A report on Achaemenid Empire

The Achaemenid Empire at its greatest territorial extent under the rule of Darius I (522 BC–486 BC)
The Achaemenid Empire at its greatest territorial extent under the rule of Darius I (522 BC–486 BC)
Family tree of the Achaemenid rulers.
Map of the expansion process of Achaemenid territories
Cyrus the Great is said, in the Bible, to have liberated the Hebrew captives in Babylon to resettle and rebuild Jerusalem, earning him an honored place in Judaism.
The tomb of Cyrus the Great, founder of the Achaemenid Empire. At Pasargadae, Iran.
The Achaemenid Empire at its greatest extent, c. 500 BC
The Persian queen Atossa, daughter of Cyrus the Great, sister-wife of Cambyses II, Darius the Great's wife, and mother of Xerxes the Great
Map showing events of the first phases of the Greco-Persian Wars
Greek hoplite and Persian warrior depicted fighting, on an ancient kylix, 5th century BC
Achaemenid king fighting hoplites, seal and seal holder, Cimmerian Bosporus.
Achaemenid gold ornaments, Brooklyn Museum
Persian Empire timeline including important events and territorial evolution – 550–323 BC
Relief showing Darius I offering lettuces to the Egyptian deity Amun-Ra Kamutef, Temple of Hibis
The 24 countries subject to the Achaemenid Empire at the time of Darius, on the Egyptian statue of Darius I.
The Battle of Issus, between Alexander the Great on horseback to the left, and Darius III in the chariot to the right, represented in a Pompeii mosaic dated 1st century BC – Naples National Archaeological Museum
Alexander's first victory over Darius, the Persian king depicted in medieval European style in the 15th century romance The History of Alexander's Battles
Frataraka dynasty ruler Vadfradad I (Autophradates I). 3rd century BC. Istakhr (Persepolis) mint.
Dārēv I (Darios I) used for the first time the title of mlk (King). 2nd century BC.
Winged sphinx from the Palace of Darius in Susa, Louvre
Daric of Artaxerxes II
Volume of annual tribute per district, in the Achaemenid Empire, according to Herodotus.
Achaemenid tax collector, calculating on an Abax or Abacus, according to the Darius Vase (340–320 BC).
Letter from the Satrap of Bactria to the governor of Khulmi, concerning camel keepers, 353 BC
Relief of throne-bearing soldiers in their native clothing at the tomb of Xerxes I, demonstrating the satrapies under his rule.
Achaemenid king killing a Greek hoplite. c. 500 BC–475 BC, at the time of Xerxes I. Metropolitan Museum of Art.
Persian soldiers (left) fighting against Scythians. Cylinder seal impression.
Color reconstruction of Achaemenid infantry on the Alexander Sarcophagus (end of 4th century BC).
Seal of Darius the Great hunting in a chariot, reading "I am Darius, the Great King" in Old Persian (𐎠𐎭𐎶𐏐𐎭𐎠𐎼𐎹𐎺𐎢𐏁𐎴 𐏋, "adam Dārayavaʰuš xšāyaθiya"), as well as in Elamite and Babylonian. The word "great" only appears in Babylonian. British Museum.
Achaemenid calvalryman in the satrapy of Hellespontine Phrygia, Altıkulaç Sarcophagus, early 4th century BC.
Armoured cavalry: Achaemenid Dynast of Hellespontine Phrygia attacking a Greek psiloi, Altıkulaç Sarcophagus, early 4th century BC.
Reconstitution of Persian landing ships at the Battle of Marathon.
Greek ships against Achaemenid ships at the Battle of Salamis.
Iconic relief of lion and bull fighting, Apadana of Persepolis
Achaemenid golden bowl with lioness imagery of Mazandaran
The ruins of Persepolis
A section of the Old Persian part of the trilingual Behistun inscription. Other versions are in Babylonian and Elamite.
A copy of the Behistun inscription in Aramaic on a papyrus. Aramaic was the lingua franca of the empire.
An Achaemenid drinking vessel
Bas-relief of Farvahar at Persepolis
Tomb of Artaxerxes III in Persepolis
The Mausoleum at Halicarnassus, one of the Seven wonders of the ancient world, was built by Greek architects for the local Persian satrap of Caria, Mausolus (Scale model)
Achamenid dynasty timeline
Reconstruction of the Palace of Darius at Susa. The palace served as a model for Persepolis.
Lion on a decorative panel from Darius I the Great's palace, Louvre
Ruins of Throne Hall, Persepolis
Apadana Hall, Persian and Median soldiers at Persepolis
Lateral view of tomb of Cambyses II, Pasargadae, Iran
Plaque with horned lion-griffins. The Metropolitan Museum of Art

Ancient Iranian empire based in Western Asia that was founded by Cyrus the Great in 550 BC. It reached its greatest extent under Xerxes I, who conquered most of northern and central ancient Greece.

- Achaemenid Empire

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Map of the European Scythian campaign of Darius I

Scythian campaign of Darius I

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Map of the European Scythian campaign of Darius I
Junction of the Ionian fleet and the Persian army at the Bosphorus, in preparation for the Scythian campaign. 19th century illustration.
Darius crossing the Bosphorus.
Achaemenid Empire at its greatest extent under Darius I
Map of the world based on Herodotus' Histories
Achaemenid soldiers fighting against either Scythians or Sogdians. Cylinder seal impression (drawing).
The Greeks of Histiaeus preserve the bridge of Darius I across the Danube river. 19th century illustration.
Achaemenid king fighting hoplites, seal and seal holder, Cimmerian Bosporus.
"Scythian across the Sea", depicted as a soldier of the Achaemenid army circa 480 BCE on the tomb of Xerxes I at Naqsh-e Rustam.

The Scythian campaign of Darius I was a military expedition into parts of European Scythia by Darius I, the king of the Achaemenid Empire, in 513 BC. The Scythians were an East Iranian-speaking people who had invaded Media, revolted against Darius and threatened to disrupt trade between Central Asia and the shores of the Black Sea as they lived between the Danube and Don Rivers and the Black Sea.

Ptolemaic Egypt circa 235 BC. The green areas were lost to the Seleucid Empire thirty five years later.

Ptolemaic Kingdom

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Ancient Greek state based in Egypt during the Hellenistic Period.

Ancient Greek state based in Egypt during the Hellenistic Period.

Ptolemaic Egypt circa 235 BC. The green areas were lost to the Seleucid Empire thirty five years later.
Ptolemy as Pharaoh of Egypt, British Museum, London
Ptolemaic Egypt circa 235 BC. The green areas were lost to the Seleucid Empire thirty five years later.
A bust depicting Pharaoh Ptolemy II Philadelphus 309–246 BC
Hellenistic bust of Ptolemy I Soter, 3rd century BC, now in the Louvre
Coin depicting Pharaoh Ptolemy III Euergetes. Ptolemaic Kingdom.
Ptolemaic Empire in 200 BC, alongside neighboring powers.
Ring of Ptolemy VI Philometor as Egyptian pharaoh. Louvre Museum.
A mosaic from Thmuis (Mendes), Egypt, created by the Hellenistic artist Sophilos (signature) in about 200 BC, now in the Greco-Roman Museum in Alexandria, Egypt; the woman depicted is Queen Berenice II (who ruled jointly with her husband Ptolemy III Euergetes) as the personification of Alexandria, with her crown showing a ship's prow, while she sports an anchor-shaped brooch for her robes, symbols of the Ptolemaic Kingdom's naval prowess and successes in the Mediterranean Sea.
Coin of Cleopatra VII, with her image
Ptolemy XII, father of Cleopatra VII, making offerings to Egyptian Gods, in the Temple of Hathor, Dendera, Egypt
Relief of Ptolemaic Queen Cleopatra VII and Caesarion, Dendera Temple, Egypt.
Bust of Roman Nobleman, c. 30 BC – 50 AD, 54.51, Brooklyn Museum
Ptolemaic mosaic of a dog and askos wine vessel from Hellenistic Egypt, dated 200–150 BC, Greco-Roman Museum of Alexandria, Egypt
Faience sistrum with head of Hathor with bovine ears from the reign of Ptolemy I. Color is intermediate between traditional Egyptian color to colors more characteristic of Ptolemaic-era faience.
Relief from the temple of Kom Ombo depicting Ptolemy VIII receiving the sed symbol from Horus.
Temple of Kom Ombo constructed in Upper Egypt in 180–47 BC by the Ptolemies and modified by the Romans. It is a double temple with two sets of structures dedicated to two separate deities.
Gold coin with visage of Arsinoe II wearing divine diadem
Bronze allegorical group of a Ptolemy (identifiable by his diadem) overcoming an adversary, in Hellenistic style, ca early 2nd century BC (Walters Art Museum)
Characteristic Indian etched carnelian bead, found in Ptolemaic Period excavations at Saft el Henna. This is a marker of trade relations with India. Petrie Museum.
Example of a large Ptolemaic bronze coin minted during the reign of Ptolemy V.
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Detailed map of the Ptolemaic Egypt.
Egyptian faience torso of a king, for an applique on wood
Alexander the Great, 356–323 BC Brooklyn Museum
A detail of the Nile mosaic of Palestrina, showing Ptolemaic Egypt c. 100 BC
A stele of Dioskourides, dated 2nd century BC, showing a Ptolemaic thureophoros soldier. It is a characteristic example of the "Romanization" of the Ptolemaic army.
Ptolemaic Era bust of a man, circa 300–250 BC, Altes Museum

Alexander the Great conquered Persian-controlled Egypt in 332 BC during his campaigns against the Achaemenid Empire.

Part of Mount Mycale, viewed from the ruins of Priene

Battle of Mycale

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Part of Mount Mycale, viewed from the ruins of Priene
A map showing the Greek world at the time of the battle
Movements of the Persian and Greek armies in 480–479 BC
Map showing position of Mount Mycale in relation to Lade, Samos and Miletus.
Greek hoplite (right) and Persian warrior (left), fighting each other. Ancient kylix, 5th century BC.
Schematic diagram of the Battle of Mycale

The Battle of Mycale (Machē tēs Mykalēs) was one of the two major battles (the other being the Battle of Plataea) that ended the second Persian invasion of Greece during the Greco-Persian Wars.

Megabazus was son of Megabates.

Megabazus

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Megabazus was son of Megabates.
Megabazus became satrap of Hellespontine Phrygia.

Megabazus (Old Persian: Bagavazdā or Bagabāzu, ), son of Megabates, was a highly regarded Persian general under Darius, to whom he was a first-degree cousin.

Azerbaijan

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Transcontinental country located at the boundary of Eastern Europe and Western Asia.

Transcontinental country located at the boundary of Eastern Europe and Western Asia.

Petroglyphs in Gobustan National Park dating back to the 10th millennium BC indicating a thriving culture.
Territories of the khanates (and sultanates) in the 18th–19th century
The siege of Ganja Fortress in 1804 during the Russo-Persian War of 1804–1813
Map presented by the delegation of Azerbaijan in the 1919 Paris Peace Conference
Soviet Army paratroopers during the Black January tragedy in 1990
Military situation in the Nagorno-Karabakh region prior to the 2020 Nagorno-Karabakh war
Köppen-Geiger climate classification map for Azerbaijan.
Caucasus Mountains in northern Azerbaijan
Mount Bazarduzu, the highest peak of Azerbaijan, as seen from Mount Shahdagh
The landscape of Khinalug valley
Murovdag is the highest mountain range in the Lesser Caucasus.
The Karabakh horse is the national animal of Azerbaijan.
Government building in Baku
The son of former President Heydar Aliyev, Ilham Aliyev, succeeded his father and has remained in power since 2003.
President İlham Aliyev with President of Turkey Recep Tayyip Erdoğan, 31 October 2017
Ilham Aliyev with Russian president Vladimir Putin at the Caspian Sea Summit in Aktau, Kazakhstan, August 2018
Azerbaijani Navy fleet during the 2011 military parade in Baku
Contingent from the Azerbaijani military during the Moscow Victory Day Parade, 9 May 2015
Azerbaijan is divided into 14 economic regions.
Change in per capita GDP of Azerbaijan since 1973. Figures are inflation-adjusted to 2011 International dollars.
A proportional representation of Azerbaijan exports, 2019
A pumping unit for the mechanical extraction of oil on the outskirts of Baku
The South Caucasus Pipeline is bringing natural gas through Turkey to Europe
Shahdag Mountain Resort is the country's largest winter resort.
Shamakhi Astrophysical Observatory
Population pyramid
The Bibi-Heybat Mosque in Baku. The mosque is built over the tomb of a descendant of Muhammad.
Classroom in Dunya School
Uzeyir Hajibeyov merged traditional Azerbaijani music with Western styles in the early 20th century.
Alim Qasimov performs mugham at Eurovision Song Contest 2012. The Azerbaijani Mugham was inscribed in 2008 as a UNESCO Masterpiece of Intangible Heritage of Humanity
Painting of Khurshidbanu Natavan, one of the most distinguished Azerbaijani poets. She was also the daughter of the last ruler of the Karabakh Khanate.
Traditional Azerbaijani clothing and musical instruments
Handwork coppery in Lahij
Dolma, a traditional Azerbaijani meal
Momine Khatun Mausoleum in Nakhchivan built in the 12th century
A miniature painting of a battle scene on the walls of the Palace of Shaki Khans, 18th century, city of Shaki
Scene from the Azerbaijani film In the Kingdom of Oil and Millions, 1916
Rashadat Akhundov, the co-founder of Nida Civic Movement, was sentenced to 8 years of imprisonment on 6 May 2014.
Baku National Stadium was used for the first European Games in June 2015.
Usta Gambar Karabakhi – Tree of Life
Mirza Gadim Iravani – Portrait of sitting woman
Bahruz Kangarli – Landscape with mountains
Azim Azimzade – Ruins of Reichstag

According to a modern etymology, the term Azerbaijan derives from that of Atropates, a Persian satrap under the Achaemenid Empire, who was later reinstated as the satrap of Media under Alexander the Great.

Bust of Philip II of Macedon from the Hellenistic period; Ny Carlsberg Glyptotek

Philip II of Macedon

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The king (basileus) of the ancient kingdom of Macedonia from 359 BC until his death in 336 BC. He was a member of the Argead dynasty, founders of the ancient kingdom, and the father of Alexander the Great.

The king (basileus) of the ancient kingdom of Macedonia from 359 BC until his death in 336 BC. He was a member of the Argead dynasty, founders of the ancient kingdom, and the father of Alexander the Great.

Bust of Philip II of Macedon from the Hellenistic period; Ny Carlsberg Glyptotek
The wounding of Philip.
Map of the territory of Philip II of Macedon
Statue of Philip II, 350-400 AD. Rheinisches Landesmuseum Trier.
Roman medallion of Olympias, the fourth wife of Philip II and mother of Alexander the Great. From the Museum of Thessaloniki.
Pausanius assassinates King Philip during his procession into the theatre, 336 BC
Assassination of Philip of Macedon. 19th century illustration.
Philip II gold stater, with head of Apollo
Niketerion (victory medallion) bearing the effigy of king Philip II of Macedon, 3rd century AD, probably minted during the reign of Roman Emperor Alexander Severus
Great Tumulus of Aigai
The tomb of Philip II of Macedon at the Museum of the Royal Tombs in Vergina
The golden larnax and the golden grave crown of Philip
alt=The gilded silver diadem of Philip II, found in his tomb at Vergina. |The gilded silver diadem of Philip II, found in his tomb at Vergina.

After defeating the Greek city-states of Athens and Thebes at the Battle of Chaeronea in 338 BC, Philip II led the effort to establish a federation of Greek states known as the League of Corinth, with him as the elected hegemon and commander-in-chief of Greece for a planned invasion of the Achaemenid Empire of Persia.

Ruins of the pillared hall of Ramesses II at Mit Rahina

Memphis, Egypt

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The ancient capital of Inebu-hedj, the first nome of Lower Egypt that was known as mḥw ("north").

The ancient capital of Inebu-hedj, the first nome of Lower Egypt that was known as mḥw ("north").

Ruins of the pillared hall of Ramesses II at Mit Rahina
Memphis and its necropolis Saqqara as seen from the International Space Station
Ritualistic object depicting the god Nefertem, who was mainly worshipped in Memphis, The Walters Art Museum
Rameses II flanked by Ptah and Sekhmet
Sculpture from the Middle Kingdom restored in the name of Rameses II
Relief representing the High Priest of Ptah, Shoshenq
Ruins of the palace of Apries, in Memphis
Alexander at the Temple of Apis in Memphis, by Andre Castaigne (1898–1899)
Artist's depiction of the western forecourt of the Great Temple of Ptah at Memphis
Column depicting Merenptah making an offering to Ptah
The ruins of the temple of Hathor of Memphis
A statue of the sacred bull, Apis, found at the Serapeum of Saqqara.
Ankhefenmut kneels before the royal cartouche of Siamun, on a lintel from the Temple of Amun in Memphis
The colossus of Rameses II in the open-air museum
The famed stepped Pyramid of Djoser at Saqqara, the Memphis necropolis
The ruins of the palace of Apries, overlooking Memphis
James Rennell's map of Memphis and Cairo in 1799, showing the changes in the course of the Nile river
Statue of Rameses II, uncovered in Memphis by Joseph Hekekyan
Museum worker in the process of cleaning the Rameses II colossus
Depiction of Ptah found on the walls of the Temple of Hathor
The alabaster sphinx found outside the Temple of Ptah
Statue of Rameses II in the open-air museum
Closeup of the sphinx outside the Temple of Ptah
Colossus of Rameses II

The Greek historian Herodotus, who tells a similar story, relates that during his visit to the city, the Persians, at that point the suzerains of the country, paid particular attention to the condition of these dams so that the city was saved from the annual flooding.

Anonymous portrait of a satrap of Asia Minor, around the time of Cyrus the Younger. From a coin of Ionia, Phokaia, circa 478-387 BC.

Cyrus the Younger

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Anonymous portrait of a satrap of Asia Minor, around the time of Cyrus the Younger. From a coin of Ionia, Phokaia, circa 478-387 BC.
Relief depicting Artaxerxes II, from his tomb at Naqsh-e Rostam, Persepolis
Meeting between Cyrus the Younger and Spartan general Lysander in Sardis. The encounter was related by Xenophon. Francesco Antonio Grue (1618-1673).
Jean-Adrien Guignet, Episode in the Retreat of the Ten Thousand (1842). The Greek mercenaries of Cyrus (the "Ten Thousand"), are shown being encircled.
Route of Cyrus the Younger and the Ten Thousand mercenaries to Cunaxa, and return route of the Ten Thousand led by Xenophon, back to Byzantium, in red. The satrapy of Cyrus the Younger is delineated in green.
Cyrus the Younger in the Achaemenid lineage.

Cyrus the Younger ( Kūruš; Kyros; died 401 BC) was a Achaemenid prince and general.

Alexander the Great, victorious over Darius at the Battle of Gaugamela by Jacques Courtois

Battle of Gaugamela

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Alexander the Great, victorious over Darius at the Battle of Gaugamela by Jacques Courtois
Alexander the Great, victorious over Darius at the Battle of Gaugamela by Jacques Courtois
Account of Alexander's victory over the last Achaemenid king Darius III at the battle of Gaugamela on 1 October 331 BCE and his triumphant entry into Babylon, in cuneiform. Babylon, Iraq. British Museum
Alexander the Great, victorious over Darius at the Battle of Gaugamela by Jacques Courtois
The Battle of Gaugamela, Jan Brueghel the Elder, 1602
Indian war elephants in the Achaemenid army at the Battle of Gaugamela
A decorative Neo-Attic relief of the Battle of Gaugamela, with allegories of Europe and Asia standing on the side, 2nd century BC-2nd century AD. Rome, Palazzo Chigi. 19th century reproduction by engraving.
Initial dispositions and opening movements
The Battle of Gaugamela is illustrated in this tapestry, based on a painting by the 17th-century French artist, Charles Le Brun (1619-90). Le Brun undertook a series of paintings in the 1660s and 1670s depicting the triumphs of Alexander the Great, as homage to his wealthy patron, King Louis XIV.
Battle of Gaugamela, engraving, first half of 18th century.
Alexander's decisive attack
Darius flees (18th-century ivory relief)
Alexander entering Babylon.

The Battle of Gaugamela (Γαυγάμηλα), also called the Battle of Arbela (Ἄρβηλα), took place in 331 BC between the forces of the Army of Macedon under Alexander the Great and the Persian Army under King Darius III.

Head of Amasis II, c. 550 BCE

Amasis II

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Pharaoh of the Twenty-sixth Dynasty of Egypt, the successor of Apries at Sais.

Pharaoh of the Twenty-sixth Dynasty of Egypt, the successor of Apries at Sais.

Head of Amasis II, c. 550 BCE
Polycrates, Tyrant of Samos, with Pharaoh Amasis II.
Statue of Tasherenese, mother of king Amasis II, 570-526 BCE, British Museum
This head probably came from a temple statue of Amasis II. He wears the traditional royal nemes head cloth, with a protective uraeus serpent at the brow. Circa 560 BCE. Walters Art Museum, Baltimore.
Relief showing Amasis from the Karnak temple
Papyrus, written in demotic script in the 35th year of Amasis II, on display at the Louvre
Grant of a parcel of land by an individual to a temple. Dated to the first year of Amasis II, on display at the Louvre
A stele dating to the 23rd regnal year of Amasis, on display at the Louvre

He was the last great ruler of Egypt before the Persian conquest.