A report on Achaemenid Empire

The Achaemenid Empire at its greatest territorial extent under the rule of Darius I (522 BC–486 BC)
The Achaemenid Empire at its greatest territorial extent under the rule of Darius I (522 BC–486 BC)
Family tree of the Achaemenid rulers.
Map of the expansion process of Achaemenid territories
Cyrus the Great is said, in the Bible, to have liberated the Hebrew captives in Babylon to resettle and rebuild Jerusalem, earning him an honored place in Judaism.
The tomb of Cyrus the Great, founder of the Achaemenid Empire. At Pasargadae, Iran.
The Achaemenid Empire at its greatest extent, c. 500 BC
The Persian queen Atossa, daughter of Cyrus the Great, sister-wife of Cambyses II, Darius the Great's wife, and mother of Xerxes the Great
Map showing events of the first phases of the Greco-Persian Wars
Greek hoplite and Persian warrior depicted fighting, on an ancient kylix, 5th century BC
Achaemenid king fighting hoplites, seal and seal holder, Cimmerian Bosporus.
Achaemenid gold ornaments, Brooklyn Museum
Persian Empire timeline including important events and territorial evolution – 550–323 BC
Relief showing Darius I offering lettuces to the Egyptian deity Amun-Ra Kamutef, Temple of Hibis
The 24 countries subject to the Achaemenid Empire at the time of Darius, on the Egyptian statue of Darius I.
The Battle of Issus, between Alexander the Great on horseback to the left, and Darius III in the chariot to the right, represented in a Pompeii mosaic dated 1st century BC – Naples National Archaeological Museum
Alexander's first victory over Darius, the Persian king depicted in medieval European style in the 15th century romance The History of Alexander's Battles
Frataraka dynasty ruler Vadfradad I (Autophradates I). 3rd century BC. Istakhr (Persepolis) mint.
Dārēv I (Darios I) used for the first time the title of mlk (King). 2nd century BC.
Winged sphinx from the Palace of Darius in Susa, Louvre
Daric of Artaxerxes II
Volume of annual tribute per district, in the Achaemenid Empire, according to Herodotus.
Achaemenid tax collector, calculating on an Abax or Abacus, according to the Darius Vase (340–320 BC).
Letter from the Satrap of Bactria to the governor of Khulmi, concerning camel keepers, 353 BC
Relief of throne-bearing soldiers in their native clothing at the tomb of Xerxes I, demonstrating the satrapies under his rule.
Achaemenid king killing a Greek hoplite. c. 500 BC–475 BC, at the time of Xerxes I. Metropolitan Museum of Art.
Persian soldiers (left) fighting against Scythians. Cylinder seal impression.
Color reconstruction of Achaemenid infantry on the Alexander Sarcophagus (end of 4th century BC).
Seal of Darius the Great hunting in a chariot, reading "I am Darius, the Great King" in Old Persian (𐎠𐎭𐎶𐏐𐎭𐎠𐎼𐎹𐎺𐎢𐏁𐎴 𐏋, "adam Dārayavaʰuš xšāyaθiya"), as well as in Elamite and Babylonian. The word "great" only appears in Babylonian. British Museum.
Achaemenid calvalryman in the satrapy of Hellespontine Phrygia, Altıkulaç Sarcophagus, early 4th century BC.
Armoured cavalry: Achaemenid Dynast of Hellespontine Phrygia attacking a Greek psiloi, Altıkulaç Sarcophagus, early 4th century BC.
Reconstitution of Persian landing ships at the Battle of Marathon.
Greek ships against Achaemenid ships at the Battle of Salamis.
Iconic relief of lion and bull fighting, Apadana of Persepolis
Achaemenid golden bowl with lioness imagery of Mazandaran
The ruins of Persepolis
A section of the Old Persian part of the trilingual Behistun inscription. Other versions are in Babylonian and Elamite.
A copy of the Behistun inscription in Aramaic on a papyrus. Aramaic was the lingua franca of the empire.
An Achaemenid drinking vessel
Bas-relief of Farvahar at Persepolis
Tomb of Artaxerxes III in Persepolis
The Mausoleum at Halicarnassus, one of the Seven wonders of the ancient world, was built by Greek architects for the local Persian satrap of Caria, Mausolus (Scale model)
Achamenid dynasty timeline
Reconstruction of the Palace of Darius at Susa. The palace served as a model for Persepolis.
Lion on a decorative panel from Darius I the Great's palace, Louvre
Ruins of Throne Hall, Persepolis
Apadana Hall, Persian and Median soldiers at Persepolis
Lateral view of tomb of Cambyses II, Pasargadae, Iran
Plaque with horned lion-griffins. The Metropolitan Museum of Art

Ancient Iranian empire based in Western Asia that was founded by Cyrus the Great in 550 BC. It reached its greatest extent under Xerxes I, who conquered most of northern and central ancient Greece.

- Achaemenid Empire

278 related topics with Alpha

Overall

The Fall of Babylon; Cyrus the Great defeating the Babylonian army. Mezzotint by J. Martin, 1831

Fall of Babylon

3 links

The Fall of Babylon; Cyrus the Great defeating the Babylonian army. Mezzotint by J. Martin, 1831
Map of the Neo-Babylonian Empire at its greatest territorial extent, under its final king, Nabonidus
Map of the path of Cyrus the Great, during his 539 BC invasion of Babylonia.
Engraving of Isaiah's vision concerning the destruction of Babylon by Gustave Doré

The Fall of Babylon denotes the end of the Neo-Babylonian Empire after it was conquered by the Achaemenid Empire in 539 BCE.

Close-up of the Behistun inscription

Old Persian

12 links

One of the two directly attested Old Iranian languages and is the ancestor of Middle Persian (the language of Sasanian Empire).

One of the two directly attested Old Iranian languages and is the ancestor of Middle Persian (the language of Sasanian Empire).

Close-up of the Behistun inscription
An Old Persian inscription in Persepolis

As a written language, Old Persian is attested in royal Achaemenid inscriptions.

Portrait of the Achaemenid ruler toppled by Darius, as appearing on the Behistun inscription: he was either the legitimate Bardiya, or, as claimed by Darius, an imposter named Gaumāta.

Bardiya

6 links

Son of Cyrus the Great and the younger brother of Cambyses II, both Persian kings.

Son of Cyrus the Great and the younger brother of Cambyses II, both Persian kings.

Portrait of the Achaemenid ruler toppled by Darius, as appearing on the Behistun inscription: he was either the legitimate Bardiya, or, as claimed by Darius, an imposter named Gaumāta.
Gaumata under Darius I's boot engraved at Behistun Inscription in Kermanshah.
Phaedyme is sent by her father Otanes, to check if King Smerdis has ears under his turban, as the suspected imposter was known to have had them cut off in punishment for a crime. She found that indeed the king did not have ears anymore, which proved that he was an imposter, and justified the coup in favour of Darius I.
"The struggle between Gobryas and the false Smerdis", 19th century print.
Bardiya / Smerdis in relation to his successor Darius the Great in the Achaemenid lineage.
Medieval image of Bardiya.

Bardiya either ruled the Achaemenid Empire for a few months in 522 BC, or was impersonated by a magus called Gaumāta ; whose name is given by Ctesias as Sphendadates ( Sphendadátēs), until he was toppled by Darius the Great.

Depiction of Darius III during the Battle of Issus in the Alexander Mosaic (c. 100 BCE), ancient Roman floor mosaic from the House of the Faun in Pompeii, Italy

Darius III

13 links

Depiction of Darius III during the Battle of Issus in the Alexander Mosaic (c. 100 BCE), ancient Roman floor mosaic from the House of the Faun in Pompeii, Italy
Coin minted in by Cilicia by its satrap Mazaeus, portraying Artaxerxes III as pharaoh on the obverse, while a lion is depicted on the reverse
Darius III portrayed (in the middle) in battle against Alexander in a Greek depiction; Possible illustration of either Battle of Issus or Battle of Gaugamela
Darius's flight at the Battle of Gaugamela (18th-century ivory relief)
Murder of Darius and Alexander at the side of the dying king depicted in a 15th-century manuscript
The Family of Darius before Alexander, by Paolo Veronese, 1570.

Darius III ( Dārayavaʰuš; Dareios; c. 380 – 330 BC) was the last Achaemenid King of Kings of Persia, reigning from 336 BC to his death in 330 BC.

Stag Hunt Mosaic, 4th century BC

Ancient Macedonians

6 links

Ancient tribe that lived on the alluvial plain around the rivers Haliacmon and lower Axios in the northeastern part of mainland Greece.

Ancient tribe that lived on the alluvial plain around the rivers Haliacmon and lower Axios in the northeastern part of mainland Greece.

Stag Hunt Mosaic, 4th century BC
The expansion of ancient Macedon up to the death of Philip II of Macedon ((r. 359–336 BC – undefined))
The positions of the Balkan tribes prior to the Macedonian expansion, according to Nicholas Hammond
The route of the Argeads from Argos, Peloponnese to Macedonia
Expulsion of the Pieres from the region of Olympus to the Pangaion Hills by the Macedonians
Regions of Mygdonia, Edonia, Bisaltia, Crestonia and Bottiaea
The entrance to the "Great Tumulus" Museum at Vergina
An atrium with a pebble-mosaic paving in Pella, the Macedonian capital
The Golden Larnax, at the Museum of Vergina, which contains the remains Philip II of Macedon ((r. 359–336 BC – undefined))
Macedonian coins and medallions depicting Alexander the Great and Philip II
Entrance to the tomb of Philip II of Macedon ((r. 359–336 BC – undefined)).
Aristotle, a philosopher from the Macedonian town of Stageira, tutoring young Alexander in the Royal Palace of Pella. The Macedonian Kings often sought the best education possible for their heirs. Artwork by Jean Leon Gerome Ferris.
Ancient Dion was a centre of the worship of Zeus and the most important spiritual sanctuary of the ancient Macedonians.
The Lion of Amphipolis in Amphipolis, northern Greece, a 4th-century BC marble tomb sculpture erected in honor of Laomedon of Mytilene, a general who served under Alexander the Great
Hades abducting Persephone, fresco in the small Macedonian royal tomb at Vergina, Macedonia, Greece, c. 340 BC
Alexander (left), wearing a kausia and fighting an Asiatic lion with his friend Craterus; late 4th century BC mosaic, Archaeological Museum of Pella, Macedonia
Portrait bust of Aristotle; an Imperial Roman (1st or 2nd century AD) copy of a lost bronze sculpture made by Lysippos.
A fresco showing Hades and Persephone riding in a chariot, from the tomb of Queen Eurydice I of Macedon at Vergina, Greece, 4th century BC
A banquet scene from a Macedonian tomb of Agios Athanasios, Thessaloniki, 4th century BC; six men are shown reclining on couches, with food arranged on nearby tables, a male servant in attendance, and female musicians providing entertainment.
The Pella curse tablet (Greek katadesmos): from Prof. Radcliffe G. Edmonds III, Bryn Mawr College.
An ancient Macedonian funerary stele, with an epigram written at the top, mid 4th century B.C., Vergina, Macedonia, Greece
The Vergina Sun has been proposed as a symbol of ancient Macedonia or of the Argead dynasty by archeologists.
The god Dionysos riding a cheetah, mosaic floor in the "House of Dionysos" at Pella, Greece, c. 330–300 BC
Gold Macedonian stater of Alexander the Great, struck at the Memphis mint, dated c. 332–323 BC. Obv: Goddess Athena wearing Corinthian helmet. Rev: Goddess Nike standing.
Fresco of an ancient Makedonian soldier (thorakitai) wearing chainmail armor and bearing a thureos shield, 3rd century BC
Macedonian terracotta figurine, 3rd century BC; the Persians referred to the Macedonians as "Yaunã Takabara" ("Greeks with hats that look like shields").
A mosaic of the Kasta Tomb in Amphipolis depicting the abduction of Persephone by Pluto, 4th century BC

336 – 323 BC)), the conquest of the Achaemenid Empire, the establishment of the diadochi successor states, and the inauguration of the Hellenistic period in West Asia, Greece, and the broader Mediterranean world.

Yehud (Persian province)

2 links

Yehud (highlighted in pink) under Persian rule
The Achaemenid Empire at its greatest extent, including the province of Yehud.
Silver coin (gerah) minted in the Persian province of Yehud, dated c. 375-332 BCE. Obv: Bearded head wearing crown, possibly representing the Persian Great King. Rev: Falcon facing, head right, with wings spread; Paleo-Hebrew YHD to right.
Coins bearing the inscription YHD, or Yehud. The coin at top shows the god YHWH, the coin at bottom right has an image of the owl of Athena (Athenian coinage was the standard for Mediterranean trade).
Coin of Hezekiah, Satrap of Judaea, Achaemenid period. Circa 375–333 BCE.

Yehud, also known as Yehud Medinata or Yehud Medinta, was an administrative province of the Achaemenid Persian Empire in the region of Judea that functioned as a self-governing region under its local Jewish population.

The Massagetae lived in Central Asia

Massagetae

5 links

Ancient Eastern Iranian Saka people who inhabited the steppes of Central Asia and were part of the wider Scythian cultures.

Ancient Eastern Iranian Saka people who inhabited the steppes of Central Asia and were part of the wider Scythian cultures.

The Massagetae lived in Central Asia
Asia in 323 BC, showing the Massagetae located in Central Asia.
Queen Tomyris of the Massagetae receiving the head of Cyrus the Great. 1670–1672 painting.
Queen Tomyris of the Massagetae, receiving the head of Cyrus the Great, circa 530 BCE (18th century painting).
Drawing of Scythian soldiers serving in Achaemenid army based on Herodotus' description. Tigraxaudā/Orthocorybantian soldier on the right wears a pointed hat.
Scythian-Saka warriors depicted on the tomb of Xerxes I.
A delegation of Tigraxaudā/Orthocorybantians paying tribute on the Apadana relief, together with all the other peoples of the empire.
The Tigraxaudā king Skuⁿxa depicted in the Behistun Inscription of the Persian king Darius I

The Massagetae are most famous for their queen Tomyris's defeating and killing of Cyrus, the founder of the Persian Achaemenid Empire.

The Greek military leader, philosopher and historian Xenophon of Athens.

Xenophon

11 links

Greek military leader, philosopher, and historian, born in Athens.

Greek military leader, philosopher, and historian, born in Athens.

The Greek military leader, philosopher and historian Xenophon of Athens.
The Greek military leader, philosopher and historian Xenophon of Athens.
Route of Xenophon and the Ten Thousand (red line) in the Achaemenid Empire. The satrapy of Cyrus the Younger is delineated in green.
Xenophon leading his Ten Thousand through Persia to the Black Sea. 19th-century illustration
Xenophon's Anabasis.
Xenophon, Aphrodisias Museum.
Xenophon's Cyropaedia.
Bas-reliefs of Persian soldiers together with Median soldiers are prevalent in Persepolis. The ones with rounded caps are Median.
Fragments of Xenophon's Hellenica, Papyrus PSI 1197, Laurentian Library, Florence.
Xenophon's Agesilaus
Statue of Xenophon in front of the Austrian parliament
Xenophon dictating his history, illustration from 'Hutchinson's History of the Nations', 1915
King's Peace, promulgated by Artaxerxes II, 387 BC, as reported by Xenophon.

At the age of 30, Xenophon was elected commander of one of the biggest Greek mercenary armies of the Achaemenid Empire, the Ten Thousand, that marched on and came close to capturing Babylon in 401 BC. As the military historian Theodore Ayrault Dodge wrote, "the centuries since have devised nothing to surpass the genius of this warrior".

Golden rhyton (drinking vessel) from Iran's Achaemenid period, excavated at Ecbatana. Kept at the National Museum of Iran.

Ecbatana

7 links

Ancient city in Media in western Iran.

Ancient city in Media in western Iran.

Golden rhyton (drinking vessel) from Iran's Achaemenid period, excavated at Ecbatana. Kept at the National Museum of Iran.
Excavations in Ecbatana
The New Fire Temple of Shiyan Malayer is the only surviving relic of the Medes era in Hagmatāna
Part of the Hagmatāna underground city on the Hagmatāna hill
The main explored in site of the Hagmatāna Hills
Ekbatana (forse), phraakates e musa, dracma, 2 ac-4 dc ca
A human skeleton in Hagmatāna Museum which is kept as it was found
Food and water jars kept in Hagmatāna Museum

Under the Achaemenid Persian kings, Ecbatana, situated at the foot of Mount Alvand, became a summer residence.

Persian soldier (left) and Greek hoplite (right) depicted fighting, on an ancient kylix, 5th century BC

Greco-Persian Wars

32 links

Persian soldier (left) and Greek hoplite (right) depicted fighting, on an ancient kylix, 5th century BC
Herodotus, the main historical source for this conflict
Thucydides continued Herodotus's narrative
The Achaemenid Empire at its greatest extent under Darius the Great
Persian and Median Immortals in ceremonial dress, bas-relief in Persepolis
According to Herodotus, the Athenians, hoping for protection against Sparta, made the gift of "Earth and Water" to the Persians in 507 BC.
Coinage of Athens at the time of Cleisthenes. Effigy of Athena, with owl and ΑΘΕ, initials of "Athens". Circa 510-500/490 BC.
The burning of Sardis by the Greeks and the Ionians during the Ionian Revolt in 498 BC.
Map showing main events of the Ionian Revolt.
Map showing events of the first phases of the Greco-Persian Wars
The Greek wings envelop the Persians
Achaemenid king fighting hoplites, seal and seal holder, Cimmerian Bosporus.
The soldiers of Xerxes I, of all ethnicities, on the tomb of Xerxes I, at Naqsh-e Rostam.
Probable Spartan hoplite (Vix crater, c. 500 BC).
Major events in the second invasion of Greece
The pass of Thermopylae
Schematic diagram illustrating events during the Battle of Salamis
Spartans fighting against Persian forces at the Battle of Plataea. 19th century illustration.
Athens and her "empire" in 431 BC. The empire was the direct descendant of the Delian League
Map showing the locations of battles fought by the Delian League, 477–449 BC
Dynast of Lycia, Kherei, with Athena on the obverse, and himself wearing the Persian cap on the reverse. Circa 440/30–410 BC.
Coinage of Tiribazos, Satrap of Lydia, with Faravahar on the obverse. 388–380 BC.

The Greco-Persian Wars (also often called the Persian Wars) were a series of conflicts between the Achaemenid Empire and Greek city-states that started in 499 BC and lasted until 449 BC. The collision between the fractious political world of the Greeks and the enormous empire of the Persians began when Cyrus the Great conquered the Greek-inhabited region of Ionia in 547 BC. Struggling to control the independent-minded cities of Ionia, the Persians appointed tyrants to rule each of them.