A report on Achaemenid Empire

The Achaemenid Empire at its greatest territorial extent under the rule of Darius I (522 BC–486 BC)
The Achaemenid Empire at its greatest territorial extent under the rule of Darius I (522 BC–486 BC)
Family tree of the Achaemenid rulers.
Map of the expansion process of Achaemenid territories
Cyrus the Great is said, in the Bible, to have liberated the Hebrew captives in Babylon to resettle and rebuild Jerusalem, earning him an honored place in Judaism.
The tomb of Cyrus the Great, founder of the Achaemenid Empire. At Pasargadae, Iran.
The Achaemenid Empire at its greatest extent, c. 500 BC
The Persian queen Atossa, daughter of Cyrus the Great, sister-wife of Cambyses II, Darius the Great's wife, and mother of Xerxes the Great
Map showing events of the first phases of the Greco-Persian Wars
Greek hoplite and Persian warrior depicted fighting, on an ancient kylix, 5th century BC
Achaemenid king fighting hoplites, seal and seal holder, Cimmerian Bosporus.
Achaemenid gold ornaments, Brooklyn Museum
Persian Empire timeline including important events and territorial evolution – 550–323 BC
Relief showing Darius I offering lettuces to the Egyptian deity Amun-Ra Kamutef, Temple of Hibis
The 24 countries subject to the Achaemenid Empire at the time of Darius, on the Egyptian statue of Darius I.
The Battle of Issus, between Alexander the Great on horseback to the left, and Darius III in the chariot to the right, represented in a Pompeii mosaic dated 1st century BC – Naples National Archaeological Museum
Alexander's first victory over Darius, the Persian king depicted in medieval European style in the 15th century romance The History of Alexander's Battles
Frataraka dynasty ruler Vadfradad I (Autophradates I). 3rd century BC. Istakhr (Persepolis) mint.
Dārēv I (Darios I) used for the first time the title of mlk (King). 2nd century BC.
Winged sphinx from the Palace of Darius in Susa, Louvre
Daric of Artaxerxes II
Volume of annual tribute per district, in the Achaemenid Empire, according to Herodotus.
Achaemenid tax collector, calculating on an Abax or Abacus, according to the Darius Vase (340–320 BC).
Letter from the Satrap of Bactria to the governor of Khulmi, concerning camel keepers, 353 BC
Relief of throne-bearing soldiers in their native clothing at the tomb of Xerxes I, demonstrating the satrapies under his rule.
Achaemenid king killing a Greek hoplite. c. 500 BC–475 BC, at the time of Xerxes I. Metropolitan Museum of Art.
Persian soldiers (left) fighting against Scythians. Cylinder seal impression.
Color reconstruction of Achaemenid infantry on the Alexander Sarcophagus (end of 4th century BC).
Seal of Darius the Great hunting in a chariot, reading "I am Darius, the Great King" in Old Persian (𐎠𐎭𐎶𐏐𐎭𐎠𐎼𐎹𐎺𐎢𐏁𐎴 𐏋, "adam Dārayavaʰuš xšāyaθiya"), as well as in Elamite and Babylonian. The word "great" only appears in Babylonian. British Museum.
Achaemenid calvalryman in the satrapy of Hellespontine Phrygia, Altıkulaç Sarcophagus, early 4th century BC.
Armoured cavalry: Achaemenid Dynast of Hellespontine Phrygia attacking a Greek psiloi, Altıkulaç Sarcophagus, early 4th century BC.
Reconstitution of Persian landing ships at the Battle of Marathon.
Greek ships against Achaemenid ships at the Battle of Salamis.
Iconic relief of lion and bull fighting, Apadana of Persepolis
Achaemenid golden bowl with lioness imagery of Mazandaran
The ruins of Persepolis
A section of the Old Persian part of the trilingual Behistun inscription. Other versions are in Babylonian and Elamite.
A copy of the Behistun inscription in Aramaic on a papyrus. Aramaic was the lingua franca of the empire.
An Achaemenid drinking vessel
Bas-relief of Farvahar at Persepolis
Tomb of Artaxerxes III in Persepolis
The Mausoleum at Halicarnassus, one of the Seven wonders of the ancient world, was built by Greek architects for the local Persian satrap of Caria, Mausolus (Scale model)
Achamenid dynasty timeline
Reconstruction of the Palace of Darius at Susa. The palace served as a model for Persepolis.
Lion on a decorative panel from Darius I the Great's palace, Louvre
Ruins of Throne Hall, Persepolis
Apadana Hall, Persian and Median soldiers at Persepolis
Lateral view of tomb of Cambyses II, Pasargadae, Iran
Plaque with horned lion-griffins. The Metropolitan Museum of Art

Ancient Iranian empire based in Western Asia that was founded by Cyrus the Great in 550 BC. It reached its greatest extent under Xerxes I, who conquered most of northern and central ancient Greece.

- Achaemenid Empire

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Rock relief of Artaxerxes in Persepolis

Artaxerxes III

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Rock relief of Artaxerxes in Persepolis
Coin of Artabazus II
Achaemenid coinage of Idrieus of Caria during the reign of Artaxerxes III, showing the Achaemenid king on the obverse, and his satrap Idrieus on the reverse. Circa 350-341 BC.
Coinage of Tennes, the king of Sidon who revolted against the Achaemenid Empire. Dated 351/0 BC.
Artaxerxes III as Pharaoh of Egypt, satrapal coinage of Mazaeus in Cilicia.
Tomb of Artaxerxes III at Persepolis.
Soldiers of various ethnicities of the Achaemenid Empire, tomb of Atarxerxes III.
Historically, kings of the Achaemenid Empire were followers of Zoroaster or heavily influenced by Zoroastrian ideology.
The Unfinished Gate at Persepolis gave archaeologists an insight into the construction of Persepolis.

Ochus ( Ochos), known by his dynastic name Artaxerxes III ( Artaxšaçāʰ; ), was King of Kings of the Achaemenid Empire from 359/58 to 338 BC. He was the son and successor of Artaxerxes II and his mother was Stateira.

Athens

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Capital city of Greece.

Capital city of Greece.

Athena, patron goddess of Athens; (Varvakeion Athena, National Archaeological Museum)
Delian League, under the leadership of Athens before the Peloponnesian War in 431 BC
The Lycabettus Hill from the Pedion tou Areos park.
Snowfall in Athens on 16 February 2021
Changing of the Greek Presidential Guard in front of the Tomb of the Unknown Soldier at Syntagma Square.
The entrance of the National Gardens, commissioned by Queen Amalia in 1838 and completed by 1840
View of Vila Atlantis, in Kifissia, designed by Ernst Ziller.
Beach in the southern suburb of Alimos, one of the many beaches in the southern coast of Athens
The former mayor of Athens Giorgos Kaminis (right) with the ex–Prime Minister of Greece, George Papandreou Jr. (left).
View of the Athens Urban Area and the Saronic Gulf.
View of Neapoli, Athens
View of Athens and the Saronic Gulf from the Philopappou Hill.
The Athens Urban Area within the Attica Basin from space
Athens population distribution
The seven districts of the Athens Municipality
Ermou street, the main commercial street of Athens, near Syntagma Square.
The 28-storey Athens Tower was completed in 1971, and in a city often bound by low-rise regulations to ensure good views of the Acropolis, is Greece's tallest.
Athens railways network (metro, proastiakós and tram)
Athens Metro train (3rd generation stock)
Suburban rail
Vehicle of the Athens Tram.
The new Athens International Airport, that replaced the old Hellinikon International Airport, opened in 2001.
Interchange at the Attiki Odos airport entrance
View of Hymettus tangent (Periferiaki Imittou) from Kalogeros Hill
Facade of the Academy of Athens
The National Library of Greece.
The Artemision Bronze or God of the Sea, that represents either Zeus or Poseidon, is exhibited in the National Archaeological Museum.
The Cathedral of Athens (Athens Metropolis).
The Caryatides (Καρυάτιδες), or Maidens of Karyai, as displayed in the new Acropolis Museum. One of the female sculptures was taken away from the Erechteion by Lord Elgin and is kept in the British Museum.
Interior of the Academy of Athens, designed by Theophil Hansen.
The Zappeion Hall
Two apartment buildings in central Athens. The left one is a modernist building of the 1930s, while the right one was built in the 1950s.
The inner yard, still a feature of thousands of Athenian residences, may reflect a tradition evident since Antiquity.
The Old Parliament House, now home to the National History Museum. View from Stadiou Street.
The National Archaeological Museum in central Athens
The Acropolis Museum
The National Theatre of Greece, near Omonoia Square
The Stavros Niarchos Foundation Cultural Centre, home of the Greek National Opera and the new National Library.
10,000-meter final during the 2004 Olympic Games
Tondo of the Aison Cup, showing the victory of Theseus over the Minotaur in the presence of Athena. Theseus was responsible, according to the myth, for the synoikismos ("dwelling together")—the political unification of Attica under Athens.
The earliest coinage of Athens, {{circa}} 545–525/15 BC
Coat of Arms of the Duchy of Athens during the rule of the de la Roche family (13th century)
The Roman Agora and the Gate of Athena in Plaka district.
The Temple of Olympian Zeus with river Ilisos by Edward Dodwell, 1821
The Entry of King Otto in Athens, Peter von Hess, 1839.
The Stadiou Street in Central Athens in 1908.
thumb|Temporary accommodation for the Greek refugees from Asia Minor in tents in Thiseio. After the Asia Minor Catastrophe in 1922 thousands of families settled in Athens and the population of the city doubled.
The Hellenic Parliament
The Presidential Mansion, formerly the Crown Prince Palace, in Herodou Attikou Street.
The Maximos Mansion, official office of the Prime Minister of the Hellenic Republic, in Herodou Attikou Street.
The Athens City Hall in Kotzia Square was designed by Panagiotis Kolkas and completed in 1874.<ref>{{Cite web|url=http://www.eie.gr/archaeologia/gr/arxeio_more.aspx?id=39|title=ΑΡΧΕΙΟ ΝΕΟΤΕΡΩΝ ΜΝΗΜΕΙΩΝ - Δημαρχείο Αθηνών|website=www.eie.gr|access-date=26 February 2019|archive-date=26 February 2019|archive-url=https://web.archive.org/web/20190226172829/http://www.eie.gr/archaeologia/gr/arxeio_more.aspx?id=39|url-status=live}}</ref>
The Embassy of France in Vasilissis Sofias Avenue.
The Italian Embassy in Vasilissis Sofias Avenue.
Fencing before the king of Greece at the 1896 Summer Olympics.
The Panathenaic Stadium of Athens (Kallimarmaron) dates back to the 4th century BC and has hosted the first modern Olympic Games in 1896.

These would pave the way for the eventual introduction of democracy by Cleisthenes in 508 BC. Athens had by this time become a significant naval power with a large fleet, and helped the rebellion of the Ionian cities against Persian rule.

Nabonidus as depicted in the Harran Stela

Nabonidus

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Nabonidus as depicted in the Harran Stela
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Relief of Ashurbanipal, who ruled as king of Assyria 669–631 BC. Nabonidus emulated elements of Ashurbanipal and his dynasty, the Sargonids. Some historians believe that Nabonidus was a descendant of Ashurbanipal, or Ashurbanipal's father Esarhaddon.
Locations of some major Mesopotamian cities
Nabonidus as depicted in a stele from Harran
A granite stele of Nabonidus
Map of the Neo-Babylonian Empire under Nabonidus. Tayma is in northern Arabia, in the south-west of the empire.
Ancient ruins at Tayma
The Harran Stela, depicting Nabonidus as praying to the moon (i.e. Sîn), the sun and Venus
The Verse Account of Nabonidus, a biased document written about Nabonidus's reign, probably in the reign of Cyrus the Great
Cyrus the Great, who conquered Babylon in 539 BC, depicted with a Hemhem crown, or four-winged Cherub tutelary divinity
Map of the path of Cyrus the Great during his 539 BC invasion of Babylonia
Nebuchadnezzar (1795) by William Blake. The painting depicts Nebuchadnezzar II as nude and mad, living like a wild animal. The story of Nebuchadnezzar II's madness originally referred to Nabonidus.
Terracotta cylinder of Nabonidus, recording the restoration work on the temple of Shamash at Larsa

Nabonidus (Babylonian cuneiform: Nabû-naʾid, meaning "May Nabu be exalted" or "Nabu is praised") was the last king of the Neo-Babylonian Empire, ruling from 556 BC to the fall of Babylon to the Achaemenid Empire under Cyrus the Great in 539 BC. Nabonidus was the last native ruler of ancient Mesopotamia, the end of his reign marking the end of thousands of years of Sumero-Akkadian states, kingdoms and empires.

Hormuzd Rassam in Mosul circa 1854. The Cyrus Cylinder was discovered during Rassam's excavations in Babylon in February–March 1879.

Cyrus Cylinder

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Hormuzd Rassam in Mosul circa 1854. The Cyrus Cylinder was discovered during Rassam's excavations in Babylon in February–March 1879.
Map of the site of Babylon in 1829. Hormuzd Rassam's diggers found the Cyrus Cylinder in the mound of Tell Amran-ibn-Ali (marked with an "E" at the centre of the map) under which lay the ruined Esagila temple.
Extract from the Cyrus Cylinder (lines 15–21), giving the genealogy of Cyrus and an account of his capture of Babylon in 539 BC (E. A. Wallis Budge, 1884).
Sample detail image showing cuneiform script.
The Nabonidus Cylinder
Stele depicting Nabonidus praying to the moon, sun and the planet Venus. The Babylonian king's religious practices were harshly condemned by the Cyrus Cylinder's inscription.
Places in Mesopotamia mentioned by the Cyrus Cylinder. Most of the localities it mentions in connection with the restoration of temples were in eastern and northern Mesopotamia, in territories that had been ruled by the deposed Babylonian king Nabonidus (excepting Susa).
Cyrus Cylinder at the center of the official emblem of 2,500 year celebration of the Persian Empire at Pahlavi Iranian imperial era
The Cyrus Cylinder in Room 52 of the British Museum in London

The Cyrus Cylinder is an ancient clay cylinder, now broken into several pieces, on which is written a declaration in Akkadian cuneiform script in the name of Persia's Achaemenid king Cyrus the Great.

1900 depiction of the Battle of Marathon

Battle of Marathon

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The Battle of Marathon took place in 490 BC during the first Persian invasion of Greece.

The Battle of Marathon took place in 490 BC during the first Persian invasion of Greece.

1900 depiction of the Battle of Marathon
The plain of Marathon today, with pine forest and wetlands.
A map showing the Greek world at the time of the battle
Darius I of Persia, as imagined by a Greek painter on the Darius Vase, 4th century BC
Initial disposition of forces at Marathon
Marshlands at Marathon.
Athenians on the beach of Marathon. Modern reenactment of the battle (2011)
The ethnicities of the soldiers of the army of Darius I are illustrated on the tomb of Darius I at Naqsh-e Rostam, with a mention of each ethnicity in individual labels. Identical depictions were made on the tombs of other Achaemenid emperors, the best preserved frieze being that of Xerxes I.
Persian infantry (probably Immortals), shown in a frieze in Darius's palace, Susa in Persia (which is today Iran)
First phase
Greek troops rushing forward at the Battle of Marathon, Georges Rochegrosse, 1859.
Second phase
Third phase
"They crashed into the Persian army with tremendous force", illustration by Walter Crane in Mary Macgregor, The Story of Greece Told to Boys and Girls, London: T.C. & E.C. Jack.
Fourth phase
Fifth phase
Cynaegirus grabbing a Persian ship at the Battle of Marathon (19th century illustration).
Relief of the battle of Marathon (Temple of Augustus, Pula).
Contemporary depiction of the Battle of Marathon in the Stoa Poikile (reconstitution)
Greek Corinthian-style helmet and the skull reportedly found inside it from the Battle of Marathon, now residing in the Royal Ontario Museum, Toronto.
Plan of the Battle of Marathon, 1832
Statue of Pan, Capitoline Museum, Rome
Reconstitution of the Nike of Callimachus, erected in honor of the Battle of Marathon. Destroyed during the Achaemenid destruction of Athens. Acropolis Museum.
Luc-Olivier Merson's painting depicting the runner announcing the victory at the Battle of Marathon to the people of Athens.
Burton Holmes's photograph entitled "1896: Three athletes in training for the marathon at the Olympic Games in Athens".

It was fought between the citizens of Athens, aided by Plataea, and a Persian force commanded by Datis and Artaphernes.

Battle of Salamis

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Map showing the Greek world at the time of the battle
Battle of Salamis, 1785 engraving
Greek trireme.
Fleet of triremes based on the full-sized replica Olympias
The Lycian dynast Kybernis (520-480 BCE) led 50 Lycian ships in the Achaemenid fleet.
The Ionian fleet, here seen joining with Persian forces at the Bosphorus in preparation of the European Scythian campaign of Darius I in 513 BC, was part of the Achaemenid fleet at Salamis. 19th century illustration.
The battle of Salamis, 19th century illustration.
Greek triremes at Salamis.
Battle of Salamis, by Wilhelm von Kaulbach (detail).
Death of the Persian admiral Ariabignes (a brother of Xerxes) early in the battle; illustration from Plutarch's Lives for Boys and Girls c. 1910
Artemisia, Queen of Halicarnassus, and commander of the Carian contingent of the Achaemenid fleet, at the Battle of Salamis, shooting arrows at the Greeks. Wilhelm von Kaulbach (detail).
The triumph of Themistocles after Salamis. 19th century illustration.
The wrath of Xerxes looking at the Battle of Salamis from his promontory, by Wilhelm von Kaulbach (detail).
Serpent Column, a monument to their alliance, dedicated by the victorious Allies in the aftermath of Plataea; now at the Hippodrome of Constantinople

The Battle of Salamis was a naval battle fought between an alliance of Greek city-states under Themistocles and the Persian Empire under King Xerxes in 480 BC. It resulted in a decisive victory for the outnumbered Greeks.

Iranian peoples

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The Iranian peoples or Iranic peoples are a diverse grouping of Indo-European peoples who are identified by their usage of the Iranian languages and other cultural similarities.

The Iranian peoples or Iranic peoples are a diverse grouping of Indo-European peoples who are identified by their usage of the Iranian languages and other cultural similarities.

The Bistun Inscription of Darius the Great describes itself to have been composed in Arya [language or script].
Archaeological cultures associated with Indo-Iranian migrations (after EIEC). The Andronovo, BMAC and Yaz cultures have often been associated with it. The GGC (Swat), Cemetery H, Copper Hoard and PGW cultures are candidates for the same associations.
According to Allentoft (2015), the Sintashta culture probably derived from the Corded Ware culture.
The Andronovo culture's approximate maximal extent, with the formative Sintashta-Petrovka culture (red), the location of the earliest spoke-wheeled chariot finds (purple), and the adjacent and overlapping Afanasevo, Srubna, and BMAC cultures (green).
Scythian horseman, Pazyryk, from a carpet, c. 300 BCE
Extent of Iranian influence in the 1st century BCE. The Parthian Empire (mostly Western Iranian) is shown in red, other areas, dominated by Scythia (Eastern Iranian), in orange.
Achaemenid Empire at its greatest extent under the rule of Darius I (522 BCE to 486 BCE)
Persepolis: Persian guards
The Eastern Iranian and Balto-Slavic dialect continuums in Eastern Europe, the latter with proposed material cultures correlating to speakers of Balto-Slavic in the Bronze Age (white). Red dots = archaic Slavic hydronyms
Archaeological cultures c. 750 BCE at the start of Eastern-Central Europe's Iron Age; the Proto-Scythian culture borders the Balto-Slavic cultures (Lusatian, Milograd and Chernoles)
Silver coin of the Indo-Scythian king Azes II (reigned c. 35–12 BCE). Buddhist triratna symbol in the left field on the reverse
Hormizd I, Sassanian coin
Nowruz, an ancient Iranian annual festival that is still widely celebrated throughout the Iranian Plateau and beyond, in Dushanbe, Tajikistan.
The ruins at Kangavar, Iran, presumed to belong to a temple dedicated to the ancient goddess Anahita.
Bronze Statue of a Parthian nobleman, National Museum of Iran
A caftan worn by a Sogdian horseman, 8th–10th century
Tajik people from Afghanistan
Tat men from the village of Adur in the Kuba Uyezd of the Baku Governorate of the Russian Empire
Kurdish people celebrating Nowruz, Tangi Sar village.
Population genomic PCA, showing the CIC (Central Iranian cluster) among other worldwide samples.

Later on, in 550 BCE, Cyrus the Great, would overthrow the leading Median rule, and conquer Kingdom of Lydia and the Babylonian Empire after which he established the Achaemenid Empire (or the First Persian Empire), while his successors would dramatically extend its borders.

The Parthenon, a temple dedicated to Athena, located on the Acropolis in Athens, is one of the most representative symbols of the culture and sophistication of the ancient Greeks.

Ancient Greece

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Northeastern Mediterranean civilization, existing from the Greek Dark Ages of the 12th–9th centuries BC to the end of classical antiquity (c.

Northeastern Mediterranean civilization, existing from the Greek Dark Ages of the 12th–9th centuries BC to the end of classical antiquity (c.

The Parthenon, a temple dedicated to Athena, located on the Acropolis in Athens, is one of the most representative symbols of the culture and sophistication of the ancient Greeks.
The Victorious Youth (c. 310 BC), is a rare, water-preserved bronze sculpture from ancient Greece.
Dipylon Vase of the late Geometric period, or the beginning of the Archaic period, c. 750 BC.
Early Athenian coin, depicting the head of Athena on the obverse and her owl on the reverse – 5th century BC
Map showing events of the first phases of the Greco-Persian Wars.
Delian League ("Athenian Empire"), immediately before the Peloponnesian War in 431 BC
Alexander Mosaic, National Archaeological Museum, Naples.
Map showing the major regions of mainland ancient Greece and adjacent "barbarian" lands.
Greek cities & colonies c. undefined 550 BC (in red color)
Marble bust of Pericles with a Corinthian helmet, Roman copy of a Greek original, Museo Chiaramonti, Vatican Museums; Pericles was a key populist political figure in the development of the radical Athenian democracy.
Inheritance law, part of the Law Code of Gortyn, Crete, fragment of the 11th column. Limestone, 5th century BC
Fresco of dancing Peucetian women in the Tomb of the Dancers in Ruvo di Puglia, 4th–5th century BC
Gravestone of a woman with her slave child-attendant, c. undefined 100 BC
Mosaic from Pompeii depicting Plato's academy
Greek hoplite and Persian warrior depicted fighting, on an ancient kylix, 5th century BC
The carved busts of four ancient Greek philosophers, on display in the British Museum. From left to right: Socrates, Antisthenes, Chrysippus, and Epicurus.
The ancient Theatre of Epidaurus, 4th century BC
A scene from the Iliad: Hypnos and Thanatos carrying the body of Sarpedon from the battlefield of Troy; detail from an Attic white-ground lekythos, c. 440 BC.
The Antikythera mechanism was an analog computer from 150 to 100 BC designed to calculate the positions of astronomical objects.
The Temple of Hera at Selinunte, Sicily
Mount Olympus, home of the Twelve Olympians

To fight the enormous armies of the Achaemenid Empire was effectively beyond the capabilities of a single city-state.

Model of Herod's Temple (the Second Temple after being rebuilt by Herod) at the Israel Museum in Jerusalem, created in 1966 as part of the Holyland Model of Jerusalem; the model was inspired by the writings of Josephus.

Second Temple

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The reconstructed Jewish holy temple that stood on the Temple Mount in the city of Jerusalem between c. 516 BCE and 70 CE.

The reconstructed Jewish holy temple that stood on the Temple Mount in the city of Jerusalem between c. 516 BCE and 70 CE.

Model of Herod's Temple (the Second Temple after being rebuilt by Herod) at the Israel Museum in Jerusalem, created in 1966 as part of the Holyland Model of Jerusalem; the model was inspired by the writings of Josephus.
Rebuilding of the Temple (illustration by Gustave Doré from the 1866 La Sainte Bible)
Modern-day reconstruction of Jerusalem during the 10th century BCE, showing Solomon's Temple, which was on the site prior to the building of the Second Temple.
Herod's Temple as imagined in the Holyland Model of Jerusalem; east at the bottom.
View of the Temple Mount in 2013; east at the bottom
Herod's Temple from The Presentation in the Temple (1910)
The Royal Stoa in the Holyland Model of Jerusalem
The Foundation Stone under the Dome of the Rock, a possible historical location for the Holy of Holies
Siege and Destruction of Jerusalem by the Romans (1850 painting by David Roberts). Looking southwest
Present-day view of the Temple Mount looking southwest, with the golden Dome of the Rock visible center and the Al-Aqsa Mosque to the left beyond some trees. Parts of the Old City of Jerusalem can be seen surrounding the Mount.
Magdala Stone
Bar Kokhba tetradracm showing the Jerusalem Temple façade 132–135 CE
Arch of Titus showing spoils of Jerusalem Temple
Part of the south-western upper corner of Herod's temple colonnade with ancient "Trumpeting Place" Hebrew inscription.
The Warning Inscription found in 1871
A copy of the temple warning inscription found in 1871
Fragment of Second Temple Warning
The Trumpeting Place inscription, a stone ({{cvt|2.43|×|1|m}}) with Hebrew inscription "To the Trumpeting Place" excavated by Benjamin Mazar at the southern foot of the Temple Mount is believed to be a part of the Second Temple.

Construction on the Second Temple began some time after the conquest of Babylon by the Achaemenid Persian Empire, following a proclamation by the Persian king Cyrus the Great that enabled the Jewish return to Zion.

Indus River

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Transboundary river of Asia and a trans-Himalayan river of South and Central Asia.

Transboundary river of Asia and a trans-Himalayan river of South and Central Asia.

The course of the Indus in the disputed Kashmir region; the river flows through Ladakh and Gilgit-Baltistan, administered respectively by India and Pakistan
The major sites of the Indus Valley Civilization fl 2600–1900 BCE in Pakistan, India and Afghanistan
Indus River near Leh, Ladakh
Confluence of Indus and Zanskar rivers. The Indus is at the left of the picture, flowing left-to-right; the Zanskar, carrying more water, comes in from the top of the picture.
Fishermen on the Indus River, c. 1905
Skyline of Sukkur along the shores of the Indus River
The Indus River near Skardu, in Gilgit–Baltistan.
Affected areas as of 26 August 2010
Lansdowne Bridge and Ayub Bridge connecting the cities of Rohri and Sukkur in Sindh, Pakistan.
Frozen Indus, Near Nyoma
Indus at Skardu
Indus near Dera Ismail Khan

From the Persian Achaemenid Empire, the name passed to the Greeks as Indós (Ἰνδός).