Achaemenid Empire

The Achaemenid Empire at its greatest territorial extent under the rule of Darius I (522 BC–486 BC)
Family tree of the Achaemenid rulers.
Map of the expansion process of Achaemenid territories
Cyrus the Great is said, in the Bible, to have liberated the Hebrew captives in Babylon to resettle and rebuild Jerusalem, earning him an honored place in Judaism.
The tomb of Cyrus the Great, founder of the Achaemenid Empire. At Pasargadae, Iran.
The Achaemenid Empire at its greatest extent, c. 500 BC
The Persian queen Atossa, daughter of Cyrus the Great, sister-wife of Cambyses II, Darius the Great's wife, and mother of Xerxes the Great
Map showing events of the first phases of the Greco-Persian Wars
Greek hoplite and Persian warrior depicted fighting, on an ancient kylix, 5th century BC
Achaemenid king fighting hoplites, seal and seal holder, Cimmerian Bosporus.
Achaemenid gold ornaments, Brooklyn Museum
Persian Empire timeline including important events and territorial evolution – 550–323 BC
Relief showing Darius I offering lettuces to the Egyptian deity Amun-Ra Kamutef, Temple of Hibis
The 24 countries subject to the Achaemenid Empire at the time of Darius, on the Egyptian statue of Darius I.
The Battle of Issus, between Alexander the Great on horseback to the left, and Darius III in the chariot to the right, represented in a Pompeii mosaic dated 1st century BC – Naples National Archaeological Museum
Alexander's first victory over Darius, the Persian king depicted in medieval European style in the 15th century romance The History of Alexander's Battles
Frataraka dynasty ruler Vadfradad I (Autophradates I). 3rd century BC. Istakhr (Persepolis) mint.
Dārēv I (Darios I) used for the first time the title of mlk (King). 2nd century BC.
Winged sphinx from the Palace of Darius in Susa, Louvre
Daric of Artaxerxes II
Volume of annual tribute per district, in the Achaemenid Empire, according to Herodotus.
Achaemenid tax collector, calculating on an Abax or Abacus, according to the Darius Vase (340–320 BC).
Letter from the Satrap of Bactria to the governor of Khulmi, concerning camel keepers, 353 BC
Relief of throne-bearing soldiers in their native clothing at the tomb of Xerxes I, demonstrating the satrapies under his rule.
Achaemenid king killing a Greek hoplite. c. 500 BC–475 BC, at the time of Xerxes I. Metropolitan Museum of Art.
Persian soldiers (left) fighting against Scythians. Cylinder seal impression.
Color reconstruction of Achaemenid infantry on the Alexander Sarcophagus (end of 4th century BC).
Seal of Darius the Great hunting in a chariot, reading "I am Darius, the Great King" in Old Persian (𐎠𐎭𐎶𐏐𐎭𐎠𐎼𐎹𐎺𐎢𐏁𐎴 𐏋, "adam Dārayavaʰuš xšāyaθiya"), as well as in Elamite and Babylonian. The word "great" only appears in Babylonian. British Museum.
Achaemenid calvalryman in the satrapy of Hellespontine Phrygia, Altıkulaç Sarcophagus, early 4th century BC.
Armoured cavalry: Achaemenid Dynast of Hellespontine Phrygia attacking a Greek psiloi, Altıkulaç Sarcophagus, early 4th century BC.
Reconstitution of Persian landing ships at the Battle of Marathon.
Greek ships against Achaemenid ships at the Battle of Salamis.
Iconic relief of lion and bull fighting, Apadana of Persepolis
Achaemenid golden bowl with lioness imagery of Mazandaran
The ruins of Persepolis
A section of the Old Persian part of the trilingual Behistun inscription. Other versions are in Babylonian and Elamite.
A copy of the Behistun inscription in Aramaic on a papyrus. Aramaic was the lingua franca of the empire.
An Achaemenid drinking vessel
Bas-relief of Farvahar at Persepolis
Tomb of Artaxerxes III in Persepolis
The Mausoleum at Halicarnassus, one of the Seven wonders of the ancient world, was built by Greek architects for the local Persian satrap of Caria, Mausolus (Scale model)
Achamenid dynasty timeline
Reconstruction of the Palace of Darius at Susa. The palace served as a model for Persepolis.
Lion on a decorative panel from Darius I the Great's palace, Louvre
Ruins of Throne Hall, Persepolis
Apadana Hall, Persian and Median soldiers at Persepolis
Lateral view of tomb of Cambyses II, Pasargadae, Iran
Plaque with horned lion-griffins. The Metropolitan Museum of Art

Ancient Iranian empire that was based in Western Asia and founded by Cyrus the Great in 550 BC. It reached its greatest extent under Xerxes I, who conquered most of northern and central ancient Greece.

- Achaemenid Empire

276 related topics

Alpha

Location and main events of the Ionian Revolt.

Ionian Revolt

Location and main events of the Ionian Revolt.
Coin of Chios just before the revolt, circa 525–510 BC.
Coin of Lesbos, Ionia. Circa 510–480 BC.
Darius, with a label in Greek (ΔΑΡΕΙΟΣ, top right), on the Darius Vase.
Location of Ionia within Asia Minor.
Ionian Revolt: Sardis campaign (498 BC)
Remains of the acropolis of Sardis.
The burning of Sardis by the Greeks during the Ionian Revolt in 498 BC.
Achaemenid cavalry in Asia Minor. Altıkulaç Sarcophagus.
Map showing the ancient kingdoms of Cyprus
Ionian revolt: Carian campaign (496 BC).
Greek hoplite and Persian warrior depicted fighting. 5th century BC
Ionian revolt, Battle of Lade and fall of Miletus (494 BC).
The ruins of Miletus
Ionian soldier (Old Persian cuneiform 𐎹𐎢𐎴, Yaunā) of the Achaemenid army, circa 480 BCE. Xerxes I tomb relief.
Coin of Chios after the revolt, circa 490–435 BCE. [[:File:ISLANDS off IONIA, Chios. Circa 525-510 BC.jpg|Earlier types known]].

The Ionian Revolt, and associated revolts in Aeolis, Doris, Cyprus and Caria, were military rebellions by several Greek regions of Asia Minor against Persian rule, lasting from 499 BC to 493 BC. At the heart of the rebellion was the dissatisfaction of the Greek cities of Asia Minor with the tyrants appointed by Persia to rule them, along with the individual actions of two Milesian tyrants, Histiaeus and Aristagoras.

The region of Parthia within the empire of Medes, c. 600 BC; from a historical atlas illustrated by William Robert Shepherd

Parthia

Historical region located in north-eastern Iran.

Historical region located in north-eastern Iran.

The region of Parthia within the empire of Medes, c. 600 BC; from a historical atlas illustrated by William Robert Shepherd
Xerxes I tomb, Parthian soldier circa 470 BCE
Parthia ( 𓊪𓃭𓍘𓇋𓍯𓈉, P-rw-t-i-wꜣ), as one of the 24 subjects of the Achaemenid Empire, in the Egyptian Statue of Darius I.
Coin of Andragoras, the last Seleucid satrap of Parthia. He proclaimed independence around 250 BC.
Parthian horseman now on display at the Palazzo Madama, Turin.
Coin of Mithridates I (R. 171–138 BC). The reverse shows Heracles, and the inscription ΒΑΣΙΛΕΩΣ ΜΕΓΑΛΟΥ ΑΡΣΑΚΟΥ ΦΙΛΕΛΛΗΝΟΣ "Great King Arsaces, friend of Greeks".
Reproduction of a Parthian archer as depicted on Trajan's Column.
A sculpted head (broken off from a larger statue) of a Parthian soldier wearing a Hellenistic-style helmet, from the Parthian royal residence and necropolis of Nisa, 2nd century BC
Hercules, Hatra, Iraq, Parthian period, 1st–2nd century AD.
Parthian waterspout, 1st–2nd century AD.

It was conquered and subjugated by the empire of the Medes during the 7th century BC, was incorporated into the subsequent Achaemenid Empire under Cyrus the Great in the 6th century BC, and formed part of the Hellenistic Seleucid Empire following the 4th-century-BC conquests of Alexander the Great.

Map of the Neo-Assyrian Empire under Shalmaneser III (dark green) and Esarhaddon (light green)

Neo-Assyrian Empire

The fourth and penultimate stage of ancient Assyrian history and the final and greatest phase of Assyria as an independent state.

The fourth and penultimate stage of ancient Assyrian history and the final and greatest phase of Assyria as an independent state.

Map of the Neo-Assyrian Empire under Shalmaneser III (dark green) and Esarhaddon (light green)
Approximate map of the preceding Middle Assyrian Empire at its height in the 13th century BC
Assyrian borders and campaigns under Ashur-dan II ((r. undefined – undefined)934–912 BC), Adad-nirari II ((r. undefined – undefined)911–891 BC) and Tukulti-Ninurta II ((r. undefined – undefined)890–884 BC)
Annals of Tukulti-Ninurta II ((r. undefined – undefined)890–884 BC), recounting one of his campaigns
Stele of Ashurnasirpal II ((r. undefined – undefined)883–859 BC)
Depiction of Shalmaneser III (right) shaking hands with the Babylonian king Marduk-zakir-shumi I (left)
Stele of Shamshi-Adad V ((r. undefined – undefined)824–811 BC)
Stele of Bel-harran-beli-usur, a palace herald, made in the reign of Shalmaneser IV ((r. undefined – undefined)783–773 BC)
Partial relief depicting Tiglath-Pileser III ((r. undefined – undefined)745–727 BC)
20th-century illustration of Tiglath-Pileser III's capture of Damascus
The Neo-Assyrian Empire at the start (purple) and end (blue) of Tiglath-Pileser's reign
Relief depicting Sargon II, founder of the Sargonid dynasty
20th-century reconstruction of Sargon II's palace at Dur-Sharrukin
Line-drawing of a relief depicting Sennacherib ((r. undefined – undefined)705–681 BC) on campaign in a chariot
19th-century reconstruction of Nineveh, made capital under Sennacherib
20th-century illustration of Sennacherib's destruction of Babylon
Esarhaddon ((r. undefined – undefined)681–669 BC), as depicted in his victory stele
20th-century illustration of the Assyrians capturing Memphis, the Egyptian capital
Relief depicting Ashurbanipal ((r. undefined – undefined)669–631 BC) in a chariot, armed with a bow
The Diversion of an Assyrian King (1876) by Frederick Arthur Bridgman
Impression of a seal possibly belonging to the eunuch usurper Sin-shumu-lishir ((r. undefined – undefined)626 BC)
Fall of Nineveh (1829) by John Martin
20th-century illustration of the Battle of Carchemish
20th-century illustration of the Fall of Nineveh
Line-drawing of a relief from Nimrud depicting a Neo-Assyrian king
Seal of Hama, queen of Shalmaneser IV ((r. 783 – 773) BC)
Provinces and vassal kingdoms of the Neo-Assyrian Empire at its height in the 7th century BC
Glazed tile from Nimrud depicting a Neo-Assyrian king, accompanied by attendants
Neo-Assyrian relief depicting eunuchs carrying booty from a war
Relief from Sennacherib's palace at Nineveh depicting two Assyrian spearmen
Line-drawing of a Neo-Assyrian relief showing soldiers forming a phalanx
Neo-Assyrian relief from Nimrud depicting a tribute-bearer
Line-drawing of a Neo-Assyrian relief depicting a family of deportees leaving a captured Babylonian city in an ox-cart
Relief from the time of Ashurbanipal, depicting Babylonian prisoners under Assyrian guard
Neo-Assyrian cuneiform tablet from the Library of Ashurbanipal listing synonyms
Line-drawing of a relief depicting Neo-Assyrian scribes recording the number of enemies slain by soldiers
Line drawing of an Assyrian lion weight once belonging to the king Shalmaneser V ((r. undefined – undefined)727–722 BC). The inscriptions on the weight are in both Akkadian (on the body) and Aramaic (on the base).
Reconstruction of the Library of Ashurbanipal
Relief depicting the gardens of Ashurbanipal in Nineveh (left) with a color reconstruction (right). As can be seen on the right side of the relief, the garden featured sophisticated irrigation aqueducts.
A giant lamassu from Sargon II's palace at Dur-Sharrukin
Egyptian papyrus from c. undefined 500 BC containing the Story of Ahikar
Great Semiramis, Queen of Assyria by Cesare Saccaggi
The Defeat of Sennacherib by Peter Paul Rubens
1861 illustration by Eugène Flandin of excavations of the ruins of Dur-Sharrukin
1849 illustration of a relief from Dur-Sharrukin by Eugène Flandin
1852 illustration by Austen Henry Layard of excavations at Nineveh
Portrait of the Assyrian archaeologist Hormuzd Rassam c. undefined 1854
Chart depicting the ideological translatio imperii, i.e. supposed transfer of the right to universal rule, from the Neo-Assyrian Empire to (rival) early modern states claiming the same right
Relief of Sennacherib, depicting an Assyrian soldier beheading a prisoner
Relief of Ashurbanipal, depicting Elamite chiefs having their tongues removed and being flayed alive
Relief of Ashurbanipal, depicting the beheading of the Elamite king Teumman

Ancient Greek historians such as Herodotus and Ctesias supported a sequence of three world empires and a successive transfer of world domination from the Assyrians to the Medes to the Achaemenids.

Arāmāyā in Syriac Esṭrangelā script

Aramaic

Semitic language that originated among the Arameans in the ancient region of Syria.

Semitic language that originated among the Arameans in the ancient region of Syria.

Arāmāyā in Syriac Esṭrangelā script
Syriac-Aramaic alphabet
The Carpentras Stele was the first ancient inscription ever identified as "Aramaic". Although it was first published in 1704, it was not identified as Aramaic until 1821, when Ulrich Friedrich Kopp complained that previous scholars had left everything "to the Phoenicians and nothing to the Arameans, as if they could not have written at all".
Syriac inscription at the Syro-Malabar Catholic Church's Major Archbishop's House in Kerala, India
"Jesus" in Jewish Aramaic
11th century book in Syriac Serto
One of the Bar-Rakib inscriptions from Sam'al. The inscription is in the Samalian language (also considered a dialect).
Coin of Alexander the Great bearing an Aramaic language inscription
The Kandahar Bilingual Rock Inscription (Greek and Aramaic) by the Indian king Ashoka, 3rd century BC at Kandahar, Afghanistan
11th century Hebrew Bible with Targum intercalated between verses of Hebrew text
Mandaic magical "demon trap"
9th century Syriac Estrangela manuscript of John Chrysostom's Homily on the Gospel of John
Hebrew (left) and Aramaic (right) in parallel in a 1299 Hebrew Bible held by the Bodleian Library
Territorial distribution of Neo-Aramaic languages in the Near East
Amen in East Syriac Aramaic

The scribes of the Neo-Assyrian bureaucracy had also used Aramaic, and this practice was subsequently inherited by the succeeding Neo-Babylonian Empire (605–539 BC), and later by the Achaemenid Empire (539–330 BC).

Ancient Persian attire worn by soldiers and a nobleman. The History of Costume by Braun & Scheider (1861–1880).

Persians

Iranian ethnic group who comprise over half of the population of Iran.

Iranian ethnic group who comprise over half of the population of Iran.

Ancient Persian attire worn by soldiers and a nobleman. The History of Costume by Braun & Scheider (1861–1880).
Map of the Achaemenid Empire at its greatest extent.
Ancient Persian and Greek soldiers as depicted on a color reconstruction of the 4th-century BC Alexander Sarcophagus.
A bas-relief at Naqsh-e Rustam depicting the victory of Sasanian ruler Shapur I over Roman ruler Valerian and Philip the Arab.
Old Persian inscribed in cuneiform on the Behistun Inscription.
A Persian carpet kept at the Louvre.
Dancers and musical instrument players depicted on a Sasanian silver bowl from the 5th-7th century AD.
5th-century BC Achaemenid gold vessels. Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York City.
Ancient Iranian goddess Anahita depicted on a Sasanian silver vessel. Cleveland Museum of Art, Cleveland.
Sasanian marble bust. National Museum of Iran, Tehran.
17th-century Persian potteries from Isfahan. Royal Ontario Museum, Toronto.
Ruins of the Tachara, Persepolis.
Tomb of Cyrus, Pasargadae.
The Sasanian reliefs at Taq-e Bostan.
Shapur-Khwast Castle, Khorramabad.
Shah Square, Isfahan.
Eram Garden, Shiraz.
Tomb of Hafez, Shiraz.
Shazdeh Garden, Kerman.

Although Persis (Persia proper) was only one of the provinces of ancient Iran, varieties of this term (e.g., Persia) were adopted through Greek sources and used as an exonym for all of the Persian Empire for many years.

The Palace of Darius I in Susa

Susa

Ancient city in the lower Zagros Mountains about 250 km east of the Tigris, between the Karkheh and Dez Rivers in Iran.

Ancient city in the lower Zagros Mountains about 250 km east of the Tigris, between the Karkheh and Dez Rivers in Iran.

The Palace of Darius I in Susa
Map showing the area of the Elamite kingdom (in orange) and the neighboring areas. The approximate Bronze Age extension of the Persian Gulf is shown.
Site of Susa
Assyria. Ruins of Susa, Brooklyn Museum Archives, Goodyear Archival Collection
Goblet and cup, Iran, Susa I style, 4th millennium BC – Ubaid period; goblet height c. 12 cm; Sèvres – Cité de la céramique, France
Puzur-Inshushinak Ensi Shushaki, "Puzur-Inshushinak Ensi (Governor) of Susa", in the "Table au Lion", dated 2100 BCE, Louvre Museum.
Silver cup from Marvdasht, Iran, with a linear-Elamite inscription from the time of Kutik-Inshushinak. National Museum of Iran
Middle-Elamite basrelief of warrior gods, Susa, 1600-1100 BCE
Statue of Darius the Great, National Museum of Iran
Archers frieze from Darius' palace at Susa. Detail of the beginning of the frieze, left. Louvre Museum
The 24 countries subject to the Achaemenid Empire at the time of Darius, on the Statue of Darius I.
The marriages of Stateira II to Alexander the Great of Macedon and her sister, Drypteis, to Hephaestion at Susa in 324 BCE, as depicted in a late-19th-century engraving.
A group of Western and Iranian archaeologists at a conference held in Susa, Khuzestan, Iran in 1977. Henry Wright, William Sumner, Elizabeth Carter, Genevieve Dolfus, Greg Johnson, Saeid Ganjavi, Yousef Majidzadeh,Vanden Berghe, and others.
thumb|Master of animals, Susa I, Louvre Sb 2246.<ref>{{cite web|title=Site officiel du musée du Louvre|url=http://cartelfr.louvre.fr/cartelfr/visite?srv=car_not&idNotice=17338|website=cartelfr.louvre.fr}}</ref>
Sun and deities, Susa I, Louvre
King-priest with bow fighting enemies, with horned temple in the center. Susa II or Uruk period (3800–3100 BCE), found in excavations at Susa. Louvre Museum.<ref>{{cite book |last1=Álvarez-Mon |first1=Javier |title=The Art of Elam CA. 4200–525 BC |date=2020 |publisher=Routledge |isbn=978-1-000-03485-1 |page=101 |url=https://books.google.com/books?id=LxHaDwAAQBAJ&pg=PT101 |language=en}}</ref><ref>{{cite web |title=Louvre Museum Sb 2125 |url=https://www.louvre.fr/oeuvre-notices/fragments-de-scellement-de-jarre-portant-l-empreinte-d-un-sceau-cylindre-representant}}</ref><ref>{{cite web |title=Site officiel du musée du Louvre, Sb 2125 |url=http://cartelfr.louvre.fr/cartelfr/visite?srv=car_not&idNotice=17353 |website=cartelfr.louvre.fr}}</ref><ref>{{cite book |last1=Cheng |first1=Jack |last2=Feldman |first2=Marian |title=Ancient Near Eastern Art in Context: Studies in Honor of Irene J. Winter by her Students |date=2007 |publisher=BRILL |isbn=978-90-474-2085-9 |page=48 |url=https://books.google.com/books?id=t-mvCQAAQBAJ&pg=PA48 |language=en}}</ref>
Globular envelope with the accounting tokens. Clay, Uruk period (c. 3500 BCE). From the Tell of the Acropolis in Susa. The Louvre
Work in the granaries, Susa II, Louvre.<ref>{{cite book|last1=Álvarez-Mon|first1=Javier|title=The Art of Elam CA. 4200–525 BC|date=2020|publisher=Routledge|isbn=978-1-000-03485-1|page=93|url=https://books.google.com/books?id=LxHaDwAAQBAJ&pg=PT93|language=en}}</ref>
Priest-King with bow and arrows, Susa II, Louvre.<ref>{{cite book|last1=Álvarez-Mon|first1=Javier|title=The Art of Elam CA. 4200–525 BC|date=2020|publisher=Routledge|isbn=978-1-000-03485-1|page=101|url=https://books.google.com/books?id=LxHaDwAAQBAJ&pg=PT101|language=en}}</ref>
Prisoners, Susa II, Louvre.<ref>{{cite book|last1=Álvarez-Mon|first1=Javier|title=The Art of Elam CA. 4200–525 BC|date=2020|publisher=Routledge|isbn=978-1-000-03485-1|page=97|url=https://books.google.com/books?id=LxHaDwAAQBAJ&pg=PT97|language=en}}</ref>
Orant statuette, Susa II, Louvre.<ref>{{cite book|last1=Álvarez-Mon|first1=Javier|title=The Art of Elam CA. 4200–525 BC|date=2020|publisher=Routledge|isbn=978-1-000-03485-1|page=110|url=https://books.google.com/books?id=LxHaDwAAQBAJ&pg=PT110|language=en}}</ref>
Susa III/ Proto-Elamite cylinder seal, 3150–2800 BC. Louvre Museum, reference Sb 1484
Susa III/ Proto-Elamite cylinder seal 3150–2800 BC Mythological being on a boat Louvre Museum Sb 6379
Susa III/ Proto-Elamite cylinder seal 3150–2800 BC Louvre Museum Sb 6166
Economical tablet in Proto-Elamite script, Suse III, Louvre Museum, reference Sb 15200, circa 3100–2850 BCE
Impression of an Indus cylinder seal discovered in Susa, in strata dated to 2600–1700 BCE. Elongated buffalo with line of standard Indus script signs. Tell of the Susa acropolis. Louvre Museum, reference Sb 2425.<ref>{{cite web|title=Site officiel du musée du Louvre|url=http://cartelfr.louvre.fr/cartelfr/visite?srv=car_not_frame&idNotice=13544|website=cartelfr.louvre.fr}}</ref><ref>{{cite book|last1=Marshall|first1=John|title=Mohenjo-Daro and the Indus Civilization: Being an Official Account of Archaeological Excavations at Mohenjo-Daro Carried Out by the Government of India Between the Years 1922 and 1927|date=1996|publisher=Asian Educational Services|isbn=9788120611795|page=425|url=https://books.google.com/books?id=Ds_hazstxY4C&pg=PA425|language=en}}</ref> Indus script numbering convention per Asko Parpola.<ref>{{cite web|title=Corpus by Asko Parpola|url=http://www.mohenjodaroonline.net/index.php/indus-script/corpus-by-asko-parpola|website=Mohenjodaro|language=en-gb}}</ref><ref>Also, for another numbering scheme: {{cite book|last1=Mahadevan|first1=Iravatham|title=The Indus Script. Text, Concordance And Tables Iravathan Mahadevan|date=1987|publisher=Archaeological Survey of India|pages=32–36|url=https://archive.org/stream/TheIndusScript.TextConcordanceAndTablesIravathanMahadevan/The%20Indus%20Script.%20Text%2C%20Concordance%20and%20Tables%20-Iravathan%20Mahadevan#page/n41/mode/2up|language=en}}</ref>
thumb|Indus round seal with impression. Elongated buffalo with Harappan script imported to Susa in 2600–1700 BCE. Found in the tell of the Susa acropolis. Louvre Museum, reference Sb 5614<ref>{{cite web|title=Site officiel du musée du Louvre|url=http://cartelfr.louvre.fr/cartelfr/visite?srv=car_not_frame&idNotice=13556|website=cartelfr.louvre.fr}}</ref>
thumb|Indian carnelian beads with white design, etched in white with an alkali through a heat process, imported to Susa in 2600–1700 BCE. Found in the tell of the Susa acropolis. Louvre Museum, reference Sb 17751.<ref>{{cite web|title=Site officiel du musée du Louvre|url=http://cartelfr.louvre.fr/cartelfr/visite?srv=car_not_frame&idNotice=13589|website=cartelfr.louvre.fr}}</ref><ref>{{cite book|last1=Guimet|first1=Musée|title=Les Cités oubliées de l'Indus: Archéologie du Pakistan|date=2016|publisher=FeniXX réédition numérique|isbn=9782402052467|pages=354–355|url=https://books.google.com/books?id=-HpYDwAAQBAJ&pg=PA354|language=fr}}</ref><ref>{{cite book|title=Art of the first cities : the third millennium B.C. from the Mediterranean to the Indus.|page=395|url=https://archive.org/details/ArtOfTheFirstCitiesTheThirdMillenniumB.C.FromTheMediterraneanToTheIndusEditedByJ/page/n419|language=en}}</ref> These beads are identical with beads found in the Indus Civilization site of Dholavira.<ref>{{cite book|last1=Nandagopal|first1=Prabhakar|title=Decorated Carnelian Beads from the Indus Civilization Site of Dholavira (Great Rann of Kachchha, Gujarat)|publisher=Archaeopress Publishing Ltd|isbn=978-1-78491-917-7|url=https://www.academia.edu/37860117|language=en|date=2018-08-13 }}</ref>
thumb|Indus bracelet, front and back, made of Pleuroploca trapezium or Turbinella pyrum imported to Susa in 2600–1700 BCE. Found in the tell of the Susa acropolis. Louvre Museum, reference Sb 14473.<ref>{{cite web|title=Louvre Museum Official Website|url=http://cartelen.louvre.fr/cartelen/visite?srv=car_not&idNotice=13532|website=cartelen.louvre.fr}}</ref> This type of bracelet was manufactured in Mohenjo-daro, Lothal and Balakot.<ref name="FeniXX réédition numérique">{{cite book|last1=Guimet|first1=Musée|title=Les Cités oubliées de l'Indus: Archéologie du Pakistan|date=2016|publisher=FeniXX réédition numérique|isbn=9782402052467|page=355|url=https://books.google.com/books?id=-HpYDwAAQBAJ&pg=PA355|language=fr}}</ref> The back is engraved with an oblong chevron design which is typical of shell bangles of the Indus Civilization.<ref>{{cite book|title=Art of the first cities : the third millennium B.C. from the Mediterranean to the Indus.|page=398|url=https://archive.org/details/ArtOfTheFirstCitiesTheThirdMillenniumB.C.FromTheMediterraneanToTheIndusEditedByJ/page/n422|language=en}}</ref>
Indus Valley Civilization carnelian beads excavated in Susa.
Jewelry with components from the Indus, Central Asia and Northern-eastern Iran found in Susa dated to 2600–1700 BCE.
An ornate design on this limestone ritual vat from the Middle Elamite period depicts creatures with the heads of goats and the tails of fish, Susa, 1500–1110 BCE.
The Ziggurat at Chogha Zanbil was built by Elamite king Untash-Napirisha circa 1300 BCE.
Susa, Middle-Elamite model of a sun ritual, circa 1150 BCE
Letter in Greek of the Parthian king Artabanus II to the inhabitants of Susa in the 1st century CE (the city retained Greek institutions since the time of the Seleucid empire). Louvre Museum.<ref>Epigraphy of Later Parthia, «Voprosy Epigrafiki: Sbornik statei», 7, 2013, pp. 276-284 </ref>
Glazed clay cup: Cup with rose petals, 8th–9th centuries
Anthropoid sarcophagus
Lion on a decorative panel from Darius I the Great's palace
Marble head representing Seleucid King Antiochus III who was born near Susa around 242 BC.<ref name=" Jonsson, David J. 2005 566 ">{{cite book|author= Jonsson, David J.|title= The Clash of Ideologies|publisher= Xulon Press|year= 2005|page=566|isbn= 978-1-59781-039-5|quote= Antiochus III was born in 242 BC, the son of Seleucus II, near Susa, Iran. }}</ref>
Glazed clay vase: Vase with palmtrees, 8th–9th centuries
Winged sphinx from the palace of Darius the Great at Susa.
Tomb of Daniel
Ninhursag with the spirit of the forests next to the seven-spiked cosmic tree of life. Relief from Susa.
19th-century engraving of Daniel's tomb in Susa, from Voyage en Perse Moderne, by Flandin and Coste.
Ribbed torc with lion heads, Achaemenid artwork, excavated by Jacques de Morgan, 1901, found in the Acropole Tomb
Shush Castle, 2011
Children in Susa
Herm pillar with Hermes, from the well of the "Dungeon" in Susa.

One of the most important cities of the Ancient Near East, Susa served as the capital of Elam and the Achaemenid Empire, and remained a strategic centre during the Parthian and Sasanian periods.

Neo-Babylonian Empire

The last of the Mesopotamian empires to be ruled by monarchs native to Mesopotamia.

The last of the Mesopotamian empires to be ruled by monarchs native to Mesopotamia.

The Neo-Babylonian Empire under Nabonidus ((r. undefined – undefined) 556–539 BC)
Map of the Old Babylonian Empire under Hammurabi ((r. undefined – undefined)c. undefined 1792–1750 BC).
Locations of some major Mesopotamian cities.
The so-called "Tower of Babel stele", depicting Nebuchadnezzar II in the top-right and featuring a depiction of Babylon's great ziggurat (the Etemenanki) to his left.
Stele of Nabonidus exhibited in the British Museum. The king is shown praying to the Moon, the Sun and Venus and is depicted as being the closest to the Moon.
Map of the path of Cyrus the Great during his 539 BC invasion of Babylonia.
Illustration of the inhabitants of Babylon deriding the Achaemenid king Darius I during the revolt of Nebuchadnezzar III in 522 BC. From the History of Darius the Great (1900) by Jacob Abbott.
Major cities of Lower Mesopotamia in the 1st century BC.
Partial view of the ruins of Babylon in modern-day Iraq.
9th century BC depiction from a cylinder seal of the Statue of Marduk, Babylon's patron deity Marduk's main cult image in the city.
Cylinder by Nabonidus, commemorating restoration work done on a temple dedicated to the god Sîn in Ur. Exhibited at the British Museum.
Tablet concerning a legal dispute over barley, from Uruk and dated to the reign of Nabonidus (544 BC). Exhibited at the Oriental Institute of the University of Chicago.
Striding lions from the Processional Street of Babylon. Exhibited at the Pergamon Museum in Berlin.
Neo-Babylonian terracotta figurine depicting a nude woman. Exhibited at the Walters Art Museum in Baltimore.
Tablet containing a 6th-century BC Babylonian "map of the world", featuring Babylon at its center. Exhibited at the British Museum.
The Babylonian marriage market, painting by Edwin Long (1875)
Tablet recording a silver payment from the temple dedicated to the god Shamash in Sippar, written during the reign of Nebuchadnezzar II. Exhibited at the Metropolitan Museum of Art
Irrigation canal from modern-day Iraq, near Baghdad
Approximate borders of the Neo-Babylonian Empire (red) and neighboring states in the 6th century BC.
Babylonian soldier as represented on the tomb of the Achaemenid king Xerxes I, c. 480 BC.
The Ishtar Gate, one of Babylon's eight inner city gates, was constructed by King Nebuchadnezzar II c. undefined 575 BC. The reconstructed gate is exhibited at the Pergamon Museum in Berlin.
City plan of Babylon, showcasing the locations of major points of interest. The outer walls and the northern Summer Palace are not shown.
Reconstruction of the Etemenanki, Babylon's great ziggurat.
Mud-brick from the Processional Street of Babylon stamped with the name of Nebuchadnezzar II.

Beginning with Nabopolassar's coronation as King of Babylon in 626 BC and being firmly established through the fall of the Neo-Assyrian Empire in 612 BC, the Neo-Babylonian Empire and its ruling Chaldean dynasty were short-lived, conquered after less than a century by the Persian Achaemenid Empire in 539 BC.

Herm of Themistocles (1875 illustration)

Themistocles

Athenian politician and general.

Athenian politician and general.

Herm of Themistocles (1875 illustration)
Profile view of an ancient Greek bust of Themistocles
A sluicing tank for silver ore, excavated at Laurium, Attica
A Roman-era bust of Themistocles in "Severe style", based on a Greek original, in the Museo Archeologico Ostiense, Ostia, Rome, Italy. The lost original of this bust, dated to circa 470 BC, has been described as "the first true portrait of an individual European".
Decree of Themistocles, National Archaeological Museum of Athens, 13330
Diagram of the approximate events of the Battle of Salamis
Romantic interpretation of the Battle of Salamis by Wilhelm von Kaulbach. Artemisia of Caria is seen shooting arrows in the direction of the Greeks led by Themistocles.
The triumph of Themistocles after the Battle of Salamis. 19th century illustration.
Themistocles honoured at Sparta.
Athenians rebuilding their city under the direction of Themistocles.
The northern wall of the Acropolis of Athens, built by Themistocles with built-in fragments of destroyed temples.
Column drums of the destroyed Older Parthenon, reused in building-up the North wall of the Acropolis, by Themistocles.
Ostracon with inscription: "Themist[h]ocles, son of Neocles"
Themistocles finds refuge with King Admetus.
Illustration by Walter Crane showing Themistocles standing silently before King Artaxerxes
Coin of Themistocles as Governor of Magnesia. Obv: Head of Zeus. Rev: Letters ΘΕ, initials of Themistocles. Circa 465-459 BC
Coin of Themistocles as Governor of Magnesia. Obv: Barley grain. ΘE to left. Rev: Possible portrait of Themistocles. Circa 465–459 BC.
Didrachm of Themistocles in Magnesia. Obv: Apollo standing in clamys, legend around ΘΕΜΙΣΤΟΚ-ΛΕΟΣ ("Themistokles"). Rev: Eagle with letters Μ-Α ("Magnesia").
Hemiobol of Themistocles in Magnesia, where he is seen wearing a tight bonnet with Olive wreath (a similar headdress can be seen on the coinage of Kherei). This possibly reflects the bonnets of Achaemenid Satraps, such as seen in the Herakleia head. Initials Θ-Ε around portrait and on reverse. c. 465–459 BC
A dignitary of Asia Minor in Achaemenid style, c. 475 BC. Karaburun tomb near Elmalı, Lycia.
Portrait of a ruler with olive wreath on the Magnesian coinage of Archeptolis, son of Themistocles, c. 459 BC. The portraits on the coinage of Archeptolis could also represent Themistocles.
Bust of Themistocles
Ruins of the Themistoclean Wall in the Kerameikos of Athens, Greece, named after Themistocles
Map of the Athenian Empire in 431 BC

Themistocles was one of the several Greek aristocrats who took refuge in the Achaemenid Empire following reversals at home, other famous ones being Hippias, Demaratos, Gongylos or later Alcibiades.

Cambyses (left, kneeling) as pharaoh while worshipping an Apis bull (524 BC)

Cambyses II

Cambyses (left, kneeling) as pharaoh while worshipping an Apis bull (524 BC)
Overview of the ruins of Babylon
Evolution of the Achaemenid Empire.
Imaginary 19th-century illustration of Cambyses II meeting Psamtik III.
Statue of an Apis.
Achaemenid coin minted at Sardis, possibly under Cambyses II.

Cambyses II ( Kabūjiya) was the second King of Kings of the Achaemenid Empire from 530 to 522 BC. He was the son and successor of Cyrus the Great ((r.

Battle of Salamis

Map showing the Greek world at the time of the battle
Battle of Salamis, 1785 engraving
Greek trireme.
Fleet of triremes based on the full-sized replica Olympias
The Lycian dynast Kybernis (520-480 BCE) led 50 Lycian ships in the Achaemenid fleet.
The Ionian fleet, here seen joining with Persian forces at the Bosphorus in preparation of the European Scythian campaign of Darius I in 513 BC, was part of the Achaemenid fleet at Salamis. 19th century illustration.
The battle of Salamis, 19th century illustration.
Greek triremes at Salamis.
Battle of Salamis, by Wilhelm von Kaulbach (detail).
Death of the Persian admiral Ariabignes (a brother of Xerxes) early in the battle; illustration from Plutarch's Lives for Boys and Girls c. 1910
Artemisia, Queen of Halicarnassus, and commander of the Carian contingent of the Achaemenid fleet, at the Battle of Salamis, shooting arrows at the Greeks. Wilhelm von Kaulbach (detail).
The triumph of Themistocles after Salamis. 19th century illustration.
The wrath of Xerxes looking at the Battle of Salamis from his promontory, by Wilhelm von Kaulbach (detail).
Serpent Column, a monument to their alliance, dedicated by the victorious Allies in the aftermath of Plataea; now at the Hippodrome of Constantinople

The Battle of Salamis was a naval battle fought between an alliance of Greek city-states under Themistocles and the Persian Empire under King Xerxes in 480 BC. It resulted in a decisive victory for the outnumbered Greeks.