A report on Achaemenid Empire and Second Temple

Model of Herod's Temple (the Second Temple after being rebuilt by Herod) at the Israel Museum in Jerusalem, created in 1966 as part of the Holyland Model of Jerusalem; the model was inspired by the writings of Josephus.
The Achaemenid Empire at its greatest territorial extent under the rule of Darius I (522 BC–486 BC)
Rebuilding of the Temple (illustration by Gustave Doré from the 1866 La Sainte Bible)
The Achaemenid Empire at its greatest territorial extent under the rule of Darius I (522 BC–486 BC)
Modern-day reconstruction of Jerusalem during the 10th century BCE, showing Solomon's Temple, which was on the site prior to the building of the Second Temple.
Family tree of the Achaemenid rulers.
Herod's Temple as imagined in the Holyland Model of Jerusalem; east at the bottom.
Map of the expansion process of Achaemenid territories
View of the Temple Mount in 2013; east at the bottom
Cyrus the Great is said, in the Bible, to have liberated the Hebrew captives in Babylon to resettle and rebuild Jerusalem, earning him an honored place in Judaism.
Herod's Temple from The Presentation in the Temple (1910)
The tomb of Cyrus the Great, founder of the Achaemenid Empire. At Pasargadae, Iran.
The Royal Stoa in the Holyland Model of Jerusalem
The Achaemenid Empire at its greatest extent, c. 500 BC
The Foundation Stone under the Dome of the Rock, a possible historical location for the Holy of Holies
The Persian queen Atossa, daughter of Cyrus the Great, sister-wife of Cambyses II, Darius the Great's wife, and mother of Xerxes the Great
Siege and Destruction of Jerusalem by the Romans (1850 painting by David Roberts). Looking southwest
Map showing events of the first phases of the Greco-Persian Wars
Present-day view of the Temple Mount looking southwest, with the golden Dome of the Rock visible center and the Al-Aqsa Mosque to the left beyond some trees. Parts of the Old City of Jerusalem can be seen surrounding the Mount.
Greek hoplite and Persian warrior depicted fighting, on an ancient kylix, 5th century BC
Magdala Stone
Achaemenid king fighting hoplites, seal and seal holder, Cimmerian Bosporus.
Bar Kokhba tetradracm showing the Jerusalem Temple façade 132–135 CE
Achaemenid gold ornaments, Brooklyn Museum
Arch of Titus showing spoils of Jerusalem Temple
Persian Empire timeline including important events and territorial evolution – 550–323 BC
Part of the south-western upper corner of Herod's temple colonnade with ancient "Trumpeting Place" Hebrew inscription.
Relief showing Darius I offering lettuces to the Egyptian deity Amun-Ra Kamutef, Temple of Hibis
The Warning Inscription found in 1871
The 24 countries subject to the Achaemenid Empire at the time of Darius, on the Egyptian statue of Darius I.
A copy of the temple warning inscription found in 1871
The Battle of Issus, between Alexander the Great on horseback to the left, and Darius III in the chariot to the right, represented in a Pompeii mosaic dated 1st century BC – Naples National Archaeological Museum
Fragment of Second Temple Warning
Alexander's first victory over Darius, the Persian king depicted in medieval European style in the 15th century romance The History of Alexander's Battles
The Trumpeting Place inscription, a stone ({{cvt|2.43|×|1|m}}) with Hebrew inscription "To the Trumpeting Place" excavated by Benjamin Mazar at the southern foot of the Temple Mount is believed to be a part of the Second Temple.
Frataraka dynasty ruler Vadfradad I (Autophradates I). 3rd century BC. Istakhr (Persepolis) mint.
Dārēv I (Darios I) used for the first time the title of mlk (King). 2nd century BC.
Winged sphinx from the Palace of Darius in Susa, Louvre
Daric of Artaxerxes II
Volume of annual tribute per district, in the Achaemenid Empire, according to Herodotus.
Achaemenid tax collector, calculating on an Abax or Abacus, according to the Darius Vase (340–320 BC).
Letter from the Satrap of Bactria to the governor of Khulmi, concerning camel keepers, 353 BC
Relief of throne-bearing soldiers in their native clothing at the tomb of Xerxes I, demonstrating the satrapies under his rule.
Achaemenid king killing a Greek hoplite. c. 500 BC–475 BC, at the time of Xerxes I. Metropolitan Museum of Art.
Persian soldiers (left) fighting against Scythians. Cylinder seal impression.
Color reconstruction of Achaemenid infantry on the Alexander Sarcophagus (end of 4th century BC).
Seal of Darius the Great hunting in a chariot, reading "I am Darius, the Great King" in Old Persian (𐎠𐎭𐎶𐏐𐎭𐎠𐎼𐎹𐎺𐎢𐏁𐎴 𐏋, "adam Dārayavaʰuš xšāyaθiya"), as well as in Elamite and Babylonian. The word "great" only appears in Babylonian. British Museum.
Achaemenid calvalryman in the satrapy of Hellespontine Phrygia, Altıkulaç Sarcophagus, early 4th century BC.
Armoured cavalry: Achaemenid Dynast of Hellespontine Phrygia attacking a Greek psiloi, Altıkulaç Sarcophagus, early 4th century BC.
Reconstitution of Persian landing ships at the Battle of Marathon.
Greek ships against Achaemenid ships at the Battle of Salamis.
Iconic relief of lion and bull fighting, Apadana of Persepolis
Achaemenid golden bowl with lioness imagery of Mazandaran
The ruins of Persepolis
A section of the Old Persian part of the trilingual Behistun inscription. Other versions are in Babylonian and Elamite.
A copy of the Behistun inscription in Aramaic on a papyrus. Aramaic was the lingua franca of the empire.
An Achaemenid drinking vessel
Bas-relief of Farvahar at Persepolis
Tomb of Artaxerxes III in Persepolis
The Mausoleum at Halicarnassus, one of the Seven wonders of the ancient world, was built by Greek architects for the local Persian satrap of Caria, Mausolus (Scale model)
Achamenid dynasty timeline
Reconstruction of the Palace of Darius at Susa. The palace served as a model for Persepolis.
Lion on a decorative panel from Darius I the Great's palace, Louvre
Ruins of Throne Hall, Persepolis
Apadana Hall, Persian and Median soldiers at Persepolis
Lateral view of tomb of Cambyses II, Pasargadae, Iran
Plaque with horned lion-griffins. The Metropolitan Museum of Art

Construction on the Second Temple began some time after the conquest of Babylon by the Achaemenid Persian Empire, following a proclamation by the Persian king Cyrus the Great that enabled the Jewish return to Zion.

- Second Temple

He is credited with freeing the people of Judah from their exile and with authorizing the reconstruction of much of Jerusalem, including the Second Temple.

- Achaemenid Empire

7 related topics with Alpha

Overall

Cyrus the Great with a Hemhem crown, or four-winged Cherub tutelary divinity, from a relief in the residence of Cyrus in Pasagardae

Cyrus the Great

4 links

Cyrus II of Persia (c.

Cyrus II of Persia (c.

Cyrus the Great with a Hemhem crown, or four-winged Cherub tutelary divinity, from a relief in the residence of Cyrus in Pasagardae
The four-winged guardian figure representing Cyrus the Great or a four-winged Cherub tutelary deity. Bas-relief found on a doorway pillar at Pasargadae on top of which was once inscribed in three languages the sentence "I am Cyrus the king, an Achaemenian." Scholars who doubt that the relief depicts Cyrus note that the same inscription is written on other palaces in the complex.
"I am Cyrus the King, an Achaemenian" in Old Persian, Elamite and Akkadian languages. It is known as the "CMa inscription", carved in a column of Palace P in Pasargadae. These inscriptions on behalf of Cyrus were probably made later by Darius I in order to affirm his lineage, using the Old Persian script he had designed.
Painting of king Astyages sending Harpagus to kill young Cyrus
Detail of Cyrus Hunting Wild Boar by Claude Audran the Younger, Palace of Versailles
Victory of Cyrus over Lydia's Croesus at the Battle of Thymbra, 546 BC
Croesus on the pyre. Attic red-figure amphora, 500–490 BC, Louvre (G 197)
Ancient Near East circa 540 BC, prior to the invasion of Babylon by Cyrus the Great
Achaemenid soldiers (left) fighting against Scythians, 5th century BC. Cylinder seal impression (drawing).
Queen Tomyris of the Massagetae receiving the head of Cyrus
Tomb of Cyrus in Pasargadae, Iran, a UNESCO World Heritage Site (2015)
Cyrus the Great is said in the Bible to have liberated the Jews from the Babylonian captivity to resettle and rebuild Jerusalem, earning him an honored place in Judaism.
Cyrus the Great (center) with his General Harpagus behind him, as he receives the submission of Astyages (18th century tapestry)
The Cyrus Street, Jerusalem
Painting of Daniel and Cyrus before the Idol Bel
Statue of Cyrus the great at Olympic Park in Sydney
17th-century bust of Cyrus the Great in Hamburg, Germany
The Cyrus cylinder, a contemporary cuneiform script proclaiming Cyrus as legitimate king of Babylon

600–530 BC; Kūruš), commonly known as Cyrus the Great and also called Cyrus the Elder by the Greeks, was the founder of the Achaemenid Empire, the first Persian empire.

While Cyrus was praised in the Tanakh ( and ), there was Jewish criticism of him after he was lied to by the Cuthites, who wanted to halt the building of the Second Temple.

Jerusalem

2 links

City in Western Asia.

City in Western Asia.

Close up of the Khirbet Beit Lei inscription, showing the earliest extra-biblical Hebrew writing of the word Jerusalem, dated to the seventh or sixth century BCE
Stepped Stone Structure in the City of David, the ancient core of Jerusalem during the Bronze Age and Iron Age
The Siloam Inscription, written in Biblical Hebrew, commemorates the construction of the Siloam tunnel (c. 700 BCE)
Modern-day reconstruction of Jerusalem during the reign of Solomon (10th century BCE). Solomon's Temple appears on top.
Holyland Model of Jerusalem, depicting the city during the late Second Temple period. First created in 1966, it is continuously updated according to advancing archaeological knowledge
A coin issued by the Jewish rebels in 68 CE. Obverse: "Shekel, Israel. Year 3". Reverse: "Jerusalem the Holy", in the Paleo-Hebrew alphabet
Stones from the Western Wall of the Temple Mount thrown during the Roman Siege of Jerusalem in 70 CE
The Siege and Destruction of Jerusalem by the Romans (David Roberts, 1850)
Jerusalem mural depicting the Cardo during the Byzantine period.
1455 painting of the Holy Land. Jerusalem is viewed from the west; the octagonal Dome of the Rock stands left of Al-Aqsa, shown as a church, and the Church of the Holy Sepulchre stands on the left side of the picture.
Medieval illustration of capture of Jerusalem during the First Crusade, 1099.
Jerusalem, from 'Peregrinatio in Terram Sanctam' by Bernhard von Breydenbach (1486)
Topographic map of the city, c. 1600.
1844 daguerreotype by Joseph-Philibert Girault de Prangey (the earliest photograph of the city).
William McLean's 1918 plan was the first urban planning scheme for Jerusalem. It laid the foundations for what became West Jerusalem and East Jerusalem.
Jerusalem on VE Day, 8 May 1945.
Map of East Jerusalem (2010)
The Knesset houses the legislature of Israel
Supreme Court of Israel
Israeli Foreign Ministry building
Orient House in East Jerusalem that served as the headquarters of the PLO in the 1980s and 1990s. It was closed by Israel in 2001, two days after the Sbarro restaurant suicide bombing.
Snow visible on roofs in the Old City of Jerusalem.
Rehavia and Kiryat Wolfson, two Jewish neighborhoods, as seen from Givat Ram
Sheikh Jarrah, a predominantly Arab neighborhood on the road to Mount Scopus.
Sign in Armenian in the Armenian Quarter.
The Old City is home to many sites of seminal religious importance for the three major Abrahamic religions—Judaism, Christianity, and Islam
Bank of Israel
Har Hotzvim high-tech park
Mamilla Mall adorned with upscale shops stands just outside the Old City Walls.
Holyland Tower, Jerusalem's tallest building
Jerusalem Chords Bridge
Light Rail tram on Jaffa Road
Hebrew University of Jerusalem, Mount Scopus campus
Hand in Hand, a bilingual Jewish-Arab school in Jerusalem
Hebron Yeshiva in Givat Mordechai neighborhood
The Shrine of the Book, housing the Dead Sea Scrolls, at the Israel Museum
Jerusalem Biblical Zoo
National Library of Israel
Teddy Stadium, Malha
Pais Arena
Tower of David citadel and the Ottoman walls
Ben-Zakai synagogue, photo taken in 1893
Guesthouse in Mishkenot Sha'ananim, the first Jewish neighborhood built outside the walls of the Old City of Jerusalem (1860), on a hill directly across from Mount Zion.
Israeli policemen meet a Jordanian Legionnaire near the Mandelbaum Gate ({{Circa|1950}}).
King Hussein of Jordan flying over the Temple Mount in East Jerusalem when it was under Jordanian control, 1965.
Astronauts' view of Jerusalem.
Sunset aerial photograph of the Mount of Olives.
The Temple Mount, the site of the two former Jewish Temples, is the holiest spot in Judaism
The Western Wall, also known as the Wailing Wall and the Kotel, is a remnant of the Second Temple and the holiest place where Jews are permitted to pray
The Church of the Holy Sepulchre contains the two holiest sites in Christianity: the site where Jesus was crucified, and Jesus's empty tomb, where he is believed by Christians to have been buried and resurrected.
Al-Aqsa Mosque, the third holiest site in Sunni Islam. Muslims believe that Muhammad was transported from the Great Mosque of Mecca to this location during the Night Journey.
The Garden Tomb – a new holy site established by British Protestants in the 19th century
Demographic history of Jerusalem by religion based on available data
Teddy Stadium, Malha

In 70 CE, an unsuccessful Jewish revolt against the Romans resulted in the destruction of the city and the Second Temple.

In 538 BCE, the Persian King Cyrus the Great invited the Jews of Babylon to return to Judah to rebuild the Temple.

The Flight of the Prisoners (1896) by James Tissot; the exile of the Jews from Canaan to Babylon

Babylonian captivity

2 links

Period in Jewish history during which a large number of Judeans from the ancient Kingdom of Judah were captives in Babylon, the capital city of the Neo-Babylonian Empire, following their defeat in the Jewish–Babylonian War and the destruction of Solomon's Temple in Jerusalem.

Period in Jewish history during which a large number of Judeans from the ancient Kingdom of Judah were captives in Babylon, the capital city of the Neo-Babylonian Empire, following their defeat in the Jewish–Babylonian War and the destruction of Solomon's Temple in Jerusalem.

The Flight of the Prisoners (1896) by James Tissot; the exile of the Jews from Canaan to Babylon
Clay tablet. The Akkadian cuneiform inscription lists certain rations and mentions the name of Jeconiah (Jehoiachin), King of Judah, and the Babylonian captivity. From Babylon, Iraq. Reign of Nebuchadnezzar II, circa 580 BCE. Vorderasiatisches Museum, Berlin
Illustration from the Nuremberg Chronicle of the destruction of Jerusalem under the Babylonian rule
Depiction of Jews mourning the exile in Babylon

After the fall of the Neo-Babylonian Empire to the Achaemenid Persian Empire and its founding king Cyrus the Great at the Battle of Opis in 539 BCE, exiled Judeans were permitted by the Persians to return to Judah.

According to the biblical Book of Ezra, construction of the Second Temple in Jerusalem began in c. 537 BCE in the new Persian province of Yehud Medinata.

Yehud (Persian province)

1 links

Yehud (highlighted in pink) under Persian rule
The Achaemenid Empire at its greatest extent, including the province of Yehud.
Silver coin (gerah) minted in the Persian province of Yehud, dated c. 375-332 BCE. Obv: Bearded head wearing crown, possibly representing the Persian Great King. Rev: Falcon facing, head right, with wings spread; Paleo-Hebrew YHD to right.
Coins bearing the inscription YHD, or Yehud. The coin at top shows the god YHWH, the coin at bottom right has an image of the owl of Athena (Athenian coinage was the standard for Mediterranean trade).
Coin of Hezekiah, Satrap of Judaea, Achaemenid period. Circa 375–333 BCE.

Yehud, also known as Yehud Medinata or Yehud Medinta, was an administrative province of the Achaemenid Persian Empire in the region of Judea that functioned as a self-governing region under its local Jewish population.

The position of Jerusalem before the administration moved back from Mizpah is not clear, but from 445 BCE onwards it was once more the main city of Yehud, with walls, a temple (the Second Temple) and other facilities needed to function as a provincial capital, including, from 420 BCE, a local mint striking silver coins.

The relief stone of Darius the Great in the Behistun Inscription

Darius the Great

1 links

The relief stone of Darius the Great in the Behistun Inscription
Lineage of Darius the Great according to the Behistun Inscription.
Darius the Great, by Eugène Flandin (1840)
Eastern border of the Achaemenid Empire
Ethnicities of the Achaemenid Army, on the tomb of Darius I. The nationalities mentioned in the DNa inscription are also depicted on the upper registers of all the tombs at Naqsh-e Rustam, starting with the tomb of Darius I. The ethnicities on the tomb of Darius further have trilingual labels on the lintel directly over them for identification, collectively known as the DNe inscription. One of the best preserved friezes, identical in content, is that of Xerxes I.
Map showing key sites during the Persian invasions of Greece
Tomb of Darius at Naqsh-e Rostam
Volume of annual tribute per district, in the Achaemenid Empire.
Gold daric, minted at Sardis
Reconstruction drawing of the Palace of Darius in Susa
The ruins of Tachara palace in Persepolis
thumb|upright|Egyptian statue of Darius I, as Pharaoh of the Twenty-seventh Dynasty of Egypt;<ref>{{cite book |last1=Razmjou |first1=Shahrokh |title=Ars orientalis; the arts of Islam and the East |date=1954 |publisher=Freer Gallery of Art |pages=81–101 |url=https://archive.org/details/arsorient323320022003univ/page/n95/mode/2up}}</ref> 522–486 BC; greywacke; height: 2.46 m;<ref>{{cite book |last1=Manley|first1=Bill|title=Egyptian Art|year=2017|publisher=Thames & Hudson|pages=280|isbn=978-0-500-20428-3}}</ref> National Museum of Iran (Teheran)
Darius as Pharaoh of Egypt at the Temple of Hibis
Relief showing Darius I offering lettuces to the Egyptian deity Amun-Ra Kamutef, Temple of Hibis

Darius I ( ; c. 550 – 486 BCE), commonly known as Darius the Great, was a Persian ruler who served as the third King of Kings of the Achaemenid Empire, reigning from 522 BCE until his death in 486 BCE.

He had funded the restoration of the Israelite temple which had originally been decreed by Cyrus, was supportive towards Greek cults which can be seen in his letter to Gadatas, and supported Elamite priests.

The Seleucid Empire (light blue) in 281 BC on the eve of the murder of Seleucus I Nicator

Seleucid Empire

1 links

Greek state in West Asia that existed during the Hellenistic period from 312 BC to 63 BC. The Seleucid Empire was founded by the Macedonian general Seleucus I Nicator, following the division of the Macedonian Empire originally founded by Alexander the Great.

Greek state in West Asia that existed during the Hellenistic period from 312 BC to 63 BC. The Seleucid Empire was founded by the Macedonian general Seleucus I Nicator, following the division of the Macedonian Empire originally founded by Alexander the Great.

The Seleucid Empire (light blue) in 281 BC on the eve of the murder of Seleucus I Nicator
"Chandra Gupta Maurya entertains his bride from Babylon": a conjectural interpretation of the "marriage agreement" between the Seleucids and Chandragupta Maurya, related by Appian
The Seleucid Empire (light blue) in 281 BC on the eve of the murder of Seleucus I Nicator
Coin of Seleucus I Nicator
In Bactria, the satrap Diodotus asserted independence to form the Greco-Bactrian kingdom c. 245 BC.
Drachm of the Frataraka ruler Vahbarz (Oborzos), thought to have initiated the independence of Persis from the Seleucid Empire. The coin shows on the reverse an Achaemenid king slaying an armoured, possibly Greek or Macedonian, soldier. This possibly refers to the events related by Polyainos (Strat. 7.40), in which Vahbarz (Oborzos) is said to have killed 3000 Seleucid settlers.
Silver coin of Antiochus III the Great.
The Seleucid Empire in 200 BC (before expansion into Anatolia and Greece).
The reduced empire (titled: Syria, Kingdom of the Seleucids) and the expanded states of Pergamum and Rhodes, after the defeat of Antiochus III by Rome. Circa 188 BC.
The Hellenistic Prince, a bronze statue originally thought to be a Seleucid, or Attalus II of Pergamon, now considered a portrait of a Roman general, made by a Greek artist working in Rome in the 2nd century BC.
Coin of Antiochus IV Epiphanes.
Seleucid Syria in early 124 BC under Alexander II Zabinas, who ruled the country with the exception of the city of Ptolemais
Seleucid Kingdom in 87 BC
Bagadates I (Minted 290–280 BC) was the first native Seleucid satrap to be appointed.
Seleucid Bronze Coin depicting Antiochus III with Laureate head of Apollo Circa. 200 BCE
Price of barley and dates per tonne
Episodes of Seleucid dispoliation from Michael J. Taylor's Sacred Plunder

After receiving the Mesopotamian region of Babylonia in 321 BC, Seleucus I began expanding his dominions to include the Near Eastern territories that encompass modern-day Iraq, Iran, Afghanistan, Syria, all of which had been under Macedonian control after the fall of the former Persian Achaemenid Empire.

He also spoiled the temple, and interrupted the constant practice of offering a daily sacrifice of expiation, for three years and six months.

Edict of Cyrus

1 links

The Edict of Cyrus is a 539 BCE proclamation by Achaemenid Empire founder Cyrus the Great attested by a cylinder seal of the time.

The Book of Ezra says that the people of Cutha, known in Hebrew as "Cuthim" and described as the "adversaries" of the returning exiles, requested to join in the construction of the Second Temple, and when rebuffed by Zerubbabel and his companions, they composed a letter of complaint to Artaxerxes of Persia: