public spaces by the Project for Public Spaces.
The "weighing of the heart" scene from the Book of the Dead
Naguib Mahfouz, the first Arabic-language writer to win the Nobel Prize in Literature
Salah Zulfikar, film star
Soad Hosny, film star
Tanoura dancers performing in Wekalet El Ghoury, Cairo
The Egyptian Museum of Cairo
Tutankhamun's burial mask is one of the major attractions of the Egyptian Museum of Cairo.
Kushari, one of Egypt's national dishes
A crowd at Cairo Stadium watching the Egypt national football team

In 525 BCE, the powerful Achaemenid Persians, led by Cambyses II, began their conquest of Egypt, eventually capturing the pharaoh Psamtik III at the battle of Pelusium.

The Ptolemaic Kingdom was a powerful Hellenistic state, extending from southern Syria in the east, to Cyrene to the west, and south to the frontier with Nubia.

The Parthenon, a temple dedicated to Athena, located on the Acropolis in Athens, is one of the most representative symbols of the culture and sophistication of the ancient Greeks.

Ancient Greece

Northeastern Mediterranean civilization, existing from the Greek Dark Ages of the 12th–9th centuries BC to the end of classical antiquity (c.

Northeastern Mediterranean civilization, existing from the Greek Dark Ages of the 12th–9th centuries BC to the end of classical antiquity (c.

The Parthenon, a temple dedicated to Athena, located on the Acropolis in Athens, is one of the most representative symbols of the culture and sophistication of the ancient Greeks.
The Victorious Youth (c. 310 BC), is a rare, water-preserved bronze sculpture from ancient Greece.
Dipylon Vase of the late Geometric period, or the beginning of the Archaic period, c. 750 BC.
Early Athenian coin, depicting the head of Athena on the obverse and her owl on the reverse – 5th century BC
Map showing events of the first phases of the Greco-Persian Wars.
Delian League ("Athenian Empire"), immediately before the Peloponnesian War in 431 BC
Alexander Mosaic, National Archaeological Museum, Naples.
Map showing the major regions of mainland ancient Greece and adjacent "barbarian" lands.
Greek cities & colonies c. undefined 550 BC (in red color)
Marble bust of Pericles with a Corinthian helmet, Roman copy of a Greek original, Museo Chiaramonti, Vatican Museums; Pericles was a key populist political figure in the development of the radical Athenian democracy.
Inheritance law, part of the Law Code of Gortyn, Crete, fragment of the 11th column. Limestone, 5th century BC
Fresco of dancing Peucetian women in the Tomb of the Dancers in Ruvo di Puglia, 4th–5th century BC
Gravestone of a woman with her slave child-attendant, c. undefined 100 BC
Mosaic from Pompeii depicting Plato's academy
Greek hoplite and Persian warrior depicted fighting, on an ancient kylix, 5th century BC
The carved busts of four ancient Greek philosophers, on display in the British Museum. From left to right: Socrates, Antisthenes, Chrysippus, and Epicurus.
The ancient Theatre of Epidaurus, 4th century BC
A scene from the Iliad: Hypnos and Thanatos carrying the body of Sarpedon from the battlefield of Troy; detail from an Attic white-ground lekythos, c. 440 BC.
The Antikythera mechanism was an analog computer from 150 to 100 BC designed to calculate the positions of astronomical objects.
The Temple of Hera at Selinunte, Sicily
Mount Olympus, home of the Twelve Olympians

The great capitals of Hellenistic culture were Alexandria in the Ptolemaic Kingdom and Antioch in the Seleucid Empire.

To fight the enormous armies of the Achaemenid Empire was effectively beyond the capabilities of a single city-state.

Bust of Seleucus I Nicator ("Victor"; c. undefined 358 – 281 BCE), the last of the original Diadochi.

Diadochi

Diadochi LA.svg into several kingdoms after his death, a legacy which reigned on and continued the influence of ancient Greek culture abroad for over 300 more years. This map depicts the kingdoms of the Diadochi c. 301 BC, after the Battle of Ipsus. The five kingdoms of the Diadochi were:

Diadochi LA.svg into several kingdoms after his death, a legacy which reigned on and continued the influence of ancient Greek culture abroad for over 300 more years. This map depicts the kingdoms of the Diadochi c. 301 BC, after the Battle of Ipsus. The five kingdoms of the Diadochi were:

Bust of Seleucus I Nicator ("Victor"; c. undefined 358 – 281 BCE), the last of the original Diadochi.
Alexander the Great and Craterus in a lion hunt, mosaic from Pella, Greece, late 4th century BC
The distribution of satrapies in the Macedonian Empire after the Settlement in Babylon (323 BCE).
Paintings of ancient Macedonian soldiers, arms, and armaments, from the tomb of Agios Athanasios, Thessaloniki in Greece, 4th century BCE
Hellenistic kingdoms as they existed in 240 BC, eight decades after the death of Alexander the Great

When Alexander was a teen-ager, Philip was planning a military solution to the contention with the Persian Empire.

Notably in the Ptolemaic Kingdom, it was reported as the lowest aulic rank, under Philos, during the reign of Ptolemy V Epiphanes.

Proto-Greek area of settlement (2200/2100-1900 B.C.) suggested by Katona (2000), Sakelariou (2016, 1980, 1975) and Phylaktopoulos (1975)

Greeks

Ethnic group and nation indigenous to the Eastern Mediterranean and the Black Sea regions, namely Greece, Cyprus, Albania, Italy, Turkey, Egypt and, to a lesser extent, other countries surrounding the Mediterranean Sea.

Ethnic group and nation indigenous to the Eastern Mediterranean and the Black Sea regions, namely Greece, Cyprus, Albania, Italy, Turkey, Egypt and, to a lesser extent, other countries surrounding the Mediterranean Sea.

Proto-Greek area of settlement (2200/2100-1900 B.C.) suggested by Katona (2000), Sakelariou (2016, 1980, 1975) and Phylaktopoulos (1975)
Mycenaean funeral mask known as "Mask of Agamemnon", 16th c. BC
Alexander the Great, whose conquests led to the Hellenistic Age.
The Hellenistic realms c. 300 BC as divided by the Diadochi; the Μacedonian Kingdom of Cassander (green), the Ptolemaic Kingdom (dark blue), the Seleucid Empire (yellow), the areas controlled by Lysimachus (orange) and Epirus (red)
Bust of Cleopatra VII (Altes Museum, Berlin), the last ruler of a Hellenistic Kingdom (apart the Indo-Greek Kingdom)
Scenes of marriage and family life in Constantinople
Emperor Basil II (11th century) is credited with reviving the Byzantine Empire.
Gemistos Plethon, one of the most renowned philosophers of the late Byzantine era, a chief pioneer of the revival of Greek scholarship in Western Europe
The Byzantine scholar and cardinal Basilios Bessarion (1395/1403–1472) played a key role in transmitting classical knowledge to the Western Europe, contributing to the Renaissance
Adamantios Korais, leading figure of the Modern Greek Enlightenment
The cover of Hermes o Logios, a Greek literary publication of the late 18th and early 19th century in Vienna with major contribution to the Modern Greek Enlightenment.
Map showing the major regions of mainland ancient Greece, and adjacent "barbarian" lands.
Alexander the Great in Byzantine Emperor's clothes, by a manuscript depicting scenes from his life (between 1204 and 1453)
Greek diaspora (20th century).
Greek colonization in antiquity.
Distribution of ethnic groups in 1918, National Geographic
Poet Constantine P. Cavafy, a native of Alexandria, Egypt
Early Greek alphabet, c. 8th century BC
Christ Pantocrator mosaic in Hagia Sophia, Istanbul
Renowned Greek soprano Maria Callas
Renowned Greek actress, singer, socialist, activist and politician Melina Mercouri
Aristarchus of Samos was the first known individual to propose a heliocentric system, in the 3rd century BC
The national flag of Greece is commonly used as a symbol for Greeks worldwide
The flag of the Greek Orthodox Church is based on the coat of arms of the Palaiologoi, the last dynasty of the Byzantine Empire.
Aristotle Onassis, the best known Greek shipping magnate worldwide.
Admixture analysis of autosomal SNPs of the Balkan region in a global context on the resolution level of 7 assumed ancestral populations: African (brown), South/West European (light blue), Asian (yellow), Middle Eastern (green), North/East European (dark blue) and Caucasian/Anatolian component (beige).
Factor Correspondence Analysis Comparing Different Individuals from European Ancestry Groups.

In any case, Alexander's toppling of the Achaemenid Empire, after his victories at the battles of the Granicus, Issus and Gaugamela, and his advance as far as modern-day Pakistan and Tajikistan, provided an important outlet for Greek culture, via the creation of colonies and trade routes along the way.

The end is often placed around conquest of Egypt by Rome in 30 BC, although the Indo-Greek kingdoms lasted for a few more decades.

Partial reconstruction of the Nereid Monument at Xanthos in Lycia, c. 390–380 BC.

Lycia

Geopolitical region in Anatolia in what are now the provinces of Antalya and Muğla on the southern coast of Turkey, bordering the Mediterranean Sea, and Burdur Province inland.

Geopolitical region in Anatolia in what are now the provinces of Antalya and Muğla on the southern coast of Turkey, bordering the Mediterranean Sea, and Burdur Province inland.

Partial reconstruction of the Nereid Monument at Xanthos in Lycia, c. 390–380 BC.
Inscribed Xanthian Obelisk (c. 400 BC), a funerary pillar for a sarcophagus that probably belonged to Dynast Kheriga.
Lycia coin, c. 520–470 BC.
Probable depiction of the Lycian ruler Kybernis (520–480 BC), Harpy Tomb. Archaic Greek style.
The "Harpy Tomb" of Kybernis, a solid sandstone pillar with the sarcophagus of Kybernis on top (c. 480 BC).
Lycian dignitary in Achaemenid style, at the Karaburun tomb near Elmalı, Lycia, c. 475 BC.
Kuprlli (480–440 BC) ruled at the time of the Athenian alliance. Head of Karneios or Zeus-Ammon and Triskeles. KO-𐊓-P(ΛΛE) around.
Silver Drachm of Trajan from Lycia, 98–99 AD, minted during Roman rule.
The Roman theater in Pinara.
Roman baths in Olympos.
The Roman Bridge near Limyra in Lycia, one of the oldest segmental arch bridges in the world.
Abandoned Greek city of Kayaköy
Lycia, from Travels in Lycia, Milyas, and the Cibyratis, in company with the late Rev. E. T. Daniell (1842)
Telmessos rock tomb. The sign on site says the tombs date from about 400 BC
Rock-cut tombs in Myra
Ogival rock-cut tomb at Pinara, 4th century BC.
Ancient Lycian tomb in Kaş.
The Tomb of Amyntas in Fethiye.
Ancient Greek theater at Oinoanda.
Lycian tomb in Kaş.
Coin of the dynast of Lycia, Kherei, with Athena on the obverse, and himself wearing the Persian cap on the reverse. 410–390 BC.
Dynast Arbinas, in Persian dress, receiving emissaries. Scene from the upper podium frieze of the Nereid Monument, c. 380 BC.
Portrait of Lycian ruler Mithrapata (ruled 390–370 BC).
Coin of Perikles, last king of Lycia. Circa 380–360 BC.
"Lycian sarcophagus of Sidon", Sidon, end of 5th century BC.

Written records began to be inscribed in stone in the Lycian language (a later form of Luwian) after Lycia's involuntary incorporation into the Achaemenid Empire in the Iron Age.

The citizens of Limyra in return dedicated a monument to Ptolemy, called the Ptolemaion circa 270 BC. By 240 BC Lycia was firmly part of the Ptolemaic Kingdom, centred on Egypt, and remained in their control through 200 BC.

Ruins of the pillared hall of Ramesses II at Mit Rahina

Memphis, Egypt

The ancient capital of Inebu-hedj, the first nome of Lower Egypt that was known as mḥw ("north").

The ancient capital of Inebu-hedj, the first nome of Lower Egypt that was known as mḥw ("north").

Ruins of the pillared hall of Ramesses II at Mit Rahina
Memphis and its necropolis Saqqara as seen from the International Space Station
Ritualistic object depicting the god Nefertem, who was mainly worshipped in Memphis, The Walters Art Museum
Rameses II flanked by Ptah and Sekhmet
Sculpture from the Middle Kingdom restored in the name of Rameses II
Relief representing the High Priest of Ptah, Shoshenq
Ruins of the palace of Apries, in Memphis
Alexander at the Temple of Apis in Memphis, by Andre Castaigne (1898–1899)
Artist's depiction of the western forecourt of the Great Temple of Ptah at Memphis
Column depicting Merenptah making an offering to Ptah
The ruins of the temple of Hathor of Memphis
A statue of the sacred bull, Apis, found at the Serapeum of Saqqara.
Ankhefenmut kneels before the royal cartouche of Siamun, on a lintel from the Temple of Amun in Memphis
The colossus of Rameses II in the open-air museum
The famed stepped Pyramid of Djoser at Saqqara, the Memphis necropolis
The ruins of the palace of Apries, overlooking Memphis
James Rennell's map of Memphis and Cairo in 1799, showing the changes in the course of the Nile river
Statue of Rameses II, uncovered in Memphis by Joseph Hekekyan
Museum worker in the process of cleaning the Rameses II colossus
Depiction of Ptah found on the walls of the Temple of Hathor
The alabaster sphinx found outside the Temple of Ptah
Statue of Rameses II in the open-air museum
Closeup of the sphinx outside the Temple of Ptah
Colossus of Rameses II

According to legends related in the early third century BC by Manetho, a priest and historian who lived in the Ptolemaic Kingdom during the Hellenistic period of ancient Egypt, the city was founded by King Menes.

The Greek historian Herodotus, who tells a similar story, relates that during his visit to the city, the Persians, at that point the suzerains of the country, paid particular attention to the condition of these dams so that the city was saved from the annual flooding.

Stag Hunt Mosaic, 4th century BC

Ancient Macedonians

About the native inhabitants of the historical kingdom of Macedonia.

About the native inhabitants of the historical kingdom of Macedonia.

Stag Hunt Mosaic, 4th century BC
The expansion of ancient Macedon up to the death of Philip II of Macedon ((r. 359–336 BC – undefined))
The positions of the Balkan tribes prior to the Macedonian expansion, according to Nicholas Hammond
The route of the Argeads from Argos, Peloponnese to Macedonia
Expulsion of the Pieres from the region of Olympus to the Pangaion Hills by the Macedonians
Regions of Mygdonia, Edonia, Bisaltia, Crestonia and Bottiaea
The entrance to the "Great Tumulus" Museum at Vergina
An atrium with a pebble-mosaic paving in Pella, the Macedonian capital
The Golden Larnax, at the Museum of Vergina, which contains the remains Philip II of Macedon ((r. 359–336 BC – undefined))
Macedonian coins and medallions depicting Alexander the Great and Philip II
Entrance to the tomb of Philip II of Macedon ((r. 359–336 BC – undefined)).
Aristotle, a philosopher from the Macedonian town of Stageira, tutoring young Alexander in the Royal Palace of Pella. The Macedonian Kings often sought the best education possible for their heirs. Artwork by Jean Leon Gerome Ferris.
Ancient Dion was a centre of the worship of Zeus and the most important spiritual sanctuary of the ancient Macedonians.
The Lion of Amphipolis in Amphipolis, northern Greece, a 4th-century BC marble tomb sculpture erected in honor of Laomedon of Mytilene, a general who served under Alexander the Great
Hades abducting Persephone, fresco in the small Macedonian royal tomb at Vergina, Macedonia, Greece, c. 340 BC
Alexander (left), wearing a kausia and fighting an Asiatic lion with his friend Craterus; late 4th century BC mosaic, Archaeological Museum of Pella, Macedonia
Portrait bust of Aristotle; an Imperial Roman (1st or 2nd century AD) copy of a lost bronze sculpture made by Lysippos.
A fresco showing Hades and Persephone riding in a chariot, from the tomb of Queen Eurydice I of Macedon at Vergina, Greece, 4th century BC
A banquet scene from a Macedonian tomb of Agios Athanasios, Thessaloniki, 4th century BC; six men are shown reclining on couches, with food arranged on nearby tables, a male servant in attendance, and female musicians providing entertainment.
The Pella curse tablet (Greek katadesmos): from Prof. Radcliffe G. Edmonds III, Bryn Mawr College.
An ancient Macedonian funerary stele, with an epigram written at the top, mid 4th century B.C., Vergina, Macedonia, Greece
The Vergina Sun has been proposed as a symbol of ancient Macedonia or of the Argead dynasty by archeologists.
The god Dionysos riding a cheetah, mosaic floor in the "House of Dionysos" at Pella, Greece, c. 330–300 BC
Gold Macedonian stater of Alexander the Great, struck at the Memphis mint, dated c. 332–323 BC. Obv: Goddess Athena wearing Corinthian helmet. Rev: Goddess Nike standing.
Fresco of an ancient Makedonian soldier (thorakitai) wearing chainmail armor and bearing a thureos shield, 3rd century BC
Macedonian terracotta figurine, 3rd century BC; the Persians referred to the Macedonians as "Yaunã Takabara" ("Greeks with hats that look like shields").
A mosaic of the Kasta Tomb in Amphipolis depicting the abduction of Persephone by Pluto, 4th century BC

336 – 323 BC)), the conquest of the Achaemenid Empire, the establishment of the diadochi successor states, and the inauguration of the Hellenistic period in West Asia, Greece, and the broader Mediterranean world.

Following the death of Alexander the Great and the Partition of Babylon in 323 BC, the diadochi successor states such as the Attalid, Ptolemaic and Seleucid Empires were established, ushering in the Hellenistic period of Greece, West Asia and the Hellenized Mediterranean Basin.